Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Roel Vermeulen
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Dr. Lauren Petrick
1. Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA
2. Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA

Environmental Exposure, Biomonitoring and Exposure Assessment

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 July 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 September 2023)
Viewed by
45774

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well-established that environmental exposures play an important role in the development of diseases such as cancer. However, individuals are exposed to complex mixtures of substances (e.g., chemicals, pollution, and diet) that change throughout a person’s life. Therefore, measuring these different exposures and investigating their association with disease is complicated, though necessary, as it forms the basis of individual risk assessment of the variety of environmental exposures. Biomonitoring, which is the quantitative measurement of environmental chemicals/pollutants in the human body, is used to evaluate an individual’s exposure. The appropriate utilization of biomonitoring provides information on occupational as well as non-occupational exposures. When the chemicals of interest are unknown, untargeted approaches, such as metabolomics, are used to generate semiquantitative measurements of internal exposures. These are complemented with environmental monitoring—performing external exposure measurements from lifestyle and unavoidable exposures which are mapped and quantified by wearable sensors and environmental samples. These techniques help identify unintentional and unexpected exposures, which are difficult to tease out using more conventional techniques such as exposure questionnaires. Once obtained, exposure data are compared to animal/human data to determine an individual’s risk of disease, are used to evaluate the effectiveness of policy actions, and are used to detect emerging contaminants. In this Topic, we invite authors to submit high-quality original research, reviews, short communications, and commentaries highlighighting research on the intersection between environmental exposures, biomonitoring, and the assessment of health risks.

Prof. Dr. Roel Vermeulen
Dr. Lauren Petrick
Dr. Maaike van Gerwen
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • exposure
  • risk assessment
  • biomonitoring
  • epidemiology
  • diseases

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 7.3 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500
Journal of Xenobiotics
jox
6.8 5.3 2011 21.7 Days CHF 1600
Pollutants
pollutants
- - 2021 21.7 Days CHF 1000
Toxics
toxics
3.9 4.5 2013 14.7 Days CHF 2600
Toxins
toxins
3.9 7.5 2009 18.4 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (24 papers)

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25 pages, 1896 KiB  
Article
Micronuclei, Pesticides, and Element Mixtures in Mining Contexts: The Hormetic Effect of Selenium
by Marcela E. Varona-Uribe, Sonia M. Díaz, Ruth-Marien Palma, Leonardo Briceño-Ayala, Carlos Trillos-Peña, Eliana M. Téllez-Avila, Lyda Espitia-Pérez, Karina Pastor-Sierra, Pedro Juan Espitia-Pérez and Alvaro J. Idrovo
Toxics 2023, 11(10), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11100821 - 29 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
The contexts where there are mining and agriculture activities are potential sources of risk to human health due to contamination by chemical mixtures. These contexts are frequent in several Colombian regions. This study explored the potential association between the frequency of micronuclei and [...] Read more.
The contexts where there are mining and agriculture activities are potential sources of risk to human health due to contamination by chemical mixtures. These contexts are frequent in several Colombian regions. This study explored the potential association between the frequency of micronuclei and pesticides and elements in regions with ferronickel (Montelibano, Córdoba) and gold (Nechí, Antioquia) mining, and a closed native mercury mine (Aranzazu, Caldas), with an emphasis in the potential effect of selenium as a potential chelator. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 247 individuals. Sociodemographic, occupational, and toxicological variables were ascertained. Blood and urine samples were taken for pesticide analysis (5 organophosphates, 4 organochlorines, and 3 carbamates), 68 elements were quantified in hair, and micronuclei were quantified in lymphocytes. The mixtures of elements were grouped through principal component analysis. Prevalence ratios were estimated with robust variance Poisson regressions to explore associations. Interactions of selenium with toxic elements were explored. The highest concentrations of elements were in the active mines. The potentially most toxic chemical mixture was observed in the ferronickel mine. Pesticides were detected in a low proportion of participants (<2.5%), except paraoxon-methyl in blood (27.55%) in Montelibano and paraoxon-ethyl in blood (18.81%) in Aranzazu. The frequency of micronuclei was similar in the three mining contexts, with means between 4 to 7 (p = 0.1298). There was great heterogeneity in the exposure to pesticides and elements. The “hormetic effect” of selenium was described, in which, at low doses, it acts as a chelator in Montelibano and Aranzazu, and at high doses, it can enhance the toxic effects of other elements, maybe as in Nechí. Selenium can serve as a protective agent, but it requires adaptation to the available concentrations in each region to avoid its toxic effects. Full article
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18 pages, 2323 KiB  
Article
The Burden of Air Pollution: A Perspective on Global Health Inequalities
by Agnieszka Jakubowska
Pollutants 2023, 3(3), 419-436; https://doi.org/10.3390/pollutants3030029 - 5 Sep 2023
Viewed by 3348
Abstract
The aim of the research presented here is to assess the magnitude of the burden of health limitations due to air pollution on the world’s economies. This burden was determined by the estimated number of premature years of life lost (YLLs) or years [...] Read more.
The aim of the research presented here is to assess the magnitude of the burden of health limitations due to air pollution on the world’s economies. This burden was determined by the estimated number of premature years of life lost (YLLs) or years of health lost (YLDs) due to air-pollution-related diseases in the working-age population. Attention was drawn to the problem of existing inequalities in the global burden between economies with different income levels. The hypothesis of persistently high levels of inequality was tested by analysing the convergence process in a group of 204 countries over the period 1990–2019. The results indicate a high degree of variation in the level of health problems caused by air pollution. The analysis of the catching-up process of the most disadvantaged countries (with the highest level of health impacts from air pollution) did not show a positive convergence effect in the study group. Full article
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13 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
B-Type Fumonisins in Post-Fermented Tea: Occurrence and Consumer Dietary Exposure in Guangxi, China
by Taotao Qiu, Jialin Zhu, Huayi Zhang, Biyun Xu, Yanju Guo, Jingrong Li, Xin Xu, Fenglin Peng, Weiguo Liu, Shengmei Zhao, Zuocheng Yin and Shihong Mao
Toxins 2023, 15(9), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15090534 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Post-fermented tea (PFT), a commonly consumed beverage worldwide, is characterized by the rapid growth of its microbial groups and the substantial changes they undergo. Consequently, PFT may contain mycotoxins such as B-type fumonisins (FBs). This study aimed to assess the intake of FBs [...] Read more.
Post-fermented tea (PFT), a commonly consumed beverage worldwide, is characterized by the rapid growth of its microbial groups and the substantial changes they undergo. Consequently, PFT may contain mycotoxins such as B-type fumonisins (FBs). This study aimed to assess the intake of FBs through the consumption of PFT among consumers in Guangxi, China. A novel quantitative method using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the FB concentration in PFT products. Additionally, a PFT consumption survey was conducted using a face-to-face questionnaire, recording their body weight and PFT consumption patterns based on a three-day dietary recall method. Finally, hazard index was calculated to estimate the health risk of FBs from the consumption of PFT products in Guangxi. The results revealed that the occurrence of FBs in PFT was 20% (24/120), with a concentration ranging from 2.14 to 18.28 μg/kg. The results of the survey showed that the average daily consumption of PFT by consumers was 9.19 ± 11.14 g. The deterministic risk assessment revealed that only 0.026% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of FBs was consumed through PFT, indicating that FB contamination in PFT is not a public health risk. Full article
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16 pages, 928 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Statistical Treatment of Left-Censored Contamination Data: Example Involving Deoxynivalenol Occurrence in Pasta and Pasta Substitute Products
by Alessandro Feraldi, Barbara De Santis, Marco Finocchietti, Francesca Debegnach, Antonio Mandile and Marco Alfò
Toxins 2023, 15(9), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15090521 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 916
Abstract
The handling of data on food contamination frequently represents a challenge because these are often left-censored, being composed of both positive and non-detected values. The latter observations are not quantified and provide only the information that they are below a laboratory-specific threshold value. [...] Read more.
The handling of data on food contamination frequently represents a challenge because these are often left-censored, being composed of both positive and non-detected values. The latter observations are not quantified and provide only the information that they are below a laboratory-specific threshold value. Besides deterministic approaches, which simplify the treatment through the substitution of non-detected values with fixed threshold or null values, a growing interest has been shown in the application of stochastic approaches to the treatment of unquantified values. In this study, a multiple imputation procedure was applied in order to analyze contamination data on deoxynivalenol, a mycotoxin that may be present in pasta and pasta substitute products. An application of the proposed technique to censored deoxynivalenol occurrence data is presented. The results were compared to those attained using deterministic techniques (substitution methods). In this context, the stochastic approach seemed to provide a more accurate, unbiased and realistic solution to the problem of left-censored occurrence data. The complete sample of values could then be used to estimate the exposure of the general population to deoxynivalenol based on consumption data. Full article
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14 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
Total Mercury Content in the Tissues of Freshwater Chelonium (Podocnemis expansa) and a Human Health Risk Assessment for the Amazon Population in Brazil
by Fábio Júnior Targino, Joanna Damazio de Nunes Ribeiro, Julia Siqueira Simões, Carla Silva Carneiro, Stella Maris Lazzarini, Aline Ramos Souza, Micheli da Silva Ferreira, Sergio Borges Mano and Eliane Teixeira Mársico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(15), 6489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20156489 - 1 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Researchers recognize the silent, negative and deleterious effects caused by mercury pollution in gold mining areas. Freshwater turtles are culturally part of the diet of riverside populations in the Amazon region and this area presents mercury (Hg) pollution issues mainly due to gold [...] Read more.
Researchers recognize the silent, negative and deleterious effects caused by mercury pollution in gold mining areas. Freshwater turtles are culturally part of the diet of riverside populations in the Amazon region and this area presents mercury (Hg) pollution issues mainly due to gold mining activities. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the total mercury (THg) content in the different organs of Amazonian giant river turtle (Podocnemis expansa) and carry out a human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of these animals. This study was conducted in the Vila Balbina, municipality of Presidente Figueiredo, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Skin (n = 28), muscle (n = 19) and brain (n = 2) samples were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (TDA-AAS) and a DMA-80™ mercury analyzer was used for the total mercury determinations. The average values found for THg in the skin, muscle and brain samples were, respectively, 0.1045 mg·kg−1, 0.1092 mg·kg−1 and 0.0601 mg·kg−1. Thus, THg was observed even though the P. expansa were kept in captivity, possibly due to previous contamination by air, water and food. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) was calculated considering a 9.07 g·day−1 intake dose of P. expansa and the consumption of turtles once a week showed an HQ = 2.45, which may cause long-term injuries to human health. Although the muscle concentrations were below the maximum limit established by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Brazilian regulatory agencies, it is important to evaluate consumption factors such as amount ingested, frequency and animal gender, which may cause a potential risk to regular consumers due to mercury bioaccumulation. The WHO may consider various aspects in order to warn the Amazon population about the severity and silent hazard of this metal, especially due to the importance of this matrix in the region. This region urgently needs government actions to inhibit clandestine mining and to prevent future serious, chronic health problems of the entire population. Full article
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13 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Air, Dermal, and Urinary Metabolite Levels of Backpack and Tractor Sprayers Using the Herbicide Acetochlor in Thailand
by Nichcha Kallayanatham, Sumate Pengpumkiat, Pornpimol Kongtip, Ritthirong Pundee, Noppanun Nankongnab, Amarin Kongtawelert and Susan R. Woskie
Toxics 2023, 11(7), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11070622 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Acetochlor is a chloroacetanilide selective pre-emergent herbicide used for controlling grass and broadleaf weeds in crops. This study compared the acetochlor exposures of backpack and tractor sprayers and assessed whether dermal or air exposures were more important contributors to the overall body burden [...] Read more.
Acetochlor is a chloroacetanilide selective pre-emergent herbicide used for controlling grass and broadleaf weeds in crops. This study compared the acetochlor exposures of backpack and tractor sprayers and assessed whether dermal or air exposures were more important contributors to the overall body burden as measured by urinary metabolites. Sixty sugarcane farmers in Nakhonsawan province, Thailand participated in the study, and breathing zone air and dermal patch samples were collected during spraying. Urine samples were collected before spraying, at the end of the spraying task, and on the day after spraying. For backpack and tractor sprayers, there was no significant difference in their breathing zone air concentrations, total body dermal samples, or urinary 2-methy-6-methyaniline (EMA) concentrations on the day after spraying. In addition, although most backpack and tractor sprayers wore long pants and long sleeve shirts, they were still exposed to acetochlor, as evidenced by a significant increase in the urinary EMA from before spraying (GM = 11.5 µg/g creatinine) to after spraying (GM = 88.5 µg/g creatinine) to the next day (GM = 111.0 µg/g creatinine). Breathing zone air samples were significantly correlated with those of total body dermal patch samples and with urinary EMA concentrations after spraying. This suggests that both air and dermal exposure contribute to urinary EMA levels. Full article
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17 pages, 1668 KiB  
Article
Mercury Intake Estimation in Adult Individuals from Trieste, Italy: Hair Mercury Assessment and Validation of a Newly Developed Food Frequency Questionnaire
by Andrea De Giovanni, Vincenzo Iannuzzi, Gianni Gallello, Cristina Giuliani, Mauro Marini, M. Luisa Cervera and Donata Luiselli
Pollutants 2023, 3(3), 320-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/pollutants3030022 - 5 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Seafood constitutes the primary source of exposure to the organic form of mercury in the general population, and the Trieste Gulf is considered a hotspot of mercury contamination. We used a newly developed quantitative food frequency questionnaire to obtain an estimation of the [...] Read more.
Seafood constitutes the primary source of exposure to the organic form of mercury in the general population, and the Trieste Gulf is considered a hotspot of mercury contamination. We used a newly developed quantitative food frequency questionnaire to obtain an estimation of the intake of mercury through seafood consumption in a sample of 32 individuals from Trieste. Then, we validated the results obtained from the questionnaire against those of the analysis of total mercury measured in the hair of the same individuals through Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Cohen’s weighted Kappa statistic, and a Bland–Altman plot. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient and Cohen’s weighted Kappa statistic were 0.76 and 0.69, respectively. In the Bland–Altman plot, 93.75% of the data points lay within the acceptability range. The plot revealed an ever-increasing overestimation of mercury intake by the questionnaires as the hair mercury increased. By applying a standardized filtering procedure to the results of the questionnaires, we obtained a Spearman rank correlation coefficient and Cohen’s weighted Kappa statistic of 0.69 and 0.57, respectively. In this Bland–Altman plot, 93.75% of the data points lay within the acceptability range. In this latter plot, the proportionality between the mean difference and the magnitude of the measurement was more subtle compared to that observed in the plot built upon the non-filtered questionnaires. This preliminary study shows the high accuracy of the reported questionnaire in the estimation of habitual mercury intake, similar to the one measured through the analysis of hair. Full article
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14 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
Urinary Cypermethrin Metabolites among Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand
by Atima Tremongkoltip, Sumate Pengpumkiat, Pornpimol Kongtip, Noppanun Nankongnab, Sukhontha Siri and Susan Woskie
Toxics 2023, 11(6), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11060507 - 5 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1415
Abstract
Cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, is frequently spread on agricultural farmlands and is also used in households in Thailand. Conventional pesticide-using farmers (n = 209) were recruited from the Phitsanulok and Nakornsawan provinces. Certified organic farmers (n = 224) were also recruited [...] Read more.
Cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, is frequently spread on agricultural farmlands and is also used in households in Thailand. Conventional pesticide-using farmers (n = 209) were recruited from the Phitsanulok and Nakornsawan provinces. Certified organic farmers (n = 224) were also recruited in the Yasothorn province. The farmers were interviewed via a questionnaire and the urine from their first morning void was collected. The urine samples were analyzed for 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA), and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA). The results showed no significant difference in the urinary cypermethrin metabolites between the conventional farmers and the organic farmers, for whom the usage of cypermethrin was not accounted for. However, when conventional farmers who used cypermethrin on the farm and in the home were compared with conventional farmers who did not use any cypermethrin or with organic farmers, a significant difference was noted for all metabolites except for trans-DCCA. These findings show that the most significant exposures to cypermethrin are among conventional farmers who use the insecticide on their farms or in their homes. However, measurable levels of all metabolites were found among both conventional and organic farmers who only used cypermethrin in the home or not at all, suggesting that the at-home use of pyrethroids and other possible exposures from pyrethroid residues on market-bought food may contribute to urinary levels of pyrethroids that exceed those of the general population in the US and Canada. Full article
17 pages, 3252 KiB  
Article
Spleen Toxicity of Organophosphorus Flame Retardant TDCPP in Mice and the Related Mechanisms
by Lanqin Cao, Lai Wei, Qiaoyun Du, Ying Su, Shuzi Ye and Kaihua Liu
Toxics 2023, 11(3), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11030231 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphorus flame retardant that has been utilized in recent years as a primary replacement for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a wide variety of fire-sensitive applications. However, the impact of TDCPP on the immune system has not been [...] Read more.
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphorus flame retardant that has been utilized in recent years as a primary replacement for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a wide variety of fire-sensitive applications. However, the impact of TDCPP on the immune system has not been fully determined. As the largest secondary immune organ in the body, the spleen is considered to be an important study endpoint for determining immune defects in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of TDCPP toxicity on the spleen and its possible molecular mechanisms. In this study, for 28 consecutive days, TDCPP was administered intragastrically (i.g), and we assessed the general condition of mice by evaluating their 24 h water and food intake. Pathological changes in spleen tissues were also evaluated at the end of the 28-day exposure. To measure the TDCPP-induced inflammatory response in the spleen and its consequences, the expression of the critical players in the NF-κB pathway and mitochondrial apoptosis were detected. Lastly, RNA-seq was performed to identify the crucial signaling pathways of TDCPP-induced splenic injury. The results showed that TDCPP intragastric exposure triggered an inflammatory response in the spleen, likely through activating the NF-κB/IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-1β pathway. TDCPP also led to mitochondrial-related apoptosis in the spleen. Further RNA-seq analysis suggested that the TDCPP-mediated immunosuppressive effect is associated with the inhibition of chemokines and the expression of their receptor genes in the cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction pathway, including four genes of the CC subfamily, four genes of the CXC subfamily, and one gene of the C subfamily. Taken together, the present study identifies the sub-chronic splenic toxicity of TDCPP and provides insights on the potential mechanisms of TDCPP-induced splenic injury and immune suppression. Full article
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15 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Accumulation of Metals in the Environment and Grazing Livestock near A Mongolian Mining Area
by Bayartogtokh Bataa, Kodai Motohira, Delgermurun Dugar, Tsend-Ayush Sainnokhoi, Lkhamjav Gendenpil, Tserenchimed Sainnokhoi, Bolormaa Pelden, Yared Beyene Yohannes, Sumiya Ganzorig, Shouta M. M. Nakayama, Mayumi Ishizuka and Yoshinori Ikenaka
Toxics 2022, 10(12), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10120773 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
The Mongolian economy is supported by rich deposits of natural resources, such as copper, coal, and gold. However, the risk of heavy metal pollution to livestock and human have been recently discussed. This research collected various samples from soil and animal (sheep, goat, [...] Read more.
The Mongolian economy is supported by rich deposits of natural resources, such as copper, coal, and gold. However, the risk of heavy metal pollution to livestock and human have been recently discussed. This research collected various samples from soil and animal (sheep, goat, horse, cow, and camel), blood and organs (kidney and liver) in the Mongolian countryside. These samples were processed, and the concentration of metals was quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). As previously reported, arsenic was found at high levels of accumulation in soil. Selenium is another concern, as median concentration in one area exceeded the maximum allowable level. Cadmium and selenium were found to be highly accumulated in animal kidney. This research revealed the current pollution level in Mongolia based on evaluation of soil and animals. The concentration in animals could not indicate that animals had severe effects because of heavy metal exposure. However, kidney is eaten in Mongolia, and so there is a direct connection to human health, and this research suggested the possible risks posed by each edible animal. In particular, evaluation of metals in livestock is rare in Mongolia. This result can contribute to animal and human health in Mongolian communities. Full article
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9 pages, 1988 KiB  
Article
The Impact Evaluation of Acid Mine Drainage on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Water Fleas (Daphnia magna) in the Vicinity of the Geum River Basin in Korea
by Hyojik Yoon and Jonghyun Yoon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 16470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192416470 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Heavy metals, such as copper, lead, and cadmium, carried by acid mine drainage are pollutants of the aquatic ecosystem, posing a significant health risk to the water resource for humans. Environmental technologies to reduce metal contamination are applied for post-mining prevention and improvement. [...] Read more.
Heavy metals, such as copper, lead, and cadmium, carried by acid mine drainage are pollutants of the aquatic ecosystem, posing a significant health risk to the water resource for humans. Environmental technologies to reduce metal contamination are applied for post-mining prevention and improvement. Despite detailed pollution management, water contaminated by heavy metals still flows into the natural water system. This study investigated the impact of drainage discharged from abandoned mines near the major river in South Korea on aquatic organisms. The toxicity of the field water showed a more significant effect than observed through the experiment for each heavy-metal concentration. Various toxic substances coexisted in the field water around the mine, such that the overall toxic intensity was high even when the concentration of each heavy metal was low. As a result, the inhibition of activity of aquatic organisms was observed at low individual concentrations, and further investigation on the effect of long-term exposure to trace amounts of heavy metals is required. Full article
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9 pages, 1184 KiB  
Article
Application of Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction (FPSE) Engaged to Tandem LC-MS/MS for Quantification of Brorphine in Oral Fluid
by Dimitra Florou, Thalia Vlachou, Vasilios Sakkas and Vassiliki Boumba
J. Xenobiot. 2022, 12(4), 356-364; https://doi.org/10.3390/jox12040025 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Brorphine (1-[1-[1-(4-bromophenyl) ethyl]-piperidin-4-yl]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzo [d]imidazol-2-one) is one of the most recent novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) on the novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) market, involved in over 100 deaths in 2020. Brorphine is a substituted piperidine-benzimidazolone analogue that retains structural similarities to fentanyl, acting as a [...] Read more.
Brorphine (1-[1-[1-(4-bromophenyl) ethyl]-piperidin-4-yl]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzo [d]imidazol-2-one) is one of the most recent novel synthetic opioids (NSOs) on the novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) market, involved in over 100 deaths in 2020. Brorphine is a substituted piperidine-benzimidazolone analogue that retains structural similarities to fentanyl, acting as a full agonist at the μ-opioid receptor. Oral Fluid (OF) is an alternative matrix, frequently analyzed for the detection of NPS. Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) is a superior, green-sample -preparation technology recently applied for drug analysis. This contribution presents the development and validation of a method, based on the application of FPSE and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to determine/quantitate brorphine in OF. The method’s linearity ranged between 0.05 and 50 ng/mL (R2 = 0.9993), the bias ranged between 12.0 and 16.8%, and inter- and intra-day precisions ranged between 6.4 and 9.9%. Accuracy and extraction efficiency lied between 65 and 75%. LOD/LOQ were 0.015 ng/mL/0.05 ng/mL. Analyte’s post-preparative stability was higher than 95%, while no matrix interferences and carryover between runs were observed. This is the first report introducing the application of FPSE for NPS determination, specifically, the quantification of brorphine in OF, thereby presenting a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, effective, and reliable procedure engaged to LC-MS/MS that is suitable for routine application and the analysis of more NPSs. Full article
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12 pages, 797 KiB  
Review
Xeno-Estrogenic Pesticides and the Risk of Related Human Cancers
by Vivek Kumar, Chandra Shekhar Yadav and Basu Dev Banerjee
J. Xenobiot. 2022, 12(4), 344-355; https://doi.org/10.3390/jox12040024 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4189
Abstract
In recent decades, “environmental xenobiotic-mediated endocrine disruption”, especially by xeno-estrogens, has gained a lot of interest from toxicologists and environmental researchers. These estrogen-mimicking chemicals are known to cause various human disorders. Pesticides are the most heavily used harmful xenobiotic chemicals around the world. [...] Read more.
In recent decades, “environmental xenobiotic-mediated endocrine disruption”, especially by xeno-estrogens, has gained a lot of interest from toxicologists and environmental researchers. These estrogen-mimicking chemicals are known to cause various human disorders. Pesticides are the most heavily used harmful xenobiotic chemicals around the world. The estrogen-mimicking potential of the most widely used organochlorine pesticides is well established. However, their effect is not as clearly understood among the plethora of effects these persistent xenobiotics are known to pose on our physiological system. Estrogens are one of the principal risk modifiers of various disorders, including cancer, not only in women but in men as well. Despite the ban on these xenobiotics in some parts of the world, humans are still at apparent risk of exposure to these harmful chemicals as they are still widely persistent and likely to stay in our environment for a long time owing to their high chemical stability. The present work intends to understand how these harmful chemicals may affect the risk of the development of estrogen-mediated human cancer. Full article
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15 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Diurnal Nonlinear Recurrence Metrics of Skin Temperature and Their Association with Metabolic Hormones in Contrasting Climate Settings: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial
by Konstantinos C. Makris, Pantelis Charisiadis, Thibaut Delplancke, Nikolaos Efthymiou and Alessandro Giuliani
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(22), 15195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192215195 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
The urban overheating phenomenon in Mediterranean cities is a societal challenge with vast implications for the protection of public health. An additional analysis of the pilot TEMP randomized 2 × 2 cross-over trial was set up, using wearable sensor-based skin temperature measurements (n [...] Read more.
The urban overheating phenomenon in Mediterranean cities is a societal challenge with vast implications for the protection of public health. An additional analysis of the pilot TEMP randomized 2 × 2 cross-over trial was set up, using wearable sensor-based skin temperature measurements (n = 14). The study objectives were to: (i) assess the recurrence patterns of skin temperature measurements in individuals spending time in two climatologically contrasting settings (urban versus mountainous), and (ii) evaluate the association between the diurnal nonlinear recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) metrics and metabolic hormone levels. The intervention was a short-term stay (5–7 days) in a mountainous, climate-cooler setting (range 600–900 m altitude), which is about a 1 h drive from the main urban centres of Cyprus. The RQA analysis showed a blunting phenomenon on the nonlinear temporal dynamics of skin temperature time series observed in the urban setting. Compared with the mountainous setting, a more stable (and thus less adaptive) profile of skin temperature dynamics in the urban setting appeared, being less deterministic and with a smaller degree of complexity. No significant (p > 0.05) associations were observed between the leptin or cortisol and any of the skin temperature dynamical descriptors. However, there were marginal associations between the adiponectin and laminarity (beta = 0.24, 95%CI: −0.02, 0.50, p = 0.07) and with determinism (beta = 0.23, 95%CI: −0.037, 0.50, p = 0.09). We found dysregulations in skin temperature temporal dynamics of the study population while residing in the urban setting when compared with the cooler mountainous setting; these dysregulations took the form of reduced cycle duration and complexity, while skin temperature dynamics became less responsive to perturbations and less regular in magnitude. More research is needed to better understand heat stress temporal dynamics and their influence on human health. Trial registration: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov; number: NCT03625817. Full article
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15 pages, 2479 KiB  
Article
Determination of 19 Steroid Hormones in Human Serum and Urine Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
by Zhong-Min Li and Kurunthachalam Kannan
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110687 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3413
Abstract
This paper describes a methodology for simultaneous determination of 19 steroid hormones, viz. estrone, estradiol, estriol, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, pregnenolone, 17α-OH-progesterone, 17α-OH-pregnenolone, cortisone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, and corticosterone, in 500-µL of urine or serum/plasma. The method was [...] Read more.
This paper describes a methodology for simultaneous determination of 19 steroid hormones, viz. estrone, estradiol, estriol, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, pregnenolone, 17α-OH-progesterone, 17α-OH-pregnenolone, cortisone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, and corticosterone, in 500-µL of urine or serum/plasma. The method was optimized using isotopically labeled internal standards and liquid-liquid extraction followed by detection using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Dansylation of estrogens significantly improved their sensitivities (~11- to 23-fold) and chromatographic separation. The respective limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of all analytes were 0.04–0.28 and 0.14–0.92 ng/mL in human urine, and 0.11–0.35 and 0.38–1.18 ng/mL in human serum/plasma. Recoveries of all analytes (except for progesterone) fortified at 10, 20, and 200 ng/mL in urine and serum were 80–120%, with standard deviations ranging from 0 to 17.3%. Repeated analysis of similarly fortified urine and serum samples yielded intra-day and inter-day variations of 0–21.7% and 0.16–11.5%, respectively. All analytes except cortisone exhibited weak matrix effects in urine and serum (−13.9–18.2%). The method was further validated through the analysis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) plasma Standard Reference Material (SRM1950) with certified concentrations for cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone (coefficient of variation: 3–11%). The developed method was applied in the analysis of urine samples from 20 volunteers, which revealed the occurrence of 16 analytes with detection frequencies (DFs) > 80%. Furthermore, 15 analytes were found in plasma SRM1950, indicating the feasibility of our method in the analysis of steroid hormones in urine and serum/plasma. This method will facilitate analysis of steroid hormones in population-based biomonitoring studies. Full article
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13 pages, 1300 KiB  
Article
Genotoxic Biomonitoring in Children Living near the El Fraile Mine Tailings in Northern Guerrero State, Mexico
by María Elena Calderon-Segura, Alejandro Ramírez-Guzmán, Oscar Talavera-Mendoza, Yolanda Carbajal-López, María del Carmen Martínez-Valenzuela, Martha Elena Mora-Herrera, Liliana Salinas-Alcántara and Patricia Hurtado-Brito
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110674 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
A genotoxic study was conducted with 101 elementary school children (56 girls and 45 boys) in the 6–7, 8–9, and 10–12 age ranges from El Fraile rural community, which is located beside the El Fraile mine tailings in Taxco of Alarcon City, in [...] Read more.
A genotoxic study was conducted with 101 elementary school children (56 girls and 45 boys) in the 6–7, 8–9, and 10–12 age ranges from El Fraile rural community, which is located beside the El Fraile mine tailings in Taxco of Alarcon City, in northern Guerrero State, Mexico. For this, we used the alkaline comet assay in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, scoring three genotoxic parameters: tail intensity, tail moment, and tail length. Additionally, we detected oxidative DNA damage through urinary 8-OHdG levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also evaluated a control group consisting of 101 children in the same age ranges from Chilpancingo City, Guerrero, who had never lived near mining zones. Genotoxic results showed that there was a significant increase in three genotoxic parameters and urinary 8-OHdG levels in the exposed children group compared with the control group. Analysis of MANOVA revealed that boys aged 8 and 9 years had higher DNA damage than girls from the same exposure group, and Spearman’s analysis identified a positive correlation between DNA damage and sex and age. This study provides the first valuable genotoxic data in children living in areas with environmental pollution. Full article
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13 pages, 3273 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Concentrations of Oil Mist Particulate Matter on Pulmonary Fibrosis In Vivo and In Vitro
by Huipeng Nie, Huanliang Liu, Yue Shi, Wenqing Lai, Xuan Liu, Zhuge Xi and Bencheng Lin
Toxics 2022, 10(11), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10110647 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Oil-mist particulate matter (OMPM) refers to oily particles with a small aerodynamic equivalent diameter in ambient air. Since the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) has not been fully elucidated, this study aims to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of the adverse effects of [...] Read more.
Oil-mist particulate matter (OMPM) refers to oily particles with a small aerodynamic equivalent diameter in ambient air. Since the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis (PF) has not been fully elucidated, this study aims to explore the potential molecular mechanisms of the adverse effects of exposure to OMPM at different concentrations in vivo and in vitro on PF. In this study, rats and cell lines were treated with different concentrations of OMPM in vivo and in vitro. Sirius Red staining analysis shows that OMPM exposure could cause pulmonary lesions and fibrosis symptoms. The expression of TGF-β1, α-SMA, and collagen I was increased in the lung tissue of rats. The activities of MMP2 and TIMP1 were unbalanced, and increased N-Cadherin and decreased E-Cadherin upon OMPM exposure in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, OMPM exposure could activate the TGF-β1/Smad3 and TGF-β1/MAPK p38 signaling pathways, and the differentiation of human lung fibroblast HFL-1 cells. Therefore, OMPM exposure could induce PF by targeting the lung epithelium and fibroblasts, and activating the TGF-β1/Smad3 and TGF-β1/MAPK p38 signaling pathways. Full article
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9 pages, 537 KiB  
Article
Vulnerable Factors Affecting Urinary N-Methylformamide Concentration among Migrant Workers in Manufacturing Industries in Comparison with Native Workers in the Republic of Korea (2012–2019)
by Kyung-Eun Lee, Kayoung Park, Dong Joon Park and Sungkyun Park
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013450 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Background: Occupational studies on N-N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure among migrant workers in Korea are scarce. We determined the urine concentration of N-methylformamide (NMF) among migrant workers with DMF exposure and compared the data with those of native workers. Methods: Data were collected from Workers’ [...] Read more.
Background: Occupational studies on N-N-dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure among migrant workers in Korea are scarce. We determined the urine concentration of N-methylformamide (NMF) among migrant workers with DMF exposure and compared the data with those of native workers. Methods: Data were collected from Workers’ Special Health Examination and Work Environment Monitoring databases during 2014–2019. Workers aged ≥20 years were eligible to participate in the special health examination for DMF exposure. Urine concentrations of NMF were determined and compared between migrant and native workers. We also evaluated the factors affecting the difference in the urine concentration of NMF between the migrant and native workers. Multiple logistic regression was performed by adding confounders step by step. Results: Among 9259 subjects, 504 (5.2%) were migrant workers. The mean urinary concentration of NMF was 6.73 mg/L in migrant workers, which was significantly higher than that in native workers (2.06 mg/L, p < 0.001). The odds of a urine concentration of NMF > 30 mg/L were significantly higher in migrant workers than in native workers after adjusting for sex and age (odds ratio [OR] = 7.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.66–11.45). However, the odds between the native and migrant workers were not significantly different when fully adjusted for confounders (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.65–1.94). Conclusions: The excessive exposure to DMF among migrant workers was attributed not to differences in biological characteristics but to their work environment. Workers must have awareness of the use of protective equipment and knowledge of hazardous chemicals that they may be exposed to, especially at the workplace. Full article
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12 pages, 1064 KiB  
Article
Cleaning the Flue in Wood-Burning Stoves Is a Key Factor in Reducing Household Air Pollution
by Mizanur Rahman, Hans Petersen, Hammad Irshad, Congjian Liu, Jacob McDonald, Akshay Sood, Paula M. Meek and Yohannes Tesfaigzi
Toxics 2022, 10(10), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10100615 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
In experimental settings, replacing old wood stoves with new wood stoves results in reduced personal exposure to household air pollution. We tested this assumption by measuring PM2.5 and levoglucosan concentrations inside homes and correlated them with wood stove age. Methods: Thirty homes [...] Read more.
In experimental settings, replacing old wood stoves with new wood stoves results in reduced personal exposure to household air pollution. We tested this assumption by measuring PM2.5 and levoglucosan concentrations inside homes and correlated them with wood stove age. Methods: Thirty homes in the Albuquerque, NM area were monitored over a seven-day period using in-home particulate monitors placed in a common living area during the winter months. Real-time aerosol monitoring was performed, and filter samples were analyzed gravimetrically to calculate PM2.5 concentrations and chemically to determine concentrations of levoglucosan. A linear regression model with backward stepwise elimination was performed to determine the factors that would predict household air pollution measures. Results: In this sample, 73.3% of the households used wood as their primary source of heating, and 60% burned daily or almost daily. The mean burn time over the test week was 50 ± 38 h, and only one household burned wood 24/day (168 h). The average PM2.5 concentration (standard deviation) for the 30 homes during the seven-day period was 34.6 µg/m3 (41.3 µg/m3), and median (min, max) values were 15.5 µg/m3 (7.3 µg/m3, 193 µg/m3). Average PM2.5 concentrations in 30 homes ranged from 0–15 μg/m3 to >100 μg/m3. Maximum PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 100–200 μg/m3 to >3000 μg/m3. The levoglucosan levels showed a linear correlation with the total PM2.5 collected by the filters (R2 = 0.92). However, neither mean nor peak PM2.5 nor levoglucosan levels were correlated with the age (10.85 ± 8.54 years) of the wood stove (R2 ≤ 0.07, p > 0.23). The final adjusted linear regression model showed that average PM2.5 was associated with reports of cleaning the flue with a beta estimate of 35.56 (3.47–67.65) and R2 = 0.16 (p = 0.04). Discussion: Cleaning the flue and not the wood stove age was associated with household air pollution indices. Education on wood stove maintenance and safe burning practices may be more important in reducing household air pollution than the purchase of new stoves. Full article
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10 pages, 865 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Lindane Use and the Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in the United States: An Ecological Study
by Mathilda Alsen, Vikram Vasan, Eric M. Genden, Catherine Sinclair and Maaike van Gerwen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013158 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
The increasing rate of thyroid cancer may be attributable to endocrine disruptive chemicals. Lindane is a persistent organochlorine pesticide with endocrine disruptive properties that has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this ecological study was to evaluate potential correlation between [...] Read more.
The increasing rate of thyroid cancer may be attributable to endocrine disruptive chemicals. Lindane is a persistent organochlorine pesticide with endocrine disruptive properties that has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this ecological study was to evaluate potential correlation between lindane exposure and thyroid cancer incidence in the United States (US). Data on statewide age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rate (per 100,000 people) was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for all US states for 2019. Lindane use estimates per cropland (kg/acres cropland) were then overlaid on the map of age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rate using ArcGIS. The trend of lindane use in the US between 1992 and 2007 was calculated using the Mann Kendall correlation test. The correlation between statewide lindane use and age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rates was calculated using Spearman correlation. Lindane use in the US decreased significantly between 1992 and 2007 (T = −0.617; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant correlation between lindane use in 1992 and thyroid cancer incidence rate for any of the years between 1999 and 2019. Our results suggest that restrictions clearly seem to be effective in reducing lindane use, however, more research is needed for individual pesticides and thyroid cancer. Full article
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16 pages, 2407 KiB  
Article
An Advanced Tape-Stripping Approach for High-Efficiency Sampling on Non-Absorbent Surfaces
by Pengcheng Zhao, Pak-To Chan, Nan Zhang and Yuguo Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912571 - 1 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
Surface sampling is a frequent task in laboratory work and field studies. Simple methods usually have low efficiency in collecting target substances from surfaces. This study developed an advanced tape-stripping approach for efficient sampling on non-absorbent surfaces. A film-forming solution, prepared using polyvinyl [...] Read more.
Surface sampling is a frequent task in laboratory work and field studies. Simple methods usually have low efficiency in collecting target substances from surfaces. This study developed an advanced tape-stripping approach for efficient sampling on non-absorbent surfaces. A film-forming solution, prepared using polyvinyl alcohol, is applied to the target surface, where it covers and engulfs the surface deposits and then solidifies into an elastic membrane as it is exposed to air. The deposits are collected by stripping off the membrane and re-dissolving it in water. This new approach exhibited an efficiency of 100% in collecting uniform-size microspheres from glass surfaces and extremely high efficiencies (>96.6%) in detecting selected target DNA materials from glass and stainless steel surfaces. In comparison, the common swab-rinse method exhibited an efficiency of 72.6% under similar measuring conditions. The viability of S. aureus during sampling using the new approach decreased as the ethanol concentration in the applied solution increased. Using a solution with a mass ratio of ethanol of 17.6% balanced the effects of multiplication and degradation of the S. aureus on glass surfaces during sampling. Overall, the proposed approach exhibits high efficiency in collecting living and abiotic matter from non-absorbent surfaces, complementing existing sampling methods. Full article
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20 pages, 1156 KiB  
Article
Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Different Work Environments: Comparison between LC-UV/DAD and LC–MS/MS Detection Methods
by Federica Castellani, Arianna Antonucci, Ivano Pindinello, Carmela Protano and Matteo Vitali
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12052; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912052 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
There were two analytical methods for the determination of 12 carbonyl compounds (CCs) by using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and diode array detector (UV/DAD) that were developed and applied to 52 samples that were collected in 10 workplaces. Linearity [...] Read more.
There were two analytical methods for the determination of 12 carbonyl compounds (CCs) by using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and diode array detector (UV/DAD) that were developed and applied to 52 samples that were collected in 10 workplaces. Linearity (0.996 < R2 < 0.999), intra-day repeatability (0.7 < RSD% < 10), and inter-day repeatability (5 < RSD% < 16) were acceptable for both techniques, but the highest sensibility of the MS/MS method allowed us to correctly quantify 98% of the samples (versus 32% by UV/DAD). The comparison of the concentrations that were obtained by quantifying the same sample with both techniques showed good agreement for acetaldehyde and formaldehyde (0.1 < % deviation < 30) but much higher for the less abundant congeners. In real samples, formaldehyde was the most abundant congener (concentrations between 2.7 and 77 µg m−3), followed by acetaldehyde (concentrations between 1.5 and 79 µg m−3) and butyraldehyde (concentrations between 0.4 and 13 µg m−3). In all the beauty salon samples, instead, the most abundant congener was acetaldehyde (concentrations between 19 and 79 µg m−3), probably associated with the use of beauty products. Principal components analysis (PCA) confirms the ubiquitous character of formaldehyde and highlights the influence of minority CCs on different workplaces. Full article
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12 pages, 2313 KiB  
Article
DNA Barcoding of Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Large Rivers in South Korea to Facilitate Freshwater Biomonitoring and Public Health Surveillance
by Hyo Jeong Kang, Min Jeong Baek, Ji Hyoun Kang and Yeon Jae Bae
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912035 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Chironomid larvae are among the dominant benthic macroinvertebrates in all types of water systems in South Korea. They may pass through pipes in rivers (raw water) and occur in drinking water, thus creating public health issues. However, little is known about the larval [...] Read more.
Chironomid larvae are among the dominant benthic macroinvertebrates in all types of water systems in South Korea. They may pass through pipes in rivers (raw water) and occur in drinking water, thus creating public health issues. However, little is known about the larval stages of chironomids in large South Korean rivers. Therefore, we examined larval–adult associations in chironomids inhabiting major rivers used as water sources. The larvae were collected in 2015 and 2016 from nine locations along the four largest rivers in South Korea using a Ponar grab. Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences were generated from the larval specimens, and the species were identified by comparing these sequences to those in a newly constructed DNA barcode library of Chironomidae in South Korea. The samples from the four rivers yielded 61 mitochondrial COI sequences belonging to 18 species, including Hydrobaenus kondoi Saether, 1989, which was reported for the first time in the Korean Peninsula. Further, morphological identification of the larvae was conducted, and a pictorial taxonomic key to Chironomidae species in large rivers in South Korea was developed to facilitate freshwater biomonitoring research. Finally, an action flow chart was created for the rapid identification of chironomid larvae in infested drinking water or water purification facilities. Full article
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35 pages, 1242 KiB  
Review
Forty-Year Biomonitoring of Environmental Contaminants in Russian Arctic: Progress, Gaps and Perspectives
by Alexey A. Dudarev and Jon Oeyvind Odland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 11951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191911951 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
This article presents a comprehensive survey of the studies on the biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in biota and human tissues on the territory of the Russian Arctic. It is concluded that a relatively small number of studies were carried [...] Read more.
This article presents a comprehensive survey of the studies on the biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in biota and human tissues on the territory of the Russian Arctic. It is concluded that a relatively small number of studies were carried out during the last 40 years; for several Russian Arctic regions there is no data up to date, and for some regions the data are scarce, with most of the studies carried out in 1990s, followed by the large-scale GEF/AMAP/RAIPON project of 2001–2004 covering four regions. After that, single projects have been implemented in a few regions. Only the Nenets okrug and the Chukotka okrug (and hardly the Murmansk oblast) can be attributed as the regions where the biomonitoring of contaminants was carried out during last decades on several occasions, and for which the content of POPs and metals in biota and the human organism was assessed in 12–15-year dynamic trends (at least “at three points”). For the rest of the Russian Arctic territories, only fragmentary “cross-sections” of biomonitoring data is available, mainly obtained in the 1990s or early 2000s, which do not allow judging either the dynamics of the processes or the current state of affairs. The overwhelming majority of the studies in the Russian Arctic (more than 90%) were carried out within the framework of international projects, i.e., with cofinancing, assistance and contribution (including laboratory analyses) from the foreign colleagues and partners. The shortcomings of the Russian system of biomonitoring, including the weakness of the laboratory and research base, are considered. Perspectives of the Russian Arctic biomonitoring are discussed in detail, with the proposal of the elaboration of the national Russian Arctic Contaminants Program (RACP). Full article
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