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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020252

Glutamine Addiction and Therapeutic Strategies in Lung Cancer

1
Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt, Belgium
2
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Algemeen Ziekenhuis Vesalius, Hazelereik 51, B-3700 Tongeren, Belgium
3
Biomolecule Design Group, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
4
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Schiepse Bos 6, B-3600 Genk, Belgium
5
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Schiepse Bos 6, B-3600 Genk, Belgium
6
Biomedical Research Institute, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
7
Applied and Analytical Chemistry, Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
The authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract

Lung cancer cells are well-documented to rewire their metabolism and energy production networks to support rapid survival and proliferation. This metabolic reorganization has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. The increased uptake of glucose and the increased activity of the glycolytic pathway have been extensively described. However, over the past years, increasing evidence has shown that lung cancer cells also require glutamine to fulfill their metabolic needs. As a nitrogen source, glutamine contributes directly (or indirectly upon conversion to glutamate) to many anabolic processes in cancer, such as the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleobases, and hexosamines. It plays also an important role in the redox homeostasis, and last but not least, upon conversion to α-ketoglutarate, glutamine is an energy and anaplerotic carbon source that replenishes tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The latter is generally indicated as glutaminolysis. In this review, we explore the role of glutamine metabolism in lung cancer. Because lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death with limited curative treatment options, we focus on the potential therapeutic approaches targeting the glutamine metabolism in cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lung cancer; metabolism; glutamine; glutaminolysis; pathways; targeted treatment Lung cancer; metabolism; glutamine; glutaminolysis; pathways; targeted treatment
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Vanhove, K.; Derveaux, E.; Graulus, G.-J.; Mesotten, L.; Thomeer, M.; Noben, J.-P.; Guedens, W.; Adriaensens, P. Glutamine Addiction and Therapeutic Strategies in Lung Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 252.

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