Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a subset of seronegative rheumatic-related autoimmune diseases that consist of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic spondylitis (PsA), reactive spondylitis (re-SpA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated spondylitis, and unclassifiable spondylitis. These subsets share clinical phenotypes such as joint inflammation and extra-articular manifestations (uveitis, IBD, and psoriasis [Ps]). Inflammation at the enthesis, where ligaments and tendons attach to bones, characterizes and distinguishes SpA from other types of arthritis. Over the past several years, genetic, experimental, and clinical studies have accumulated evidence showing that the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SpA. These discoveries include genetic association and the identification of IL-23- and IL-17-producing cells in the tissue of mouse models and human patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the pathomechanism by focusing on the IL-23/IL-17 pathway and examine the recent clinical studies of biological agents targeting IL-23 and IL-17 in the treatment of SpA.
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