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Open AccessArticle

Effect of a Resveratrol/Quercetin Mixture on the Reversion of Hypertension Induced by a Short-Term Exposure to High Sucrose Levels Near Weaning and a Long-Term Exposure That Leads to Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

1
Department of Physiology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
2
Department of Cardiovascular Biomedicine, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
3
Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
4
Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán”, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14000, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062231
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 21 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols 2020)
Hypertension is an important global public health problem. Excess sucrose during a short period near weaning (short sucrose period, SSP; sucrose during rat postnatal days 12 to 28) increases the risk of developing hypertension during adulthood and sucrose ingestion for 6 months after weaning also results in metabolic syndrome (MS) accompanied by hypertension. The aim of this study was to test if the mechanisms that lead to hypertension induced by SSP and MS are similarly modified by a resveratrol/quercetin mixture (RSV/QSC) that targets epigenetic cues. We studied the reversion of hypertension by an RSV/QSC mixture administered for 1 month (from month 6 to month 7 of age) in these two models, since it is effective against some signs of MS. RSV/QSC might determine Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression that modulates the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which synthesizes nitric oxide (NO), and of superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and 2), which are antioxidant enzymes that have an impact on the NO levels. Short- (SSP) and long-term (MS) exposure to sucrose induced hypertension and RSV/QSC reversed it. It increased the insulin sensitivity, which may determine the eNOS expression. eNOS expression was decreased in aortas from SSP and MS rats and RSV/QSC only elevated its levels in aortas from MS rats. SIRT1 was also only increased in the MS aortas. Hypertension was accompanied by a decrease in total non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in SSP and MS aortas, which improved with the RSV/QSC treatment. SOD1 expression was not modified by the sucrose treatments, but SOD2 expression was decreased in SSP and MS aortas. The RSV/QSC treatment increased SOD1 expression in MS aortas. SIRT3 was not modified by the sucrose or RSV/QSC treatments. In conclusion, SSP and MS lead to hypertension, but MS leads to more possible epigenetically- regulated mechanisms related to high blood pressure that could be targeted by the RSV/QSC mixture. Therefore, treatment has better effects on hypertension produced by MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; resveratrol/quercetin; eNOS; oxidative stress; sucrose; critical window near weaning; sirtuins hypertension; resveratrol/quercetin; eNOS; oxidative stress; sucrose; critical window near weaning; sirtuins
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Castrejón-Téllez, V.; Villegas-Romero, M.; Rubio-Ruiz, M.E.; Pérez-Torres, I.; Carreón-Torres, E.; Díaz-Díaz, E.; Guarner-Lans, V. Effect of a Resveratrol/Quercetin Mixture on the Reversion of Hypertension Induced by a Short-Term Exposure to High Sucrose Levels Near Weaning and a Long-Term Exposure That Leads to Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2231.

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