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Open AccessArticle

Insights into Interactions of Flavanones with Target Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus M2-1 Protein from STD-NMR, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, and Computational Simulations

1
Department of Physics, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas (IBILCE), UNESP, São José do Rio Preto 15054-000, Brazil
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Multiuser Center for Biomolecular Innovation (CMIB), Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas (IBILCE), UNESP, São José do Rio Preto 15054-000, Brazil
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Department of Biology, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas (IBILCE), UNESP, São José do Rio Preto 15054-000, Brazil
4
Organic Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-970, Brazil
5
National Center for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Macromolecules, Institute of Medical Biochemistry and National Center for Structure Biology and Bioimaging (CENABIO), UFRJ, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062241
Received: 6 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biomolecular Recognition)
The human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is the most frequent agent of respiratory infections in infants and children with no currently approved vaccine. The M2-1 protein is an important transcriptional antitermination factor and a potential target for viral replication inhibitor development. Hesperetin (HST) and hesperidin (HSD) are flavonoids from the flavanone group, naturally found in citrus and have, as one of their properties, antiviral activity. The present study reports on the interactions between hRSV M2-1 and these flavanones using experimental techniques in association with computational tools. STD-NMR results showed that HST and HSD bind to M2-1 by positioning their aromatic rings into the target protein binding site. Fluorescence quenching measurements revealed that HST had an interaction affinity greater than HSD towards M2-1. The thermodynamic analysis suggested that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions are important for the molecular stabilization of the complexes. Computational simulations corroborated with the experimental results and indicated that the possible interaction region for the flavonoids is the AMP-binding site in M2-1. Therefore, these results point that HST and HSD bind stably to a critical region in M2-1, which is vital for its biological function, and thus might play a possible role antiviral against hRSV. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavanones; hRSV M2-1; STD-NMR; fluorescence spectroscopy; molecular docking; molecular dynamics flavanones; hRSV M2-1; STD-NMR; fluorescence spectroscopy; molecular docking; molecular dynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piva, H.M.R.; Sá, J.M.; Miranda, A.S.; Tasic, L.; Fossey, M.A.; Souza, F.P.; Caruso, Í.P. Insights into Interactions of Flavanones with Target Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus M2-1 Protein from STD-NMR, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, and Computational Simulations. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2241.

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