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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 4 (April 2013) , Pages 6529-8683

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Open AccessReview
Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8638-8683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048638
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 6 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 215 | Viewed by 7085 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an [...] Read more.
Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Research of Melatonin)
Open AccessTechnical Note
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Leptin-a Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8625-8637; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048625
Received: 7 February 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5808 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite regulation. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, were previously detected in the orange-spotted grouper. In this study, we cloned the full-length open [...] Read more.
Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite regulation. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, were previously detected in the orange-spotted grouper. In this study, we cloned the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the leptin-a gene in the orange-spotted grouper, searched for polymorphisms, and performed association analyses between these polymorphisms and seven growth traits. Six polymorphisms, consisting of 2 SNPs in intron 1 (c.182T > G, c.183G > T) and 4 SNPs in exon 2 (c.339C > G, c.345C > T, c.447G > A, c.531C > T), were identified and genotyped in 200 individuals. The c.182T > G and c.183G > T polymorphisms showed complete linkage and were analyzed together. Association analyses revealed that the c.182 + 183TG > GT polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight (BWT) and body width (BWH), with the AB (TG/GT) genotype showing positive effects on growth traits. Additionally, the SNP c.447G > A was significantly associated with BWT, BWH, overall length (OL), trunk width (TW), and head length (HL), with the GA genotype displaying positive effects on growth traits. The c.531C > T SNP showed a close association between the TT genotype and decreased growth. Our results demonstrate that several polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene are associated with growth traits and can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in orange-spotted grouper populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
MicroRNA Transcriptomes Relate Intermuscular Adipose Tissue to Metabolic Risk
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8611-8624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048611
Received: 20 March 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4780 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Intermuscular adipose tissue is located between the muscle fiber bundles in skeletal muscles, and has similar metabolic features to visceral adipose tissue, which has been found to be related to a number of obesity-related diseases. Although various miRNAs are known to play crucial [...] Read more.
Intermuscular adipose tissue is located between the muscle fiber bundles in skeletal muscles, and has similar metabolic features to visceral adipose tissue, which has been found to be related to a number of obesity-related diseases. Although various miRNAs are known to play crucial roles in adipose deposition and adipogenesis, the microRNA transcriptome of intermuscular adipose tissue has not, until now, been studied. Here, we sequenced the miRNA transcriptomes of porcine intermuscular adipose tissue by small RNA-sequencing and compared it to a representative subcutaneous adipose tissue. We found that the inflammation- and diabetes-related miRNAs were significantly enriched in the intermuscular rather than in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. A functional enrichment analysis of the genes predicted to be targeted by the enriched miRNAs also indicated that intermuscular adipose tissue was associated mainly with immune and inflammation responses. Our results suggest that the intermuscular adipose tissue should be recognized as a potential metabolic risk factor of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs 2013)
Open AccessArticle
A One-Step Homogeneous Sandwich Immunosensor for Salmonella Detection Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNPs) and Quantum Dots (QDs)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8603-8610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048603
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 22 April 2013
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3762 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Simple immuno-magnetic separation tandem fluorescent probes based on quantum dots-antibody (QDs-Ab) were developed to detect Salmonella with sensitivity of 500 cfu mL−1. With two monoclonal antibodies, which recognize different antigenic determinant on the surface of Salmonella, we prepared antibody-coated magnetic [...] Read more.
Simple immuno-magnetic separation tandem fluorescent probes based on quantum dots-antibody (QDs-Ab) were developed to detect Salmonella with sensitivity of 500 cfu mL−1. With two monoclonal antibodies, which recognize different antigenic determinant on the surface of Salmonella, we prepared antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and conjugates of QDs-Ab. The immune-magnetic beads were verified with high enrichment efficiency for Salmonella (90%). A sandwich structure formed if the Salmonella solution was mixed together with immune-beads and QDs-Ab, and the fluorescent single from QDs was related to the amount of Salmonella. A linear response between fluorescence intensity and various concentrations of Salmonella (2.5 × 103 to 1.95 × 108 cfu mL−1) were observed with this proposed method. The total assay time for Salmonella was 30 min, and no cross-reaction to other microbial strains, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), were found using this detection system. All our results showed that the simple homogeneous immunoassay could be applied in Salmonella screening without time-consuming extra-enrichment of bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessArticle
Remotely Triggered Scaffolds for Controlled Release of Pharmaceuticals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8585-8602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048585
Received: 20 March 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 19 April 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3036 | PDF Full-text (1198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fe3O4-Au hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) have shown increasing potential for biomedical applications such as image guided stimuli responsive drug delivery. Incorporation of the unique properties of HNPs into thermally responsive scaffolds holds great potential for future biomedical applications. Here we [...] Read more.
Fe3O4-Au hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) have shown increasing potential for biomedical applications such as image guided stimuli responsive drug delivery. Incorporation of the unique properties of HNPs into thermally responsive scaffolds holds great potential for future biomedical applications. Here we successfully fabricated smart scaffolds based on thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNiPAM). Nanoparticles providing localized trigger of heating when irradiated with a short laser burst were found to give rise to remote control of bulk polymer shrinkage. Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using wet chemical precipitation methods followed by electrochemical coating. After subsequent functionalization of particles with allyl methyl sulfide, mercaptodecane, cysteamine and poly(ethylene glycol) thiol to enhance stability, detailed biological safety was determined using live/dead staining and cell membrane integrity studies through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) quantification. The PEG coated HNPs did not show significant cytotoxic effect or adverse cellular response on exposure to 7F2 cells (p < 0.05) and were carried forward for scaffold incorporation. The pNiPAM-HNP composite scaffolds were investigated for their potential as thermally triggered systems using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. These studies show that incorporation of HNPs resulted in scaffold deformation after very short irradiation times (seconds) due to internal structural heating. Our data highlights the potential of these hybrid-scaffold constructs for exploitation in drug delivery, using methylene blue as a model drug being released during remote structural change of the scaffold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles 2013)
Open AccessArticle
Exercise Therapy Augments the Ischemia-Induced Proangiogenic State and Results in Sustained Improvement after Stroke
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8570-8584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048570
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2013 / Accepted: 11 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2468 | PDF Full-text (1072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The induction of angiogenesis will stimulate endogenous recovery mechanisms, which are involved in the long-term repair and restoration process of the brain after an ischemic event. Here, we tested whether exercise influences the pro-angiogenic factors and outcomes after cerebral infarction in rats. Wistar [...] Read more.
The induction of angiogenesis will stimulate endogenous recovery mechanisms, which are involved in the long-term repair and restoration process of the brain after an ischemic event. Here, we tested whether exercise influences the pro-angiogenic factors and outcomes after cerebral infarction in rats. Wistar rats were exposed to two hours of middle-cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. Different durations of treadmill training were performed on the rats. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related genes and proteins were higher over time post-ischemia, and exercise enhanced their expression. Sixteen days post-ischemia, the regional cerebral blood flow in the ischemic striatum was significantly increased in the running group over the sedentary. Although no difference was seen in infarct size between the running and sedentary groups, running evidently improved the neurobehavioral score. The effects of running on MMP2 expression, regional cerebral blood flow and outcome were abolished when animals were treated with bevacizumab (BEV), a VEGF-targeting antibody. Exercise therapy improves long-term stroke outcome by MMP2-VEGF-dependent mechanisms related to improved cerebral blood flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
MiR-590-5P Inhibits Growth of HepG2 Cells via Decrease of S100A10 Expression and Inhibition of the Wnt Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8556-8569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048556
Received: 19 February 2013 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2826 | PDF Full-text (1329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common and lethal cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. In the present study, we found that the expression of a microRNA, miR-590-5P, was down-regulated and S100A10 was up-regulated in six hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. The reporter [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common and lethal cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. In the present study, we found that the expression of a microRNA, miR-590-5P, was down-regulated and S100A10 was up-regulated in six hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. The reporter gene assay showed that overexpression of miR-590-5P effectively reduced the activity of luciferase expressed by a vector bearing the 3' untranslated region of S100A10 mRNA. Ectopic miR-590-5P overexpression mediated by lentiviral infection decreased expression of S100A10. Infection of Lv-miR-590-5P inhibited cell growth and induced cell cycle G1 arrest in HepG2 cells. In addition, miR-590-5P expression suppressed the expression of Wnt5a, cMyc and cyclin D1, and increased the phosphorylation of β-catenin and expression of Caspase 3, which may contribute to the inhibitory effect of miR-590-5P on cell growth. Taken together, our data suggest that down-regulation of miR-590-5P is involved in hepatocellular carcinoma and the restoration of miR-590-5P can impair the growth of cancer cells, suggesting that miR-590-5P may be a potential target molecule for the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes in Pollen from Self-Incompatible “Wuzishatangju” and Self-Compatible “Shatangju” Mandarins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8538-8555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048538
Received: 14 January 2013 / Revised: 2 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2863 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the important factors that can result in seedless fruit in Citrus. However, the molecular mechanism of SI in Citrus is not yet clear. In this study, two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries (forward, F and reverse, R) [...] Read more.
Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the important factors that can result in seedless fruit in Citrus. However, the molecular mechanism of SI in Citrus is not yet clear. In this study, two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries (forward, F and reverse, R) were constructed to isolate differentially expressed genes in pollen from “Wuzishatangju” (SI) and “Shatangju” (self-compatibility, SC) mandarins. Four hundred and sixty-eight differentially expressed cDNA clones from 2077 positive clones were sequenced and identified. Differentially expressed ESTs are possibly involved in the SI reaction of “Wuzishatangju” by regulating pollen development, kinase activity, ubiquitin pathway, pollen-pistil interaction, and calcium ion binding. Twenty five SI candidate genes were obtained, six of which displayed specific expression patterns in various organs and stages after self- and cross-pollination. The expression level of the F-box gene (H304) and S1 (F78) in the pollen of “Wuzishatangju” was 5-fold higher than that in “Shatangju” pollen. The F-box gene, S1, UBE2, UBE3, RNaseHII, and PCP were obviously up-regulated in pistils at 3 d after self-pollination of “Wuzishatangju”, approximately 3-, 2-, 10-, 5-, 5-, and 2-fold higher, respectively than that at the same stage after cross-pollination of “Wuzishatangju” × “Shatangju” pistils. The potential involvement of these genes in the pollen SI reaction of “Wuzishatangju” is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Plant Secondary Metabolism)
Open AccessReview
Crosstalk between DnaA Protein, the Initiator of Escherichia coli Chromosomal Replication, and Acidic Phospholipids Present in Bacterial Membranes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8517-8537; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048517
Received: 21 January 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3179 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anionic (i.e., acidic) phospholipids such as phosphotidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL), participate in several cellular functions. Here we review intriguing in vitro and in vivo evidence that suggest emergent roles for acidic phospholipids in regulating DnaA protein-mediated initiation of Escherichia coli [...] Read more.
Anionic (i.e., acidic) phospholipids such as phosphotidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL), participate in several cellular functions. Here we review intriguing in vitro and in vivo evidence that suggest emergent roles for acidic phospholipids in regulating DnaA protein-mediated initiation of Escherichia coli chromosomal replication. In vitro acidic phospholipids in a fluid bilayer promote the conversion of inactive ADP-DnaA to replicatively proficient ATP-DnaA, yet both PG and CL also can inhibit the DNA-binding activity of DnaA protein. We discuss how cellular acidic phospholipids may positively and negatively influence the initiation activity of DnaA protein to help assure chromosomal replication occurs once, but only once, per cell-cycle. Fluorescence microscopy has revealed that PG and CL exist in domains located at the cell poles and mid-cell, and several studies link membrane curvature with sub-cellular localization of various integral and peripheral membrane proteins. E. coli DnaA itself is found at the cell membrane and forms helical structures along the longitudinal axis of the cell. We propose that there is cross-talk between acidic phospholipids in the bacterial membrane and DnaA protein as a means to help control the spatial and temporal regulation of chromosomal replication in bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity of the Alkaloid-Enriched Extract from Prosopis juliflora Pods and Its Influence on in Vitro Ruminal Digestion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8496-8516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048496
Received: 8 October 2012 / Revised: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5157 | PDF Full-text (319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 50 μg/mL), its influence on ruminal digestion was evaluated using a semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, with monensin as the positive control. Results showed that BCE has decreased gas production as efficiently as monensin after 36 h of fermentation, revealing its positive influence on gas production during ruminal digestion. Since P. juliflora is a very affordable plant, this study points out this alkaloid enriched extract from the pods of Prosopis juliflora as a potential feed additive to decrease gas production during ruminal digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessEditorial
Aberrant Free Radical Biology Is a Unifying Theme in the Etiology and Pathogenesis of Major Human Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8491-8495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048491
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3684 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The seemingly disparate areas of oxygen toxicity, radiation exposure, and aging are now recognized to share a common feature—the aberrant production and/or removal of biologically derived free radicals and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Advances in our understanding of the effects [...] Read more.
The seemingly disparate areas of oxygen toxicity, radiation exposure, and aging are now recognized to share a common feature—the aberrant production and/or removal of biologically derived free radicals and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Advances in our understanding of the effects of free radicals in biology and medicine have been, and continue to be, actively translated into clinically tractable diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This issue is dedicated to recent advances, both basic discoveries and clinical applications, in the field of free radicals in biology and medicine. As more is understood about the proximal biological targets of aberrantly produced or removed reactive species, their sensors, and effectors of compensatory response, a great deal more will be learned about the commonalities in mechanisms underlying seemingly disparate disease states. Together with this deeper understanding, opportunities will arise to devise rational therapeutic interventions to decrease the incidence and severity of these diseases and positively impact the human healthspan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Identification of a Genomic Region Containing a Novel Promoter Resistant to Glucose Repression and Over-Expression of β-Glucosidase Gene in Hypocrea orientalis EU7-22
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8479-8490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048479
Received: 6 January 2013 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3071 | PDF Full-text (445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high concentration of glucose in the medium could greatly inhibit the expression of cellulase in filamentous fungi. The aspartic protease from fungus Hypocrea orientalis EU7-22 could efficiently express under both induction condition and glucose repression condition. Based on the sequence of structure [...] Read more.
A high concentration of glucose in the medium could greatly inhibit the expression of cellulase in filamentous fungi. The aspartic protease from fungus Hypocrea orientalis EU7-22 could efficiently express under both induction condition and glucose repression condition. Based on the sequence of structure gene of aspartic protease, the upstream sequence harboring the putative promoter proA for driving the expression of aspartic protease was obtained by genome walking. The upstream sequence contained the typical promoter motifs “TATA” and “CAAT”. The β-glucosidase gene (Bgl1) from H. orientalis was cloned and recombined with promoter proA and terminator trpC. The expression cassette was ligated to the binary vector to form pUR5750-Bgl1, and then transferred into the host strain EU7-22 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT), using hygromycin B resistance gene as the screening marker. Four transformants Bgl-1, Bgl-2, Bgl-3 and Bgl-4 were screened. Compared with the host strain EU7-22, the enzyme activities of filter paper (FPA) and β-glucosidase (BG) of transformant Bgl-2 increased by 10.6% and 19.1% under induction condition, respectively. The FPA and BG activities were enhanced by 22.2% and 700% under 2% glucose repression condition, respectively, compared with the host strain. The results showed that the putative promoter proA has successfully driven the over-expression of Bgl1 gene in H. orientalis under glucose repression condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Role of UPR Pathway in Defense Response of Aedes aegypti against Cry11Aa Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8467-8478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048467
Received: 29 January 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3035 | PDF Full-text (858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The insecticidal Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis that disrupt insect-midgut cells. Cells can trigger different survival mechanisms to counteract the effects of sub-lytic doses of pore forming toxins. Particularly, two signaling pathways have been demonstrated to play [...] Read more.
The insecticidal Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis that disrupt insect-midgut cells. Cells can trigger different survival mechanisms to counteract the effects of sub-lytic doses of pore forming toxins. Particularly, two signaling pathways have been demonstrated to play a role in the defense mechanism to other toxins in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammalian cells. These are the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP) pathways, which are proposed to facilitate membrane repair responses. In this work we analyzed the role of these pathways in Aedes aegypti response to intoxication with Cry11Aa toxin. We show that UPR is activated upon toxin ingestion. The role of these two pathways was analyzed in vivo by using RNA interference. We silenced the expression of specific proteins in A. aegypti larvae. Gene silencing of Ire-1 and Xbp-1 proteins from UPR system, resulted in hypersensitive to Cry11Aa toxin action. In contrast, silencing of Cas-1, Scap and S2P from SREBP pathway had no affect on Cry11Aa toxicity in A. aegypti larvae. However, the role of SREBP pathway requires further studies to be conclusive. Our data indicate that the UPR pathway is involved in the insect defense against Cry toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
Open AccessReview
Effects of Narrow Band UVB (311 nm) Irradiation on Epidermal Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8456-8466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048456
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 9 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2878 | PDF Full-text (1621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be one of the most important environmental hazards acting on the skin. It was revealed that chronic exposure to UVR accelerates skin aging, induces immunosuppression and may lead to the development of skin cancers. On the other [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be one of the most important environmental hazards acting on the skin. It was revealed that chronic exposure to UVR accelerates skin aging, induces immunosuppression and may lead to the development of skin cancers. On the other hand, UVR has been shown to be effective in the treatment of numerous skin diseases and thus, various phototherapy modalities have been developed to date. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) emitting a light with a peak around 311 nm has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of various skin disorders; currently it is one of the most commonly used phototherapy devices. Despite NB-UVB has been developed more than 30 years ago, the exact mechanism of its therapeutic action remains poorly understood. To date, most of NB-UVB effects were attributed to its influence on immune cells; however, nearly 90% of NB-UVB irradiation is absorbed by epidermis and keratinocytes seem to be important players in mediating NB-UVB biological activity. Here, we have reviewed the current data about the influence of NB-UVB on epidermal cells, with a special emphasis on cell proliferation and death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Induced Cell Death 2012)
Open AccessReview
Dual Role of MicroRNAs in NAFLD
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8437-8455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048437
Received: 14 March 2013 / Revised: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3251 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators in different pathophysiological processes. They typically affect the mRNA stability or translation finally leading to the repression of target gene expression. Notably, it is thought that microRNAs are crucial for regulating gene expression during metabolic-related disorders, such as [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators in different pathophysiological processes. They typically affect the mRNA stability or translation finally leading to the repression of target gene expression. Notably, it is thought that microRNAs are crucial for regulating gene expression during metabolic-related disorders, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several studies identify specific microRNA expression profiles associated to different histological features of NAFLD, both in animal models and in patients. Therefore, specific assortments of certain microRNAs could have enormous diagnostic potentiality. In addition, microRNAs have also emerged as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of NAFLD-related liver damage. In this review, we discuss the experimental evidence about microRNAs both as potential non-invasive early diagnostic markers and as novel therapeutic targets in NAFLD and its more severe liver complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
MiR199b Suppresses Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) in Prostate Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8422-8436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048422
Received: 17 February 2013 / Revised: 8 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3381 | PDF Full-text (1128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress expression of target genes via imperfect base-pairing with the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays important roles in physiology and pathology. Constitutive over-expression of HIF-1α is observed [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally repress expression of target genes via imperfect base-pairing with the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays important roles in physiology and pathology. Constitutive over-expression of HIF-1α is observed in many types of cancers including prostate carcinoma, but the mechanisms underlying this event remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the expression of miR199b and HIF-1α in normal prostate tissue, prostate cancer tissues and prostate carcinoma (PCa) cell lines LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145.We found that miR-199b expression level was decreased in prostate cancer while HIF-1α was significantly over-expressed. Furthermore, we postulated the posttranscriptional regulation of HIF-1α by miR199b through bioinformatics analysis, and herein we experimentally demonstrated that miR199b negatively regulated HIF-1α by targeting its 3'-untranslated region. Artificial over-expression of miR199b by using adenoviral vectors in prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells significantly down-regulated HIF-1α, together with reduced cell growth and increased cell death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Diagnosis)
Open AccessArticle
Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Resistances to Small Brown Planthopper and Rice Stripe Virus in Rice Using Recombinant Inbred Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8406-8421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048406
Received: 18 January 2013 / Revised: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3542 | PDF Full-text (479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Small brown planthopper (SBPH) and rice stripe virus (RSV) disease transmitted by SBPH cause serious damage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. In the present study, we screened 312 rice accessions for resistance to SBPH. The indica variety, N22, is highly [...] Read more.
Small brown planthopper (SBPH) and rice stripe virus (RSV) disease transmitted by SBPH cause serious damage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. In the present study, we screened 312 rice accessions for resistance to SBPH. The indica variety, N22, is highly resistant to SBPH. One hundred and eighty two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of N22 and the highly susceptible variety, USSR5, were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of resistances to SBPH and RSV. In a modified seedbox screening test, three QTLs for SBPH resistance, qSBPH2, qSBPH3 and qSBPH7.1, were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3 and 7, a total explaining 35.1% of the phenotypic variance. qSBPH7.2 and qSBPH11.2, conferring antibiosis against SBPH, were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11 and accounted for 20.7% of the total phenotypic variance. In addition, qSBPH5 and qSBPH7.3, expressing antixenosis to SBPH, were detected on chromosomes 5 and 7, explaining 23.9% of the phenotypic variance. qSBPH7.1, qSBPH7.2 and qSBPH7.3, located in the same region between RM234 and RM429 on chromosome 7, using three different phenotyping methods indicate that the locus or region plays a major role in conferring resistance to SBPH in N22. Moreover, three QTLs, qSTV4, qSTV11.1 and qSTV11.2, for RSV resistance were detected on chromosomes 4 and 11. qSTV11.1 and qSTV11.2 are located in the same region between RM287 and RM209 on chromosome 11. Molecular markers spanning these QTLs should be useful in the development of varieties with resistance to SBPH and RSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants)
Open AccessArticle
A Convolutional Code-Based Sequence Analysis Model and Its Application
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8393-8405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048393
Received: 19 February 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 10 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2319 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new approach for encoding DNA sequences as input for DNA sequence analysis is proposed using the error correction coding theory of communication engineering. The encoder was designed as a convolutional code model whose generator matrix is designed based on the degeneracy of [...] Read more.
A new approach for encoding DNA sequences as input for DNA sequence analysis is proposed using the error correction coding theory of communication engineering. The encoder was designed as a convolutional code model whose generator matrix is designed based on the degeneracy of codons, with a codon treated in the model as an informational unit. The utility of the proposed model was demonstrated through the analysis of twelve prokaryote and nine eukaryote DNA sequences having different GC contents. Distinct differences in code distances were observed near the initiation and termination sites in the open reading frame, which provided a well-regulated characterization of the DNA sequences. Clearly distinguished period-3 features appeared in the coding regions, and the characteristic average code distances of the analyzed sequences were approximately proportional to their GC contents, particularly in the selected prokaryotic organisms, presenting the potential utility as an added taxonomic characteristic for use in studying the relationships of living organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Pilot Study of CYP2B6 Genetic Variation to Explore the Contribution of Nitrosamine Activation to Lung Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8381-8392; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048381
Received: 14 March 2013 / Revised: 2 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2731 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We explored the contribution of nitrosamine metabolism to lung cancer in a pilot investigation of genetic variation in CYP2B6, a high-affinity enzymatic activator of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with a negligible role in nicotine metabolism. Previously we found that variation in CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 [...] Read more.
We explored the contribution of nitrosamine metabolism to lung cancer in a pilot investigation of genetic variation in CYP2B6, a high-affinity enzymatic activator of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with a negligible role in nicotine metabolism. Previously we found that variation in CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 combined to increase lung cancer risk in a case-control study in European American ever-smokers (n = 860). However, these genes are involved in the pharmacology of both nicotine, through which they alter smoking behaviours, and carcinogenic nitrosamines. Herein, we separated participants by CYP2B6 genotype into a high- vs. low-risk group (*1/*1 + *1/*6 vs. *6/*6). Odds ratios estimated through logistic regression modeling were 1.25 (95% CI 0.68–2.30), 1.27 (95% CI 0.89–1.79) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.04–2.31) for CYP2B6, CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, respectively, with negligible differences when all genes were evaluated concurrently. Modeling the combined impact of high-risk genotypes yielded odds ratios that rose from 2.05 (95% CI 0.39–10.9) to 2.43 (95% CI 0.47–12.7) to 3.94 (95% CI 0.72–21.5) for those with 1, 2 and 3 vs. 0 high-risk genotypes, respectively. Findings from this pilot point to genetic variation in CYP2B6 as a lung cancer risk factor supporting a role for nitrosamine metabolic activation in the molecular mechanism of lung carcinogenesis Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research of Carcinogenesis)
Open AccessArticle
Loss of SUMOylation on ATF3 Inhibits Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells by Modulating CCND1/2 Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8367-8380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048367
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2887 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
SUMOylation plays an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Previously, we showed that ATF3, a stress response mediator, can be SUMOylated and lysine 42 is the major SUMO site. However, the significance of ATF3 SUMOylation in biological processes is [...] Read more.
SUMOylation plays an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Previously, we showed that ATF3, a stress response mediator, can be SUMOylated and lysine 42 is the major SUMO site. However, the significance of ATF3 SUMOylation in biological processes is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of ATF3 SUMOylation on CCND activity and cellular proliferation in human prostate cancer cells. First, we showed that ATF3 can be SUMOylated endogenously in the overexpression system, and lysine 42 is the major SUMO site. Unlike normal prostate tissue and androgen-responsive LNCaP cancer cells, androgen-independent PC3 and DU145 cancer cells did not express ATF3 endogenously. Overexpression of ATF3 increased CCND1/2 expression in PC3 and DU145 cancer cells. Interestingly, we observed that SUMOylation is essential for ATF3-mediated CCND1/2 activation. Finally, we observed that SUMOylation plays a functional role in ATF3-mediated cellular proliferation in PC3 and DU145 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SUMO modification of ATF3 influences CCND1/2 activity and cellular proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cells and explains at least in part how ATF3 functions to regulate cancer development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
Open AccessShort Note
Cholesterol Dependent Uptake and Interaction of Doxorubicin in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8358-8366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048358
Received: 25 February 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2947 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methods of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy—including intensity and lifetime (FLIM) images—are used to examine uptake, intracellular location and interaction of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells as a function of cholesterol content. By comparing cells with natural and decreased [...] Read more.
Methods of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy—including intensity and lifetime (FLIM) images—are used to examine uptake, intracellular location and interaction of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells as a function of cholesterol content. By comparing cells with natural and decreased cholesterol levels after 2 h or 24 h incubation with doxorubicin, we observed that higher fluorescence intensities and possibly shortened fluorescence lifetimes—reflecting increased uptake of the drug and more pronounced drug response—are concomitant with higher membrane fluidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cancer Diagnosis)
Open AccessReview
Intercellular Signaling Pathway among Endothelia, Astrocytes and Neurons in Excitatory Neuronal Damage
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8345-8357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048345
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 3 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3165 | PDF Full-text (5244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurons interact closely with astrocytes via glutamate; this neuron-glia circuit may play a pivotal role in synaptic transmission. On the other hand, astrocytes contact vascular endothelial cells with their end-feet. It is becoming obvious that non-neuronal cells play a critical role in regulating [...] Read more.
Neurons interact closely with astrocytes via glutamate; this neuron-glia circuit may play a pivotal role in synaptic transmission. On the other hand, astrocytes contact vascular endothelial cells with their end-feet. It is becoming obvious that non-neuronal cells play a critical role in regulating the neuronal activity in the brain. We find that kainic acid (KA) administration induces the expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in venous endothelial cells and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor prostaglandin E receptor (EP)-3 on astrocytes. Endothelial mPGES-1 exacerbates KA-induced neuronal damage in in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, mPGES-1 produces PGE2, which enhances astrocytic Ca2+ levels via the EP3 receptor and increases Ca2+-dependent glutamate release, thus aggravating neuronal injury. This novel endothelium-astrocyte-neuron signaling pathway may be crucial for driving neuronal damage after repetitive seizures and could be a new therapeutic target for epilepsy and other brain disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signalling Molecules and Signal Transduction in Cells)
Open AccessArticle
Two Common Bean Genotypes with Contrasting Response to Phosphorus Deficiency Show Variations in the microRNA 399-Mediated PvPHO2 Regulation within the PvPHR1 Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8328-8344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048328
Received: 20 February 2013 / Revised: 2 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 April 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3013 | PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crop production of the important legume, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), is often limited by low phosphorus (P) in the soil. The genotypes, BAT477 and DOR364, of the common bean have contrasting responses to P starvation. Plants from the BAT477 [...] Read more.
Crop production of the important legume, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), is often limited by low phosphorus (P) in the soil. The genotypes, BAT477 and DOR364, of the common bean have contrasting responses to P starvation. Plants from the BAT477 P deficiency tolerant genotype showed higher phosphate content and root biomass as compared to the DOR364 plants under P starvation. The PvPHR1 transcription factor-signaling pathway plays an essential role in the response to P starvation. PvPHO2, a negative regulator of this pathway, encodes an ubiquitin E2 conjugase that promotes degradation of P-responsive proteins and is the target gene of PvmiR399. PvPHO2 is downregulated in BAT477 plants under P deficiency, while such a response is not observed in P-starved DOR364 plants. Five putative PvmiR399 binding sites were identified in the 5' UTR region in both genotypes. While four sites showed an identical DNA sequence, the fifth (binding site of PvPHO2 one) showed three base changes and higher complementarity scores in DOR364 as compared to BAT477. Modified 5'RACE experiments indicated that PvmiR399 binding and/or processing was affected in DOR364 P-starved plants. We propose that a less efficient cleavage of the PvPHO2 mRNA directed by PvmiR399 would result in a higher PvPHO2-mediated degradation of P-responsive proteins in the DOR364 genotype with decreased P deficiency tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants)
Open AccessArticle
Development of a Preclinical Therapeutic Model of Human Brain Metastasis with Chemoradiotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8306-8327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048306
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 16 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2715 | PDF Full-text (2003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, survival of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis ranges from 2 to 16 months. In experimental brain metastasis studies, only 10% of lesions with the highest permeability exhibited cytotoxic responses to paclitaxel or doxorubicin. Therefore, radiation is the most frequently used treatment, [...] Read more.
Currently, survival of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis ranges from 2 to 16 months. In experimental brain metastasis studies, only 10% of lesions with the highest permeability exhibited cytotoxic responses to paclitaxel or doxorubicin. Therefore, radiation is the most frequently used treatment, and sensitizing agents, which synergize with radiation, can improve the efficacy of the therapy. In this study we used 435-Br1 cells containing the fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene and the photinus luciferase (PLuc) gene to develop a new brain metastatic cell model in mice through five in vivo/in vitro rounds. BR-eGFP-CMV/Luc-V5 brain metastatic cells induce parenchymal brain metastasis within 60.8 ± 13.8 days of intracarotid injection in all mice. We used this model to standardize a preclinical chemoradiotherapy protocol comprising three 5.5 Gy fractions delivered on consecutive days (overall dose of 16.5 Gy) which improved survival with regard to controls (60.29 ± 8.65 vs. 47.20 ± 11.14). Moreover, the combination of radiotherapy with temozolomide, 60 mg/Kg/day orally for five consecutive days doubled survival time of the mice 121.56 ± 52.53 days (Kaplan-Meier Curve, p < 0.001). This new preclinical chemoradiotherapy protocol proved useful for the study of radiation response/resistance in brain metastasis, either alone or in combination with new sensitizing agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Metastasis)
Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Corneal Neovascularization with the Combination of Bevacizumab and Plasmid Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor-Synthetic Amphiphile INTeraction-18 (p-PEDF-SAINT-18) Vector in a Rat Corneal Experimental Angiogenesis Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8291-8305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048291
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 16 April 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5115 | PDF Full-text (1398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bevacizumab, a 149-kDa protein, is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF. PEDF, a 50-kDa glycoprotein, has demonstrated anti-vasopermeability properties. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of bevacizumab and plasmid pigment epithelium-derived factor-synthetic amphiphile INTeraction-18 (p-PEDF-SAINT-18) has a favorable antiangiogenic effect [...] Read more.
Bevacizumab, a 149-kDa protein, is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF. PEDF, a 50-kDa glycoprotein, has demonstrated anti-vasopermeability properties. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of bevacizumab and plasmid pigment epithelium-derived factor-synthetic amphiphile INTeraction-18 (p-PEDF-SAINT-18) has a favorable antiangiogenic effect on corneal NV. Four groups (Group A: 0 μg + 0 μg, B: 0.1 μg + 0.1 μg, C: 1 μg + 1 μg, and D: 10 μg + 10 μg) of bevacizumab + p-PEDF-SAINT-18 were prepared and implanted into the rat subconjunctival substantia propria 1.5 mm from the limbus on the temporal side. Then, 1 μg of p-bFGF-SAINT-18 was prepared and implanted into the rat corneal stroma 1.5 mm from the limbus on the same side. The inhibition of NV was observed and quantified from days 1 to 60. Biomicroscopic examination, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the 18-kDa bFGF, 50-kDa PEDF and VEGF protein expression. No inhibition activity for normal limbal vessels was noted. Subconjunctival injection with the combination of bevacizumab and p-PEDF-SAINT-18 successfully inhibited corneal NV. The bFGF and PEDF genes were successfully expressed as shown by western blot analysis, and a mild immune response to HLA-DR was shown by immunohistochemistry. We concluded that the combination of bevacizumab and p-PEDF-SAINT-18 may have more potent and prolonged antiangiogenic effects, making it possible to reduce the frequency of subconjunctival.Bevacizumab, a 149-kDa protein, is a recombinant humanized monoclonalantibody to VEGF. PEDF, a 50-kDa glycoprotein, has demonstrated anti-vasopermeabilityproperties. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of bevacizumaband plasmid pigment epithelium-derived factor-synthetic amphiphile INTeraction-18(p-PEDF-SAINT-18) has a favorable antiangiogenic effect on corneal NV. Four groups(Group A: 0 μg + 0 μg, B: 0.1 μg + 0.1 μg, C: 1 μg + 1 μg, and D: 10 μg + 10 μg) ofbevacizumab + p-PEDF-SAINT-18 were prepared and implanted into the ratsubconjunctival substantia propria 1.5 mm from the limbus on the temporal side. Then, 1 μgof p-bFGF-SAINT-18 was prepared and implanted into the rat corneal stroma 1.5 mm fromthe limbus on the same side. The inhibition of NV was observed and quantified from days1 to 60. Biomicroscopic examination, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry wereused to analyze the 18-kDa bFGF, 50-kDa PEDF and VEGF protein expression. Noinhibition activity for normal limbal vessels was noted. Subconjunctival injection with thecombination of bevacizumab and p-PEDF-SAINT-18 successfully inhibited corneal NV.The bFGF and PEDF genes were successfully expressed as shown by western blot analysis,and a mild immune response to HLA-DR was shown by immunohistochemistry. Weconcluded that the combination of bevacizumab and p-PEDF-SAINT-18 may have morepotent and prolonged antiangiogenic effects, making it possible to reduce the frequency ofsubconjunctival bevacizumab administration combined with a relatively safe profile andlow toxicity. Full article
Open AccessReview
Ovarian Cancer: Can Proteomics Give New Insights for Therapy and Diagnosis?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8271-8290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048271
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 11 March 2013 / Accepted: 2 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4070 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study of the ovarian proteomic profile represents a new frontier in ovarian cancer research, since this approach is able to enlighten the wide variety of post-translational events (such as glycosylation and phosphorylation). Due to the possibility of analyzing thousands of proteins, which [...] Read more.
The study of the ovarian proteomic profile represents a new frontier in ovarian cancer research, since this approach is able to enlighten the wide variety of post-translational events (such as glycosylation and phosphorylation). Due to the possibility of analyzing thousands of proteins, which could be simultaneously altered, comparative proteomics represent a promising model of possible biomarker discovery for ovarian cancer detection and monitoring. Moreover, defining signaling pathways in ovarian cancer cells through proteomic analysis offers the opportunity to design novel drugs and to optimize the use of molecularly targeted agents against crucial and biologically active pathways. Proteomic techniques provide more information about different histological types of ovarian cancer, cell growth and progression, genes related to tumor microenvironment and specific molecular targets predictive of response to chemotherapy than sequencing or microarrays. Estimates of specificity with proteomics are less consistent, but suggest a new role for combinations of biomarkers in early ovarian cancer diagnosis, such as the OVA1 test. Finally, the definition of the proteomic profiles in ovarian cancer would be accurate and effective in identifying which pathways are differentially altered, defining the most effective therapeutic regimen and eventually improving health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes and Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessReview
DNA Self-Assembly: From Chirality to Evolution
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8252-8270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048252
Received: 20 February 2013 / Revised: 3 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2913 | PDF Full-text (7721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transient or long-term DNA self-assembly participates in essential genetic functions. The present review focuses on tight DNA-DNA interactions that have recently been found to play important roles in both controlling DNA higher-order structures and their topology. Due to their chirality, double helices are [...] Read more.
Transient or long-term DNA self-assembly participates in essential genetic functions. The present review focuses on tight DNA-DNA interactions that have recently been found to play important roles in both controlling DNA higher-order structures and their topology. Due to their chirality, double helices are tightly packed into stable right-handed crossovers. Simple packing rules that are imposed by DNA geometry and sequence dictate the overall architecture of higher order DNA structures. Close DNA-DNA interactions also provide the missing link between local interactions and DNA topology, thus explaining how type II DNA topoisomerases may sense locally the global topology. Finally this paper proposes that through its influence on DNA self-assembled structures, DNA chirality played a critical role during the early steps of evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2012)
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Open AccessArticle
Asymmetric Introgression in the Horticultural Living Fossil Cycas Sect. Asiorientales Using a Genome-Wide Scanning Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8228-8251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048228
Received: 23 December 2012 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2985 | PDF Full-text (2677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales [...] Read more.
The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
The Importance of the PI3K/AKT/MTOR Pathway in the Progression of Ovarian Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8213-8227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048213
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 5011 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of death due to cancer in women despite being the tenth in incidence. Unfortunately, the five-year survival rate is only 45%, which has not improved much in the past 30 years. Even though the majority [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of death due to cancer in women despite being the tenth in incidence. Unfortunately, the five-year survival rate is only 45%, which has not improved much in the past 30 years. Even though the majority of women have successful initial therapy, the low rate of survival is due to the eventual recurrence and succumbing to their disease. With the recent release of the Cancer Genome Atlas for ovarian cancer, it was shown that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was one of the most frequently mutated or altered pathways in patients’ tumors. Researching how the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway affects the progression and tumorigensis of ovarian cancer will hopefully lead to new therapies that will increase survival for women. This review focuses on recent research on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its role in the progression and tumorigensis of ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes and Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer)
Open AccessReview
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Response and Its Physiological Roles in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(4), 8188-8212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14048188
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5356 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a highly conserved mechanism that results from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER. The response plays an important role in allowing plants to sense and respond to adverse environmental conditions, such as [...] Read more.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a highly conserved mechanism that results from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER. The response plays an important role in allowing plants to sense and respond to adverse environmental conditions, such as heat stress, salt stress and pathogen infection. Since the ER is a well-controlled microenvironment for proper protein synthesis and folding, it is highly susceptible to stress conditions. Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins activates a signaling pathway, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which acts to relieve ER stress and, if unsuccessful, leads to cell death. Plants have two arms of the UPR signaling pathway, an arm involving the proteolytic processing of membrane-associated basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors and an arm involving RNA splicing factor, IRE1, and its mRNA target. These signaling pathways play an important role in determining the cell’s fate in response to stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Plants)
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