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Review

Subcellular Localization Signals of bHLH-PAS Proteins: Their Significance, Current State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4746; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194746
Received: 2 September 2019 / Revised: 22 September 2019 / Accepted: 23 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoplasmic Sensors: Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity)
The bHLH-PAS (basic helix-loop-helix/ Period-ARNT-Single minded) proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators commonly occurring in living organisms. bHLH-PAS members act as intracellular and extracellular “signals” sensors, initiating response to endo- and exogenous signals, including toxins, redox potential, and light. The activity of these proteins as transcription factors depends on nucleocytoplasmic shuttling: the signal received in the cytoplasm has to be transduced, via translocation, to the nucleus. It leads to the activation of transcription of particular genes and determines the cell response to different stimuli. In this review, we aim to present the current state of knowledge concerning signals that affect shuttling of bHLH-PAS transcription factors. We summarize experimentally verified and published nuclear localization signals/nuclear export signals (NLSs/NESs) in the context of performed in silico predictions. We have used most of the available NLS/NES predictors. Importantly, all our results confirm the existence of a complex system responsible for protein localization regulation that involves many localization signals, which activity has to be precisely controlled. We conclude that the current stage of knowledge in this area is still not complete and for most of bHLH-PAS proteins an experimental verification of the activity of further NLS/NES is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: ARNT; BMAL; bHLH-PAS; CLOCK; CYCLE; GCE; HIF; MET; NPAS; NLS; NES; nucleocytoplasmic shuttling; SIM; SIMA; TANGO ARNT; BMAL; bHLH-PAS; CLOCK; CYCLE; GCE; HIF; MET; NPAS; NLS; NES; nucleocytoplasmic shuttling; SIM; SIMA; TANGO
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MDPI and ACS Style

Greb-Markiewicz, B.; Kolonko, M. Subcellular Localization Signals of bHLH-PAS Proteins: Their Significance, Current State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4746. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194746

AMA Style

Greb-Markiewicz B, Kolonko M. Subcellular Localization Signals of bHLH-PAS Proteins: Their Significance, Current State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(19):4746. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194746

Chicago/Turabian Style

Greb-Markiewicz, Beata, and Marta Kolonko. 2019. "Subcellular Localization Signals of bHLH-PAS Proteins: Their Significance, Current State of Knowledge and Future Perspectives" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 19: 4746. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194746

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