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Control of Innate Immunity by Sialic Acids in the Nervous Tissue

Neural Regeneration, Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital of Bonn, University of Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, D-53127 Bonn, Germany
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155494
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 27 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microglia: On the Cutting Edge between Health and Disease)
Sialic acids (Sias) are the most abundant terminal sugar residues of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of mammalian cells. The nervous tissue is the organ with the highest expression level of Sias. The ‘sialylation’ of glycoconjugates is performed via sialyltransferases, whereas ‘desialylation’ is done by sialidases or is a possible consequence of oxidative damage. Sialic acid residues on the neural cell surfaces inhibit complement and microglial activation, as well as phagocytosis of the underlying structures, via binding to (i) complement factor H (CFH) or (ii) sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (SIGLEC) receptors. In contrast, activated microglial cells show sialidase activity that desialylates both microglia and neurons, and further stimulates innate immunity via microglia and complement activation. The desialylation conveys neurons to become susceptible to phagocytosis, as well as triggers a microglial phagocytosis-associated oxidative burst and inflammation. Dysfunctions of the ‘Sia–SIGLEC’ and/or ‘Sia–complement’ axes often lead to neurological diseases. Thus, Sias on glycoconjugates of the intact glycocalyx and its desialylation are major regulators of neuroinflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: sialic acid; SIGLEC; complement; microglia; desialylation; neuroinflammation; neurodegeneration; aging sialic acid; SIGLEC; complement; microglia; desialylation; neuroinflammation; neurodegeneration; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, H.; Klaus, C.; Neumann, H. Control of Innate Immunity by Sialic Acids in the Nervous Tissue. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5494.

AMA Style

Liao H, Klaus C, Neumann H. Control of Innate Immunity by Sialic Acids in the Nervous Tissue. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(15):5494.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liao, Huan; Klaus, Christine; Neumann, Harald. 2020. "Control of Innate Immunity by Sialic Acids in the Nervous Tissue" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 15: 5494.

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