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Review

Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Trans-Epithelial Permeability

1
Centre Nutrition, Santé et Société (NUTRISS), Institut sur la Nutrition et les Aliments Fonctionnels (INAF), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
Canada Research Excellence Chair in the Microbiome-Endocannabinoidome Mediators Axis in Metabolic Health (CERC-MEND), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
3
École de Nutrition, Faculté des Sciences de L’Agriculture et de L’Alimentation (FSAA), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6402; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176402
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 31 August 2020 / Published: 3 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota-Host Interactions: From Symbiosis to Dysbiosis)
Constant remodeling of tight junctions to regulate trans-epithelial permeability is essential in maintaining intestinal barrier functions and thus preventing diffusion of small molecules and bacteria to host systemic circulation. Gut microbiota dysbiosis and dysfunctional gut barrier have been correlated to a large number of diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. This led to the hypothesis that gut bacteria-epithelial cell interactions are key regulators of epithelial permeability through the modulation of tight junctions. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of host-pathogen interactions remains unclear mostly due to the inability of most in vitro models to recreate the differentiated tissue structure and components observed in the normal intestinal epithelium. Recent advances have led to the development of a novel cellular model derived from intestinal epithelial stem cells, the so-called organoids, encompassing all epithelial cell types and reproducing physiological properties of the intestinal tissue. We summarize herein knowledge on molecular aspects of intestinal barrier functions and the involvement of gut bacteria-epithelial cell interactions. This review also focuses on epithelial organoids as a promising model for epithelial barrier functions to study molecular aspects of gut microbiota-host interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: intestinal epithelial organoids; small intestine; colon; gut microbiota; trans-epithelial permeability; tight junction intestinal epithelial organoids; small intestine; colon; gut microbiota; trans-epithelial permeability; tight junction
MDPI and ACS Style

Allam-Ndoul, B.; Castonguay-Paradis, S.; Veilleux, A. Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Trans-Epithelial Permeability. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6402. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176402

AMA Style

Allam-Ndoul B, Castonguay-Paradis S, Veilleux A. Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Trans-Epithelial Permeability. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(17):6402. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176402

Chicago/Turabian Style

Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte, Sophie Castonguay-Paradis, and Alain Veilleux. 2020. "Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Trans-Epithelial Permeability" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 17: 6402. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176402

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