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Sensors, Volume 11, Issue 2 (February 2011) , Pages 1246-2281

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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Stereo Vision Measurement System for a 3D Three-Axial Pneumatic Parallel Mechanism Robot Arm
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2257-2281; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202257 - 21 Feb 2011
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4625
Abstract
In this paper, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for a three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the robot arm. To track the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for a three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the robot arm. To track the end-effector of the robot arm, the circle detection algorithm is used to detect the desired target and the SAD algorithm is used to track the moving target and to search the corresponding target location along the conjugate epipolar line in the stereo pair. After camera calibration, both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig can be obtained, so images can be rectified according to the camera parameters. Thus, through the epipolar rectification, the stereo matching process is reduced to a horizontal search along the conjugate epipolar line. Finally, 3D trajectories of the end-effector are computed by stereo triangulation. The experimental results show that the stereo vision 3D position measurement system proposed in this paper can successfully track and measure the fifth-order polynomial trajectory and sinusoidal trajectory of the end-effector of the three- axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2246-2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202246 - 16 Feb 2011
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5653
Abstract
Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside [...] Read more.
Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview
Self-Mixing Thin-Slice Solid-State Laser Metrology
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2195-2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202195 - 15 Feb 2011
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 7213
Abstract
This paper reviews the dynamic effect of thin-slice solid-state lasers subjected to frequency-shifted optical feedback, which led to the discovery of the self-mixing modulation effect, and its applications to quantum-noise-limited versatile laser metrology systems with extreme optical sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic and LIDAR Sensors for Electronic Canopy Characterization in Vineyards: Advances to Improve Pesticide Application Methods
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2177-2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202177 - 15 Feb 2011
Cited by 112 | Viewed by 7915
Abstract
Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use [...] Read more.
Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (CVU) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R2 = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R2 = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (CHL) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensing Technology for Nondestructive Evaluation)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Baker, P. et al. Electrochemical Aptasensor for Endocrine Disrupting 17β-Estradiol Based on a Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylthiopene)-Gold Nanocomposite Platform. Sensors 2010, 10, 9872-9890
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2175-2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202175 - 15 Feb 2011
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3791
Abstract
Herewith please find corrected structures for Figure 8 in our paper published in Sensors in 2010. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
3-D Modeling of Tomato Canopies Using a High-Resolution Portable Scanning Lidar for Extracting Structural Information
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2166-2174; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202166 - 15 Feb 2011
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 5524
Abstract
In the present study, an attempt was made to produce a precise 3D image of a tomato canopy using a portable high-resolution scanning lidar. The tomato canopy was scanned by the lidar from three positions surrounding it. Through the scanning, the point cloud [...] Read more.
In the present study, an attempt was made to produce a precise 3D image of a tomato canopy using a portable high-resolution scanning lidar. The tomato canopy was scanned by the lidar from three positions surrounding it. Through the scanning, the point cloud data of the canopy were obtained and they were co-registered. Then, points corresponding to leaves were extracted and converted into polygon images. From the polygon images, leaf areas were accurately estimated with a mean absolute percent error of 4.6%. Vertical profile of leaf area density (LAD) and leaf area index (LAI) could be also estimated by summing up each leaf area derived from the polygon images. Leaf inclination angle could be also estimated from the 3-D polygon image. It was shown that leaf inclination angles had different values at each part of a leaf. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Calcination Temperature and Acid-Base Properties on Mixed Potential Ammonia Sensors Modified by Metal Oxides
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2155-2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202155 - 11 Feb 2011
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4649
Abstract
Mixed potential sensors were fabriated using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a solid electrolyte and a mixture of Au and various metal oxides as a sensing electrode. The effects of calcination temperature ranging from 600 to 1,000 °C and acid-base properties of the metal [...] Read more.
Mixed potential sensors were fabriated using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a solid electrolyte and a mixture of Au and various metal oxides as a sensing electrode. The effects of calcination temperature ranging from 600 to 1,000 °C and acid-base properties of the metal oxides on the sensing properties were examined. The selective sensing of ammonia was achieved by modification of the sensing electrode using MoO3, Bi2O3 and V2O5, while the use of WO3, Nb2O5 and MgO was not effective. The melting points of the former group were below 820 °C, while those of the latter group were higher than 1,000 °C. Among the former group, the selective sensing of ammonia was strongly dependent on the calcination temperature, which was optimum around melting point of the corresponding metal oxides. The good spreading of the metal oxides on the electrode is suggested to be one of the important factors. In the former group, the relative response of ammonia to propene was in the order of MoO3 > Bi2O3 > V2O5, which agreed well with the acidity of the metal oxides. The importance of the acidic properties of metal oxides for ammonia sensing was clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2010)
Open AccessArticle
Olfaction and Hearing Based Mobile Robot Navigation for Odor/Sound Source Search
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2129-2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202129 - 11 Feb 2011
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6954
Abstract
Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for [...] Read more.
Bionic technology provides a new elicitation for mobile robot navigation since it explores the way to imitate biological senses. In the present study, the challenging problem was how to fuse different biological senses and guide distributed robots to cooperate with each other for target searching. This paper integrates smell, hearing and touch to design an odor/sound tracking multi-robot system. The olfactory robot tracks the chemical odor plume step by step through information fusion from gas sensors and airflow sensors, while two hearing robots localize the sound source by time delay estimation (TDE) and the geometrical position of microphone array. Furthermore, this paper presents a heading direction based mobile robot navigation algorithm, by which the robot can automatically and stably adjust its velocity and direction according to the deviation between the current heading direction measured by magnetoresistive sensor and the expected heading direction acquired through the odor/sound localization strategies. Simultaneously, one robot can communicate with the other robots via a wireless sensor network (WSN). Experimental results show that the olfactory robot can pinpoint the odor source within the distance of 2 m, while two hearing robots can quickly localize and track the olfactory robot in 2 min. The devised multi-robot system can achieve target search with a considerable success ratio and high stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Direct and Indirect Sensing of Odor and VOCs and Their Control)
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Open AccessReview
Physiological Sensing of Carbon Dioxide/Bicarbonate/pH via Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2112-2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202112 - 11 Feb 2011
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5712
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by living organisms as a byproduct of metabolism. In physiological systems, CO2 is unequivocally linked with bicarbonate (HCO3) and pH via a ubiquitous family of carbonic anhydrases, and numerous biological processes are [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced by living organisms as a byproduct of metabolism. In physiological systems, CO2 is unequivocally linked with bicarbonate (HCO3) and pH via a ubiquitous family of carbonic anhydrases, and numerous biological processes are dependent upon a mechanism for sensing the level of CO2, HCO3, and/or pH. The discovery that soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly regulated by bicarbonate provided a link between CO2/HCO3/pH chemosensing and signaling via the widely used second messenger cyclic AMP. This review summarizes the evidence that bicarbonate-regulated sAC, and additional, subsequently identified bicarbonate-regulate nucleotidyl cyclases, function as evolutionarily conserved CO2/HCO3/pH chemosensors in a wide variety of physiological systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2010)
Open AccessArticle
Fuzzy Adaptive Interacting Multiple Model Nonlinear Filter for Integrated Navigation Sensor Fusion
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2090-2111; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202090 - 11 Feb 2011
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5330
Abstract
In this paper, the application of the fuzzy interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (FUZZY-IMMUKF) approach to integrated navigation processing for the maneuvering vehicle is presented. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) employs a set of sigma points through deterministic sampling, such that a [...] Read more.
In this paper, the application of the fuzzy interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (FUZZY-IMMUKF) approach to integrated navigation processing for the maneuvering vehicle is presented. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) employs a set of sigma points through deterministic sampling, such that a linearization process is not necessary, and therefore the errors caused by linearization as in the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF) can be avoided. The nonlinear filters naturally suffer, to some extent, the same problem as the EKF for which the uncertainty of the process noise and measurement noise will degrade the performance. As a structural adaptation (model switching) mechanism, the interacting multiple model (IMM), which describes a set of switching models, can be utilized for determining the adequate value of process noise covariance. The fuzzy logic adaptive system (FLAS) is employed to determine the lower and upper bounds of the system noise through the fuzzy inference system (FIS). The resulting sensor fusion strategy can efficiently deal with the nonlinear problem for the vehicle navigation. The proposed FUZZY-IMMUKF algorithm shows remarkable improvement in the navigation estimation accuracy as compared to the relatively conventional approaches such as the UKF and IMMUKF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Observing GLUT4 Translocation in Live L6 Cells Using Quantum Dots
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2077-2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202077 - 10 Feb 2011
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4247
Abstract
The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in maintaining whole body glucose homeostasis. Tracking GLUT4 in space and time can provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms of insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation. Organic dyes and fluorescent proteins were used in previous studies [...] Read more.
The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in maintaining whole body glucose homeostasis. Tracking GLUT4 in space and time can provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms of insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation. Organic dyes and fluorescent proteins were used in previous studies for investigating the traffic of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. Because of their relative weak fluorescent signal against strong cellular autofluorescence background and their fast photobleaching rate, most studies only focused on particular segments of GLUT4 traffic. In this study, we have developed a new method for observing the translocation of GLUT4 targeted with photostable and bright quantum dots (QDs) in live L6 cells. QDs were targeted to GLUT4myc specifically and internalized with GLUT4myc through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Compared with traditional fluorescence dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs with high brightness and extremely photostability are suitable for long-term single particle tracking, so individual GLUT4-QD complex can be easily detected and tracked for long periods of time. This newly described method will be a powerful tool for observing the translocation of GLUT4 in live L6 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensing with Quantum Dots)
Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of A CMOS Light Pulse Receiver Cell Array for Spatial Optical Communications
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2056-2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202056 - 10 Feb 2011
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4391
Abstract
A CMOS light pulse receiver (LPR) cell for spatial optical communications is designed and evaluated by device simulations and a prototype chip implementation. The LPR cell consists of a pinned photodiode and four transistors. It works under sub-threshold region of a MOS transistor [...] Read more.
A CMOS light pulse receiver (LPR) cell for spatial optical communications is designed and evaluated by device simulations and a prototype chip implementation. The LPR cell consists of a pinned photodiode and four transistors. It works under sub-threshold region of a MOS transistor and the source terminal voltage which responds to the logarithm of the photo current are read out with a source follower circuit. For finding the position of the light spot on the focal plane, an image pixel array is embedded on the same plane of the LPR cell array. A prototype chip with 640 × 240 image pixels and 640 × 240 LPR cells is implemented with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. A proposed model of the transient response of the LPR cell agrees with the result of the device simulations and measurements. Both imaging at 60 fps and optical communication at the carrier frequency of 1 MHz are successfully performed. The measured signal amplitude and the calculation results of photocurrents show that the spatial optical communication up to 100 m is feasible using a 10 × 10 LED array. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Ultra Wide-Band Localization and SLAM: A Comparative Study for Mobile Robot Navigation
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2035-2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202035 - 10 Feb 2011
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5385
Abstract
In this work, a comparative study between an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) localization system and a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is presented. Due to its high bandwidth and short pulses length, UWB potentially allows great accuracy in range measurements based on Time [...] Read more.
In this work, a comparative study between an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) localization system and a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithm is presented. Due to its high bandwidth and short pulses length, UWB potentially allows great accuracy in range measurements based on Time of Arrival (TOA) estimation. SLAM algorithms recursively estimates the map of an environment and the pose (position and orientation) of a mobile robot within that environment. The comparative study presented here involves the performance analysis of implementing in parallel an UWB localization based system and a SLAM algorithm on a mobile robot navigating within an environment. Real time results as well as error analysis are also shown in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Energy Saving Effects of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Case Study of Convenience Stores in Taiwan
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2013-2034; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202013 - 10 Feb 2011
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7716
Abstract
Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of a Microbial Biosensor Based on QD-MWNT Supports by a One-Step Radiation Reaction and Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Red Wines
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 2001-2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110202001 - 08 Feb 2011
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4228
Abstract
An Acaligense sp.-immobilized biosensor was fabricated based on QD-MWNT composites as an electron transfer mediator and a microbe immobilization support by a one-step radiation reaction and used for sensing phenolic compounds in commercial red wines. First, a quantum dot-modified multi-wall carbon nanotube [...] Read more.
An Acaligense sp.-immobilized biosensor was fabricated based on QD-MWNT composites as an electron transfer mediator and a microbe immobilization support by a one-step radiation reaction and used for sensing phenolic compounds in commercial red wines. First, a quantum dot-modified multi-wall carbon nanotube (QD-MWNT) composite was prepared in the presence of MWNT by a one-step radiation reaction in an aqueous solution at room temperature. The successful preparation of the QD-MWNT composite was confirmed by XPS, TEM, and elemental analysis. Second, the microbial biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of Acaligense sp. on the surface of the composite thin film of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, which was prepared by a hand casting method with a mixture of the previously obtained composite and Nafion solution. The sensing ranges of the microbial biosensor based on CdS-MWNT and Cu2S-MWNT supports were 0.5–5.0 mM and 0.7–10 mM for phenol in a phosphate buffer solution, respectively. Total concentration of phenolic compounds contained in commercial red wines was also determined using the prepared microbial immobilized biosensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle
Compact on-Chip Temperature Sensors Based on Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic Waveguide-Ring Resonators
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1992-2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201992 - 07 Feb 2011
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6364
Abstract
The application of a waveguide-ring resonator based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides as a temperature sensor is demonstrated in this paper and the influence of temperature change to the transmission through the waveguide-ring resonator system is comprehensively analyzed. The results show that the [...] Read more.
The application of a waveguide-ring resonator based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides as a temperature sensor is demonstrated in this paper and the influence of temperature change to the transmission through the waveguide-ring resonator system is comprehensively analyzed. The results show that the roundtrip phase change in the ring resonator due to the temperature change is the major reason for the transmission variation. The performance of the temperature sensor is also discussed and it is shown that for a waveguide-ring resonator with the resonator radius around 5 mm and waveguide-ring gap of 500 nm which gives a footprint around 140 µm2, the temperature sensitivity at the order of 10−2 K can be achieved with the input power of 100 mW within the measurement sensitivity limit of a practical optical detector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
Optical Microcavity: Sensing down to Single Molecules and Atoms
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1972-1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201972 - 07 Feb 2011
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 8845 | Correction
Abstract
This review article discusses fundamentals of dielectric, low-loss, optical micro-resonator sensing, including figures of merit and a variety of microcavity designs, and future perspectives in microcavity-based optical sensing. Resonance frequency and quality (Q) factor are altered as a means of detecting a small [...] Read more.
This review article discusses fundamentals of dielectric, low-loss, optical micro-resonator sensing, including figures of merit and a variety of microcavity designs, and future perspectives in microcavity-based optical sensing. Resonance frequency and quality (Q) factor are altered as a means of detecting a small system perturbation, resulting in realization of optical sensing of a small amount of sample materials, down to even single molecules. Sensitivity, Q factor, minimum detectable index change, noises (in sensor system components and microcavity system including environments), microcavity size, and mode volume are essential parameters to be considered for optical sensing applications. Whispering gallery mode, photonic crystal, and slot-type microcavities typically provide compact, high-quality optical resonance modes for optical sensing applications. Surface Bloch modes induced on photonic crystals are shown to be a promising candidate thanks to large field overlap with a sample and ultra-high-Q resonances. Quantum optics effects based on microcavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) would provide novel single-photo-level detection of even single atoms and molecules via detection of doublet vacuum Rabi splitting peaks in strong coupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Resonant Microsensors)
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Open AccessArticle
One-to-One Embedding between Honeycomb Mesh and Petersen-Torus Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1959-1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201959 - 01 Feb 2011
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5067
Abstract
As wireless mobile telecommunication bases organize their structure using a honeycomb-mesh algorithm, there are many studies about parallel processing algorithms like the honeycomb mesh in Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper aims to study the Peterson-Torus graph algorithm in regard to the continuity with [...] Read more.
As wireless mobile telecommunication bases organize their structure using a honeycomb-mesh algorithm, there are many studies about parallel processing algorithms like the honeycomb mesh in Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper aims to study the Peterson-Torus graph algorithm in regard to the continuity with honeycomb-mesh algorithm in order to apply the algorithm to sensor networks. Once a new interconnection network is designed, parallel algorithms are developed with huge research costs to use such networks. If the old network is embedded in a newly designed network, a developed algorithm in the old network is reusable in a newly designed network. Petersen-Torus has been designed recently, and the honeycomb mesh has already been designed as a well-known interconnection network. In this paper, we propose a one-to-one embedding algorithm for the honeycomb mesh (HMn) in the Petersen-Torus PT(n,n), and prove that dilation of the algorithm is 5, congestion is 2, and expansion is 5/3. The proposed one-to-one embedding is applied so that processor throughput can be minimized when the honeycomb mesh algorithm runs in the Petersen-Torus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Forest Cover Classification by Optimal Segmentation of High Resolution Satellite Imagery
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1943-1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201943 - 01 Feb 2011
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5511
Abstract
This study investigated whether high-resolution satellite imagery is suitable for preparing a detailed digital forest cover map that discriminates forest cover at the tree species level. First, we tried to find an optimal process for segmenting the high-resolution images using a region-growing method [...] Read more.
This study investigated whether high-resolution satellite imagery is suitable for preparing a detailed digital forest cover map that discriminates forest cover at the tree species level. First, we tried to find an optimal process for segmenting the high-resolution images using a region-growing method with the scale, color and shape factors in Definiens® Professional 5.0. The image was classified by a traditional, pixel-based, maximum likelihood classification approach using the spectral information of the pixels. The pixels in each segment were reclassified using a segment-based classification (SBC) with a majority rule. Segmentation with strongly weighted color was less sensitive to the scale parameter and led to optimal forest cover segmentation and classification. The pixel-based classification (PBC) suffered from the “salt-and-pepper effect” and performed poorly in the classification of forest cover types, whereas the SBC helped to attenuate the effect and notably improved the classification accuracy. As a whole, SBC proved to be more suitable for classifying and delineating forest cover using high-resolution satellite images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Muscle Stimulation on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Adults
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1932-1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201932 - 01 Feb 2011
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6678
Abstract
Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories) [...] Read more.
Weight loss/weight control is a major concern in prevention of cardiovascular disease and the realm of health promotion. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) at different intensities on energy expenditure (oxygen and calories) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to develop a generalized linear regression (GEE) model to predict the increase of energy expenditure facilitated by NMES and identify factors (NMES stimulation intensity level, age, body mass index, weight, body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, and gender) associated with this NMES-induced increase of energy expenditure. Forty sedentary healthy adults (18 males and 22 females) participated. NMES was given at the following stimulation intensities for 10 minutes each: sensory level (E1), motor threshold (E2), and maximal intensity comfortably tolerated (E3). Cardiopulmonary gas exchange was evaluated during rest, NMES, and recovery stage. The results revealed that NMES at E2 and E3 significantly increased energy expenditure and the energy expenditure at recovery stage was still significantly higher than baseline. The GEE model demonstrated that a linear dose-response relationship existed between the stimulation intensity and the increase of energy expenditure. No subject’s demographic or anthropometric characteristics tested were significantly associated with the increase of energy expenditure. This study suggested NMES may be used to serve as an additional intervention for weight loss programs. Future studies to develop electrical stimulators or stimulation electrodes to maximize the comfort of NMES are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of TiO2 on the Gas Sensing Features of TiO2/PANi Nanocomposites
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1924-1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201924 - 01 Feb 2011
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 6214
Abstract
A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polyaniline (PANi) was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi) monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with [...] Read more.
A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polyaniline (PANi) was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi) monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO2 and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH3 gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO2 shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600–700%, 20–25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO2 nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2010)
Open AccessArticle
Detection of Hydrofluoric Acid by a SiO2 Sol-Gel Coating Fiber-Optic Probe Based on Reflection-Based Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1907-1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201907 - 01 Feb 2011
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5780
Abstract
A novel fiber-optic probe based on reflection-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was developed to quantify the concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in aqueous solutions. The LSPR sensor was constructed with a gold nanoparticle-modified PMMA fiber, integrated with a SiO2 sol-gel coating. [...] Read more.
A novel fiber-optic probe based on reflection-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was developed to quantify the concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in aqueous solutions. The LSPR sensor was constructed with a gold nanoparticle-modified PMMA fiber, integrated with a SiO2 sol-gel coating. This fiber-sensor was utilized to assess the relationship between HF concentration and SiO2 sol-gel layer etching reduction. The results demonstrated the LSPR sensor was capable of detecting HF-related erosion of hydrofluoric acid solutions of concentrations ranging from 1% to 5% using Relative RI Change Rates. The development of the LSPR sensor constitutes the basis of a detector with significant sensitivity for practical use in monitoring HF solution concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
A Target Coverage Scheduling Scheme Based on Genetic Algorithms in Directional Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1888-1906; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201888 - 01 Feb 2011
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 4557
Abstract
As a promising tool for monitoring the physical world, directional sensor networks (DSNs) consisting of a large number of directional sensors are attracting increasing attention. As directional sensors in DSNs have limited battery power and restricted angles of sensing range, maximizing the network [...] Read more.
As a promising tool for monitoring the physical world, directional sensor networks (DSNs) consisting of a large number of directional sensors are attracting increasing attention. As directional sensors in DSNs have limited battery power and restricted angles of sensing range, maximizing the network lifetime while monitoring all the targets in a given area remains a challenge. A major technique to conserve the energy of directional sensors is to use a node wake-up scheduling protocol by which some sensors remain active to provide sensing services, while the others are inactive to conserve their energy. In this paper, we first address a Maximum Set Covers for DSNs (MSCD) problem, which is known to be NP-complete, and present a greedy algorithm-based target coverage scheduling scheme that can solve this problem by heuristics. This scheme is used as a baseline for comparison. We then propose a target coverage scheduling scheme based on a genetic algorithm that can find the optimal cover sets to extend the network lifetime while monitoring all targets by the evolutionary global search technique. To verify and evaluate these schemes, we conducted simulations and showed that the schemes can contribute to extending the network lifetime. Simulation results indicated that the genetic algorithm-based scheduling scheme had better performance than the greedy algorithm-based scheme in terms of maximizing network lifetime. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sensor Proxy Mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6)—A Novel Scheme for Mobility Supported IP-WSNs
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1865-1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201865 - 01 Feb 2011
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 8593
Abstract
IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are gaining importance for their broad range of applications in health-care, home automation, environmental monitoring, industrial control, vehicle telematics and agricultural monitoring. In all these applications, mobility in the sensor network with special attention to energy efficiency [...] Read more.
IP based Wireless Sensor Networks (IP-WSNs) are gaining importance for their broad range of applications in health-care, home automation, environmental monitoring, industrial control, vehicle telematics and agricultural monitoring. In all these applications, mobility in the sensor network with special attention to energy efficiency is a major issue to be addressed. Host-based mobility management protocols are not suitable for IP-WSNs because of their energy inefficiency, so network based mobility management protocols can be an alternative for the mobility supported IP-WSNs. In this paper we propose a network based mobility supported IP-WSN protocol called Sensor Proxy Mobile IPv6 (SPMIPv6). We present its architecture, message formats and also evaluate its performance considering signaling cost, mobility cost and energy consumption. Our analysis shows that with respect to the number of IP-WSN nodes, the proposed scheme reduces the signaling cost by 60% and 56%, as well as the mobility cost by 62% and 57%, compared to MIPv6 and PMIPv6, respectively. The simulation results also show that in terms of the number of hops, SPMIPv6 decreases the signaling cost by 56% and 53% as well as mobility cost by 60% and 67% as compared to MIPv6 and PMIPv6 respectively. It also indicates that proposed scheme reduces the level of energy consumption significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol Using Dynamic Queue Management for Delay-Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1847-1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201847 - 01 Feb 2011
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5370
Abstract
Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and [...] Read more.
Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC) for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
High-Performance Piezoresistive MEMS Strain Sensor with Low Thermal Sensitivity
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1819-1846; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201819 - 31 Jan 2011
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6009
Abstract
This paper presents the experimental evaluation of a new piezoresistive MEMS strain sensor. Geometric characteristics of the sensor silicon carrier have been employed to improve the sensor sensitivity. Surface features or trenches have been introduced in the vicinity of the sensing elements. These [...] Read more.
This paper presents the experimental evaluation of a new piezoresistive MEMS strain sensor. Geometric characteristics of the sensor silicon carrier have been employed to improve the sensor sensitivity. Surface features or trenches have been introduced in the vicinity of the sensing elements. These features create stress concentration regions (SCRs) and as a result, the strain/stress field was altered. The improved sensing sensitivity compensated for the signal loss. The feasibility of this methodology was proved in a previous work using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This paper provides the experimental part of the previous study. The experiments covered a temperature range from −50 °C to +50 °C. The MEMS sensors are fabricated using five different doping concentrations. FEA is also utilized to investigate the effect of material properties and layer thickness of the bonding adhesive on the sensor response. The experimental findings are compared to the simulation results to guide selection of bonding adhesive and installation procedure. Finally, FEA was used to analyze the effect of rotational/alignment errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessCommunication
Optically Defined Modal Sensors Incorporating Spiropyran-Doped Liquid Crystals with Piezoelectric Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1810-1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201810 - 31 Jan 2011
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5341
Abstract
We integrated a piezoelectric sensing layer lamina containing liquid crystals (LC) and spiropyran (SP) in a LC/SP mixture to create an optically reconfigurable modal sensor for a cantilever beam. The impedance of this LC/SP lamina was decreased by UV irradiation which constituted the [...] Read more.
We integrated a piezoelectric sensing layer lamina containing liquid crystals (LC) and spiropyran (SP) in a LC/SP mixture to create an optically reconfigurable modal sensor for a cantilever beam. The impedance of this LC/SP lamina was decreased by UV irradiation which constituted the underlying mechanism to modulate the voltage externally applied to the piezoelectric actuating layer. Illuminating a specific pattern onto the LC/SP lamina provided us with a way to spatially modulate the piezoelectric vibration signal. We showed that if an UV illuminated pattern matches the strain distribution of a specific mode, a piezoelectric modal sensor can be created. Since UV illumination can be changed in situ in real-time, our results confirm for the first time since the inception of smart sensors, that an optically tailored modal sensor can be created. Some potential applications of this type of sensor include energy harvesting devices, bio-chips, vibration sensing and actuating devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle
Land Use Dynamics of the Fast-Growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979–2008) and its Implications for Land Use and Urban Planning Policy
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1794-1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201794 - 31 Jan 2011
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 7193
Abstract
Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing [...] Read more.
Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr−1. Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr−1 on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr−1 on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr−1, 903.43 ha yr−1, and 315.72 ha yr−1 on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city’s huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10 Years Sensors - A Decade of Publishing)
Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1784-1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201784 - 31 Jan 2011
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 7034
Abstract
To measure precise blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was [...] Read more.
To measure precise blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensing Technology for Nondestructive Evaluation)
Open AccessArticle
A Stereovision Matching Strategy for Images Captured with Fish-Eye Lenses in Forest Environments
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1756-1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110201756 - 31 Jan 2011
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5995
Abstract
We present a novel strategy for computing disparity maps from hemispherical stereo images obtained with fish-eye lenses in forest environments. At a first segmentation stage, the method identifies textures of interest to be either matched or discarded. This is achieved by applying a [...] Read more.
We present a novel strategy for computing disparity maps from hemispherical stereo images obtained with fish-eye lenses in forest environments. At a first segmentation stage, the method identifies textures of interest to be either matched or discarded. This is achieved by applying a pattern recognition strategy based on the combination of two classifiers: Fuzzy Clustering and Bayesian. At a second stage, a stereovision matching process is performed based on the application of four stereovision matching constraints: epipolar, similarity, uniqueness and smoothness. The epipolar constraint guides the process. The similarity and uniqueness are mapped through a decision making strategy based on a weighted fuzzy similarity approach, obtaining a disparity map. This map is later filtered through the Hopfield Neural Network framework by considering the smoothness constraint. The combination of the segmentation and stereovision matching approaches makes the main contribution. The method is compared against the usage of simple features and combined similarity matching strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
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