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Article

Cationic Porphyrins as Effective Agents in Photodynamic Inactivation of Opportunistic Plumbing Pathogen Legionella pneumophila

1
Bioinstitut d.o.o., R. Steinera 7, 40000 Čakovec, Croatia
2
Department of Biotechnology, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
3
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Braće Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
4
Photonics and Quantum Optics Unit, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
5
Department for Health Ecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Braće Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5367; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155367
Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Microbiology)
Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium, an opportunistic premise plumbing pathogen that causes the Legionnaires’ disease. L. pneumophila presents a serious health hazard in building water systems, due to its high resistance to standard water disinfection methods. Our aim was to study the use of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) against Legionella. We investigated and compared the photobactericidal potential of five cationic dyes. We tested toluidine blue (TBO) and methylene blue (MB), and three 3-N-methylpyridylporphyrins, one tetra-cationic and two tri-cationic, one with a short (CH3) and the other with a long (C17H35) alkyl chain, against L. pneumophila in tap water and after irradiation with violet light. All tested dyes demonstrated a certain dark toxicity against L. pneumophila; porphyrins with lower minimal effective concentration (MEC) values than TBO and MB. Nanomolar MEC values, significantly lower than with TBO and MB, were obtained with all three porphyrins in PDI experiments, with amphiphilic porphyrin demonstrating the highest PDI activity. All tested dyes showed increasing PDI with longer irradiation (0–108 J/cm2), especially the two hydrophilic porphyrins. All three porphyrins caused significant changes in cell membrane permeability after irradiation and L. pneumophila, co-cultivated with Acanthamoeba castellanii after treatment with all three porphyrins and irradiation, did not recover in amoeba. We believe our results indicate the considerable potential of cationic porphyrins as effective anti-Legionella agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic inactivation; porphyrins; photosensitisers; antibacterial activity; Legionella pneumophila; Acanthamoeba castellanii photodynamic inactivation; porphyrins; photosensitisers; antibacterial activity; Legionella pneumophila; Acanthamoeba castellanii
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lesar, A.; Mušković, M.; Begić, G.; Lončarić, M.; Tomić Linšak, D.; Malatesti, N.; Gobin, I. Cationic Porphyrins as Effective Agents in Photodynamic Inactivation of Opportunistic Plumbing Pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5367. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155367

AMA Style

Lesar A, Mušković M, Begić G, Lončarić M, Tomić Linšak D, Malatesti N, Gobin I. Cationic Porphyrins as Effective Agents in Photodynamic Inactivation of Opportunistic Plumbing Pathogen Legionella pneumophila. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(15):5367. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lesar, Andrija, Martina Mušković, Gabrijela Begić, Martin Lončarić, Dijana Tomić Linšak, Nela Malatesti, and Ivana Gobin. 2020. "Cationic Porphyrins as Effective Agents in Photodynamic Inactivation of Opportunistic Plumbing Pathogen Legionella pneumophila" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 15: 5367. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155367

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