Topic Editors

Department of Animal Breeding and Product Quality Assesment, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Poznan University of Life Science, Złotniki, ul. Słoneczna 1, 62-002 Suchy Las, Poland
Prof. Dr. Jan Pikul
Department of Dairy and Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznań University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 31/33, 60-624 Poznań, Poland
Dr. Maria Markiewicz-Kęszycka
School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland

Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products

Abstract submission deadline
20 October 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
20 December 2024
Viewed by
12585

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The total animal-derived milk production worldwide in 2020 was 886.9 million tonnes, of which cow milk accounted for approximately 81%. The most popular non-cow milk (NCM) was buffalo milk, accounting for 15.2% of global milk production. Other non-cow species, such as goats, sheep and camels, accounted for a much smaller share of global milk production: 2.3%, 1.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Milk from small ruminants and camels, which accounts for less than 5% of global milk production, is important for the economies of the Mediterranean and Southeast Asian countries. Non-cow milk derived from other animals, such as reindeer, donkey, mare, yak and llama, is not commonly consumed but is of great cultural importance in local communities.

Interest in animal-derived NCM and products is growing, among other reasons, due to the exceptional taste, good nutritional and pro-health values and low allergenicity compared to cow milk (also providing potential applications in infant formula). However, current information on unique aspects of non-cow milk and products in terms of biologically active compounds that support health is still scarce.

For this reason, we propose the topic of “Advances in Animal-Derived Non-cow Milk and Milk Products” and welcome original research and review article submissions from scholars.

The contents that can be covered in this Topic include, but are not limited to: 

  • The social, economic, and environmental aspects of the production and distribution of non-cow milk and milk products;
  • Current problems of NCM production, milking, raw milk microbial quality and animal health and welfare;
  • The safety of non-cow milk;
  • The composition and properties of NCMs and their products;
  • Flavour and sensory characteristics;
  • Consumer acceptance and preference for NCM in selected countries;
  • Innovative functional NCM products from various mammal species;
  • Health aspects of non-cow milk;
  • Potential applications of NCM in infant nutrition.

Prof. Dr. Jacek Antoni Wójtowski
Prof. Dr. Jan Pikul
Dr. Maria Markiewicz-Kęszycka
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • non-cow milk
  • non-cow milk products
  • milk quality
  • milk distribution
  • biologically active compounds
  • sensory assessment
  • consumer acceptance
  • allergenicity
  • infant formula
  • functional milk products

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.6 3.6 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Animals
animals
3.0 4.2 2011 18.1 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Dairy
dairy
- 2.4 2020 24.6 Days CHF 1200 Submit
Foods
foods
5.2 5.8 2012 13.1 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900 Submit

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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17 pages, 3522 KiB  
Article
Preventative Effects of Milk Fat Globule Membrane Ingredients on DSS-Induced Mucosal Injury in Intestinal Epithelial Cells
by Erica Kosmerl, Celeste Miller and Rafael Jiménez-Flores
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16070954 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 675
Abstract
The goblet cells of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) produce glycoproteins called mucins that form a protective barrier from digestive contents and external stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and its milk phospholipid component (MPL) can benefit the GIT [...] Read more.
The goblet cells of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) produce glycoproteins called mucins that form a protective barrier from digestive contents and external stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and its milk phospholipid component (MPL) can benefit the GIT through improving barrier function. Our objective was to compare the effects of two digested MFGM ingredients with or without dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced barrier stress on mucin proteins. Co-cultured Caco-2/HT29-MTX intestinal cells were treated with in vitro digests of 2%, 5%, and 10% (w/v) MFGM or MPL alone for 6 h or followed by challenge with 2.5% DSS (6 h). Transepithelial electrical resistance and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD4) permeability measurements were used to measure changes in barrier integrity. Mucin characterization was performed using a combination of slot blotting techniques for secreted (MUC5AC, MUC2) and transmembrane (MUC3A, MUC1) mucins, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and periodic acid Schiff (PAS)/Alcian blue staining. Digested MFGM and MPL prevented a DSS-induced reduction in secreted mucins, which corresponded to the prevention of DSS-induced increases in FD4 permeability. SEM and PAS/Alcian blue staining showed similar visual trends for secreted mucin production. A predictive bioinformatic approach was also used to identify potential KEGG pathways involved in MFGM-mediated mucosal maintenance under colitis conditions. This preliminary in silico evidence, combined with our in vitro findings, suggests the role of MFGM in inducing repair and maintenance of the mucosal barrier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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12 pages, 1516 KiB  
Article
Particles in Raw Sheep Milk Can Modulate the Inflammatory Response in THP-1, a Human Monocyte Cell Line, In Vitro
by Bigboy Simbi, Ryan C. Pink, Louise Whatford and Charlotte Lawson
Dairy 2024, 5(1), 161-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy5010013 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 985
Abstract
Background: The UK dairy sheep industry is relatively small but growing, particularly for cheese and yogurt products. Anecdotally, sheep milk (SM) may be better tolerated by humans than cows’ milk and could have environmental as well as health benefits. All milk contains sub-micron [...] Read more.
Background: The UK dairy sheep industry is relatively small but growing, particularly for cheese and yogurt products. Anecdotally, sheep milk (SM) may be better tolerated by humans than cows’ milk and could have environmental as well as health benefits. All milk contains sub-micron particles called extracellular vesicles (EVs) which are mainly derived from the mammary epithelium. Physiologically, milk-derived EVs are thought to aid in the development of infant immunity and the microbiome, but may also have health benefits to adult humans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EVs could be isolated from raw sheep milk and whether they have any effect on inflammatory responses in THP-1, a human monocyte cell line, in vitro. Methods: Using sequential ultracentrifugation, vesicles of <1 µm (LEV) followed by <200 nm (sEVs) were isolated from six individual sheep during mid-lactation. RNA was extracted and microRNA analyzed by RTqPCR for sequences previously identified in cows’ milk. Human THP-1 monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and incubated with SM-derived LEVs and sEVs in the presence of pro-inflammatory LPS to measure the effects on the secretion of the chemokine CCL-2 or in the presence of DMNQ and fluorescent dihydrorhodamine-1,2,3 to measure reactive oxygen species. Results: LEVs induced an increase in ROS in both monocytes and macrophages, whilst sEVs decreased DMNQ-mediated ROS in macrophages but not monocytes. Interestingly, the LEVs did not induce CCL2 release; however, they increased LPS-induced CCL2 secretion in monocytes but not macrophages. miR26a, miR92a, miR125b, miR155 and miR223 were identified in both sEVs and LEVs by RT-qPCR and could be responsible for the modulation of ROS and CCL2 expression. Conclusions: These findings suggest that like cows’ milk, sheep milk contains EVs, and they can influence human monocyte/macrophage responses, and so is worthy of further investigation for its potential human- and non-human-animal health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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14 pages, 1856 KiB  
Article
Identification of Milk Adulteration in Camel Milk Using FT-Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning Models
by Zhiqiu Yao, Xinxin Zhang, Pei Nie, Haimiao Lv, Ying Yang, Wenna Zou and Liguo Yang
Foods 2023, 12(24), 4517; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12244517 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
Camel milk, esteemed for its high nutritional value, has long been a subject of interest. However, the adulteration of camel milk with cow milk poses a significant threat to food quality and safety. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) has emerged as a rapid method [...] Read more.
Camel milk, esteemed for its high nutritional value, has long been a subject of interest. However, the adulteration of camel milk with cow milk poses a significant threat to food quality and safety. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) has emerged as a rapid method for the detection and quantification of cow milk adulteration. Nevertheless, its effectiveness in conveniently detecting adulteration in camel milk remains to be determined. Camel milk samples were collected from Alxa League, Inner Mongolia, China, and were supplemented with varying concentrations of cow milk samples. Spectra were acquired using the FOSS FT6000 spectrometer, and a diverse set of machine learning models was employed to detect cow milk adulteration in camel milk. Our results demonstrate that the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model effectively distinguishes pure camel milk from adulterated samples, maintaining a 100% detection rate even at cow milk addition levels of 10 g/100 g. The neural network quantitative model for cow milk adulteration in camel milk exhibited a detection limit of 3.27 g/100 g and a quantification limit of 10.90 g/100 g. The quantitative model demonstrated excellent precision and accuracy within the range of 10–90 g/100 g of adulteration. This study highlights the potential of FT-MIR spectroscopy in conjunction with machine learning techniques for ensuring the authenticity and quality of camel milk, thus addressing concerns related to food integrity and consumer safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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15 pages, 4983 KiB  
Article
Microbial Quality of Donkey Milk during Lactation Stages
by Miaomiao Zhou, Fei Huang, Xinyi Du, Changfa Wang and Guiqin Liu
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4272; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234272 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
The microbial community in donkey milk and its impact on the nutritional value of donkey milk are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of different lactation stages on the composition and function of donkey milk microbiota. The milk samples were collected at 1, [...] Read more.
The microbial community in donkey milk and its impact on the nutritional value of donkey milk are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of different lactation stages on the composition and function of donkey milk microbiota. The milk samples were collected at 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days post-delivery. The result showed that the microbial composition and functions in donkey milk were significantly affected by different lactation stages. The dominant bacterial phyla in donkey milk are Proteobacteria (60%) and Firmicutes (22%). Ralstonia (39%), Pseudomonas (4%), and Acinetobacter (2%) were the predominant bacterial genera detected in all milk samples. In the mature milk, the abundance of lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus (7%) was higher. Chloroplast (5%) and Rothia (3%) were more plentiful in milk samples from middle and later lactation stages (90–180 d). Furthermore, the pathogens Escherichia-Shigella and Staphylococcus and thermoduric bacteria Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, and Microbacterium were also detected. Donkey milk is rich in beneficial bacteria and also poses a potential health risk. The above findings have improved our understanding of the composition and function changes of donkey milk microbiota, which is beneficial for the rational utilization of donkey milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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13 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Polymorphisms at Candidate Genes for Fat Content and Fatty Acids Composition: Effects on Sheep Milk Production and Fatty Acid Profile Using Two Dietary Supplementations
by Serena Tumino, Matteo Bognanno, Giorgio Chessari, Marco Tolone, Salvatore Bordonaro, Fabrizio Mangano, Donata Marletta and Marcella Avondo
Animals 2023, 13(15), 2533; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13152533 - 6 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1278
Abstract
The nutritional value of sheep’s milk and its derivatives is influenced by the lipid fraction, which is affected by diet and genetics. This study aimed to explore the genetic variations in the DGAT1 and SCD genes and assessed the impact of the DGAT1 [...] Read more.
The nutritional value of sheep’s milk and its derivatives is influenced by the lipid fraction, which is affected by diet and genetics. This study aimed to explore the genetic variations in the DGAT1 and SCD genes and assessed the impact of the DGAT1 genotype on milk quality in Valle del Belìce sheep, considering diet supplementation with carob pulp and barley grain. Among the potentially polymorphic sites, only DGAT1 g.127 C > A and SCD g.87 C > A showed variability. The DGAT1 genotype did not significantly impact milk yield and composition, except for higher urea content in the CA genotypes than in the CC ones. Carob pulp increased the milk fat content compared to barley grain. Genetic variation in DGAT1 was associated with changes in the milk fatty acid profile; specifically, the CA genotype exhibited higher levels of short-chain fatty acids and lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to the CC genotype. Carob pulp supplementation increased saturated fatty acids and reduced unsaturated fractions, leading to milk with higher atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. No significant interaction was found between genotype and diet. This study provides insights into the genetic and dietary factors influencing sheep’s milk composition. Further research is needed to understand the impact of these genetic variations on milk production and composition, as well as to determine optimal levels of carob pulp for improving fat percentage and promoting sustainable sheep breeding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
21 pages, 4571 KiB  
Article
Effect of Herbal Feed Additives on Goat Milk Volatile Flavor Compounds
by Jacek Antoni Wójtowski, Małgorzata Majcher, Romualda Danków, Jan Pikul, Przemysław Mikołajczak, Marta Molińska-Glura, Joanna Foksowicz-Flaczyk, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Zdzisław Łowicki, Karolina Zajączek, Grażyna Czyżak-Runowska, Maria Markiewicz-Kęszycka and Daniel Stanisławski
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152963 - 5 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1427
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of herbal supplements administered to goats on sensory quality and volatile flavor compounds in their milk. The experiment was conducted on sixty Polish white improved goats randomly allocated into five feeding groups (four [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of herbal supplements administered to goats on sensory quality and volatile flavor compounds in their milk. The experiment was conducted on sixty Polish white improved goats randomly allocated into five feeding groups (four experimental and one control) of twelve goats each. The trial lasted 12 weeks. The experimental animals received supplements containing a mixture of seven or nine different species of herbs at 20 or 40 g/animal/day. The control group received feed without any herbal supplements. Milk obtained from experimental and control groups of animals was characterized by a low content of aroma compounds, with only 11 chemical compounds being identified. Decanoic methyl ester, methylo 2-heptanone and methylo-butanoic methyl ester had the highest share in the total variability of the tested aroma compounds (PCA). During the sensory evaluation, the smell and taste of most of the samples were similar (p > 0.05). However, the addition of herbal feed supplements lowered the concentration of Caproic acid (C6:0), Caprylic acid (C8:0) and Capric acid (C10:0), which caused a significant reduction in the goaty smell of milk. The obtained results indicate that the studied herbal supplements can reduce the intensity of goaty smell and allow goat milk production without modification of other sensory features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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11 pages, 2603 KiB  
Article
Multiscale Structural Insight into Dairy Products and Plant-Based Alternatives by Scattering and Imaging Techniques
by Theresia Heiden-Hecht, Baohu Wu, Marie-Sousai Appavou, Stephan Förster, Henrich Frielinghaus and Olaf Holderer
Foods 2023, 12(10), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12102021 - 17 May 2023
Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Dairy products and plant-based alternatives have a large range of structural features from atomic to macroscopic length scales. Scattering techniques with neutrons and X-rays provide a unique view into this fascinating world of interfaces and networks provided by, e.g., proteins and lipids. Combining [...] Read more.
Dairy products and plant-based alternatives have a large range of structural features from atomic to macroscopic length scales. Scattering techniques with neutrons and X-rays provide a unique view into this fascinating world of interfaces and networks provided by, e.g., proteins and lipids. Combining these scattering techniques with a microscopic view into the emulsion and gel systems with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) assists in a thorough understanding of such systems. Different dairy products, such as milk, or plant-based alternatives, such as milk-imitating drinks, and their derived or even fermented products, including cheese and yogurt, are characterized in terms of their structure on nanometer- to micrometer-length scales. For dairy products, the identified structural features are milk fat globules, casein micelles, CCP nanoclusters, and milk fat crystals. With increasing dry matter content in dairy products, milk fat crystals are identified, whereas casein micelles are non-detectable due to the protein gel network in all types of cheese. For the more inhomogeneous plant-based alternatives, fat crystals, starch structures, and potentially protein structures are identified. These results may function as a base for improving the understanding of dairy products and plant-based alternatives, and may lead to enhanced plant-based alternatives in terms of structure and, thus, sensory aspects such as mouthfeel and texture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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14 pages, 3173 KiB  
Article
Some Variation Factors of Freezing Point in Camel Milk
by Gaukhar Konuspayeva, Mubarak M. Al-Gedan, Fuad Alzuraiq and Bernard Faye
Animals 2023, 13(10), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13101657 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
The freezing point degree of milk (FPD) is a classical indicator of cow milk quality. In camel milk, few references are available in the literature regarding the main factors of variation. In the present paper, two methods of FPD determination were used: the [...] Read more.
The freezing point degree of milk (FPD) is a classical indicator of cow milk quality. In camel milk, few references are available in the literature regarding the main factors of variation. In the present paper, two methods of FPD determination were used: the Reference method (RM) (using Cryostar) and the Express method (EM), using a milk analyzer (Milkoscan-FT1). The RM was used to determine FPD in 680 bulk raw or pasteurized camel milk samples. Regarding EM, 736 individual milk samples, 1323 bulk samples, 635 samples of pasteurized milk and 812 samples of raw milk used for cheese making were available. The variability of FPD was investigated according to month, lactation stage, milk composition, milk production and microbiological status. Correlations between methods were explored. FPD was highly correlated with most of the milk components and tended to decrease in cases of high contamination by coliforms or high total flora count. However, the weak significant correlations between the two methods indicated the necessity to specifically calibrate an automatic milk analyzer for camel milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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