Titanium materials are essential treatment modalities in the medical field and serve as a tissue engineering scaffold and coating material for medical devices. Thus, there is a significant demand to improve the bioactivity of titanium for therapeutic and experimental purposes. We showed that ultraviolet light (UV)-pre-treatment changed the protein-adsorption ability and subsequent osteoconductivity of titanium. Fibronectin (FN) adsorption on UV-treated titanium was 20% and 30% greater after 1-min and 1-h incubation, respectively, than that of control titanium. After 3-h incubation, FN adsorption on UV-treated titanium remained 30% higher than that on the control. Osteoblasts were cultured on titanium disks after 1-h FN adsorption with or without UV-pre-treatment and on titanium disks without FN adsorption. The number of attached osteoblasts during the early stage of culture was 80% greater on UV-treated and FN-adsorbed (UV/FN) titanium than on FN-adsorbed (FN) titanium; osteoblasts attachment on UV/FN titanium was 2.6- and 2.1-fold greater than that on control- and UV-treated titanium, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts on UV/FN titanium was increased 1.8-, 1.8-, and 2.4-fold compared with that on FN-adsorbed, UV-treated, and control titanium, respectively. The UV/FN implants exhibited 25% and 150% greater in vivo biomechanical strength of bone integration than the FN- and control implants, respectively. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) adsorption on UV-treated titanium was 4.5-fold greater than that on control titanium after 1-min incubation, resulting in a 4-fold increase in osteoblast attachment. Thus, UV-pre-treatment of titanium accelerated its protein adsorptivity and osteoconductivity, providing a novel strategy for enhancing its bioactivity.
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