Topic Editors

Dean, Faculty of Humanities and Health Sciences, Curtin University, Malaysia 98009, Malaysia
School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, 0152 Oslo, Norway
Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology & Environmental Health Sciences, Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458, USA
Department of Community Medicine & School of Public Health, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India

One Health Approach in Global Health and Clinical Medicine

Abstract submission deadline
31 May 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 July 2024
Viewed by
58569

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is increasingly clear that resolving complex global health and medical problems requires interdisciplinary, intersectoral expertise and cooperation from governmental, non-governmental, and educational agencies. ‘One Health’ refers to the collaboration of multiple disciplines and sectors working locally, nationally, and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. The One Health approach supports global health security and clinical medicine by improving coordination, collaboration, and communication at the human–animal–environment interface to address shared health threats such as zoonotic diseases, antimicrobial resistance, food safety, and others. The current fragmented framework of health governance for humans, animals, and the environment, together with the conventional linear approach to solving current health problems, is failing to meet today’s health challenges and is proving unsustainable. Furthermore, the evidence base demonstrating One Health’s possible applications, impact in clinical practice, and human health benefits is largely missing. In addition, its implementation in practice remains limited, primarily due to a lack of financial support and the secular anthropogenic and self-centered mentality. In this Special Issue, we welcome submissions of original research, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews addressing the following domains, but not limited to:

  • Wellbeing of humans, animals, and ecosystems;
  • Disease surveillance, prevention, and the response of chronic and infectious diseases;
  • Global challenges in public health;
  • Zoonoses and neglected tropical diseases;
  • Health system preparedness for pandemic prevention;
  • Promoting human–animal–environment wellbeing;
  • Sustainability strategies and the relationship among healthcare systems;
  • Key role of vaccines in One Health;
  • Antimicrobial resistance;
  • Environmental health;
  • One health and clinical medicine;
  • Public policy and regulation;
  • Globalizing One Health leadership;
  • Decolonizing One Health.

Dr. Roy Rillera Marzo
Prof. Dr. Adnan Kisa
Dr. Atin Adhikari
Dr. Bijaya Padhi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • one health
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • human–animal–environment wellbeing
  • healthcare systems
  • clinical medicine
  • environmental health

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Geriatrics
geriatrics
2.3 2.7 2016 22.4 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 2.7 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700 Submit
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
tropicalmed
2.9 4.1 2016 19.4 Days CHF 2700 Submit

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Published Papers (26 papers)

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10 pages, 413 KiB  
Article
Post-Pandemic Evolution of Suicide Risk in Children and Adolescents Attending a General Hospital Accident and Emergency Department
by Ana Maciá-Casas, Javier de la Iglesia-Larrad, Llanyra García-Ullán, Belén Refoyo-Matellán, Clara Munaiz-Cossío, Sara Díaz-Trejo, Vanesa Berdión-Marcos, Julia Calama-Martín, Carlos Roncero and Jesús Pérez
Healthcare 2024, 12(10), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12100977 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Background: Lockdowns and other health protective measures, such as social distancing, imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic nurtured unprecedented levels of stress and social isolation around the world. This scenario triggered an increase in suicide thoughts and self-harm behaviours among children and young people. [...] Read more.
Background: Lockdowns and other health protective measures, such as social distancing, imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic nurtured unprecedented levels of stress and social isolation around the world. This scenario triggered an increase in suicide thoughts and self-harm behaviours among children and young people. However, the longer-term impact of the pandemic on children’s and adolescents’ mental health, especially with regard to self-harm, is still to be fully discovered. Methods: We carried out a retrospective study where we collected data related to suicide ideation and self-harm behaviours in all patients aged under 18 that required on-call psychiatric services at the General Hospital Accident and Emergency (A&E) department in Salamanca, Spain, during 2019 (pre-pandemic) and in both 2021 and 2022 to capture possible variation at different time points during the post-pandemic period. Results: A total of 316 patients aged under 18 were seen by on-call psychiatric services at the A&E department during the three time periods: 78 in 2019, 98 in 2021 and 140 in 2022. The mean age was 15.12 (SD 2.25) and females represented more than twice the number of males each year. More than half of all patients assessed during 2022 disclosed suicide thoughts, whilst in 2019, it was near 25%. This increase in suicide ideation rates was more marked among females (X2 = 15.127; p = 0.001), those aged over 15 (X2 = 16.437; p < 0.001) and/or those with a previous history of mental health problems (X2 = 17.823; p < 0.001). We identified an increase in the proportion of males with suicide ideas, especially between 2021 and 2022 (X2 = 8.396; p = 0.015). Conclusions: Our study suggests that children’s and adolescents’ demand for urgent mental healthcare and their clinical presentations in A&E departments with suicide thoughts and/or self-injuries do not seem to be declining after the pandemic but increasing over time. More research is warranted to understand possible factors involved in this sustained upward trend. Full article
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19 pages, 8349 KiB  
Review
Inflammaging in Multidrug-Resistant Sepsis of Geriatric ICU Patients and Healthcare Challenges
by Nishitha R. Kumar, Tejashree A. Balraj, Kusuma K. Shivashankar, Tejaswini C. Jayaram and Akila Prashant
Geriatrics 2024, 9(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9020045 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Multidrug-resistant sepsis (MDR) is a pressing concern in intensive care unit (ICU) settings, specifically among geriatric patients who experience age-related immune system changes and comorbidities. The aim of this review is to explore the clinical impact of MDR sepsis in geriatric ICU patients [...] Read more.
Multidrug-resistant sepsis (MDR) is a pressing concern in intensive care unit (ICU) settings, specifically among geriatric patients who experience age-related immune system changes and comorbidities. The aim of this review is to explore the clinical impact of MDR sepsis in geriatric ICU patients and shed light on healthcare challenges associated with its management. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Google Scholar search engines. Our search incorporated keywords such as “multidrug-resistant sepsis” OR “MDR sepsis”, “geriatric ICU patients” OR “elderly ICU patients”, and “complications”, “healthcare burdens”, “diagnostic challenges”, and “healthcare challenges” associated with MDR sepsis in “ICU patients” and “geriatric/elderly ICU patients”. This review explores the specific risk factors contributing to MDR sepsis, the complexities of diagnostic challenges, and the healthcare burden faced by elderly ICU patients. Notably, the elderly population bears a higher burden of MDR sepsis (57.5%), influenced by various factors, including comorbidities, immunosuppression, age-related immune changes, and resource-limited ICU settings. Furthermore, sepsis imposes a significant economic burden on healthcare systems, with annual costs exceeding $27 billion in the USA. These findings underscore the urgency of addressing MDR sepsis in geriatric ICU patients and the need for tailored interventions to improve outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Full article
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13 pages, 1351 KiB  
Review
The Human Health Impacts of the Red Imported Fire Ant in the Western Pacific Region Context: A Narrative Review
by Diego J. Lopez, Kenneth D. Winkel, Troy Wanandy, Sheryl van Nunen, Kirsten P. Perrett and Adrian J. Lowe
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9040069 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Background: The red imported fire ant (RIFA) is one of the world’s most destructive invasive species. RIFA stings are painful and can lead to allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis, yet health impacts remain inadequately defined. Methods: We searched MEDLINE (Ovid) and Google Scholar [...] Read more.
Background: The red imported fire ant (RIFA) is one of the world’s most destructive invasive species. RIFA stings are painful and can lead to allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis, yet health impacts remain inadequately defined. Methods: We searched MEDLINE (Ovid) and Google Scholar (grey literature) from inception until 20 September 2023 for articles in English using search terms related to red imported fire ants and allergies, including anaphylaxis. Results: Approximately a third of the population in RIFA-infested areas are stung each year. The most frequent reaction is a sterile 1–2 mm pseudo pustule on the skin. Approximately 20% of stings cause a large local reaction and between about 0.5% and 2% stings cause a systemic allergic reaction which can range from skin symptoms to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Local biodiversity is also significantly disrupted by invading RIFA and may lead to complex adverse effects on human health, from agriculture losses to expanded ranges for pathogen vectors. Conclusions: The potential for red imported fire ants to establish themselves as an invasive species in the Western Pacific presents a substantial and costly health issue. Successful eradication and surveillance programs, to identify and eradicate new incursions, would avoid substantial health impacts and costs. Full article
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13 pages, 1968 KiB  
Article
Improved Oral Health Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Late Onset Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Nationwide Cohort Study
by Min Kyung Chung, Yoonkyung Chang, Jung-Hyun Park, Gwang Hyun Leem and Tae-Jin Song
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(6), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061606 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of oral health status and habits with the occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in a nationwide population-based cohort in a longitudinal setting. Methods: A total of 2,415,963 individuals aged 40–79 years [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of oral health status and habits with the occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in a nationwide population-based cohort in a longitudinal setting. Methods: A total of 2,415,963 individuals aged 40–79 years who underwent oral health examinations were included from the National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening (NHIS-HEALS) cohort of Korea between 2003 and 2004. The occurrence of AS was analyzed according to the oral health status and oral hygiene habits. Results: Among 2,271,221 of the participants, AS occurred in 6366 (0.3%) participants over 16.7 years. The likelihood of AS was higher in participants who had periodontitis (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20–1.46, p < 0.0001) and more missing teeth (HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.99, p < 0.0001). However, better oral hygiene habits such as frequent tooth brushing (HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.71–0.83, p < 0.0001) and a history of dental scaling within the last year (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82–0.95, p = 0.001) were associated with a lower occurrence of AS. Conclusions: Periodontitis and an increased number of missing teeth could be related to the occurrence of late-onset AS. Improved oral hygiene care may attenuate the likelihood of late-onset AS. Full article
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21 pages, 769 KiB  
Review
Political Leaders’ Communication Strategies during COVID-19 in Highly Infected Countries: A Scoping Review
by Magde Mohamed Nour and Adnan Kisa
Healthcare 2024, 12(6), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12060607 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
This scoping review maps communication strategies employed by political leaders in countries that experienced high infection rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the Arksey and O’Malley scoping review framework, this study systematically explored the literature from 2019 to October 2023. The process involved [...] Read more.
This scoping review maps communication strategies employed by political leaders in countries that experienced high infection rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the Arksey and O’Malley scoping review framework, this study systematically explored the literature from 2019 to October 2023. The process involved identifying and selecting relevant studies, charting them, and summarizing the data from the 40 articles that met the inclusion criteria. This review identified a diverse array of communication strategies, which highlight the complex nature of crisis communication. These strategies featured the use of social media, science-based policy communication, strategic narrative control, empathy, ideological influences, and storytelling. These six approaches underscore the importance of adaptability and context-specific strategies in political leadership during a health crisis. The findings demonstrate that political communication during the pandemic varied significantly and was influenced by factors such as media platform, political ideology, gender, and non-verbal cues. This review enriches our understanding of crisis communication in political contexts. It emphasizes the necessity of combining traditional and digital media and considering various sociopolitical factors. The insights gained are crucial for enhancing crisis management and public trust, and they set the stage for further research and practical application in crisis communication. Full article
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24 pages, 8433 KiB  
Review
Cutaneous Adverse Reactions Associated with Tattoos and Permanent Makeup Pigments
by Beatrice Bălăceanu-Gurău, Eliza Apostol, Mădălina Caraivan, Ana Ion, Raluca Tatar, Mara Mădălina Mihai, Liliana Gabriela Popa, Cristian-Dorin Gurău and Olguța Anca Orzan
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020503 - 16 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Tattooing is the procedure of implanting permanent pigment granules and additives into the dermal layer of the skin, serving various purposes such as decoration, medical identification, or accidental markings. There has been a significant rise in the popularity of decorative tattooing as a [...] Read more.
Tattooing is the procedure of implanting permanent pigment granules and additives into the dermal layer of the skin, serving various purposes such as decoration, medical identification, or accidental markings. There has been a significant rise in the popularity of decorative tattooing as a form of body art among both teenagers and young adults. Thus, the incidence of tattoos is increasing, with expanding applications such as permanent makeup, scar camouflage, nipple–areola, lips, and eyebrows tattooing, and utilization in oncological radiotherapy such as colon marking. However, there have been reported a broad range of adverse reactions linked to tattooing, encompassing allergic reactions, superficial and deep cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders induced by the Koebner phenomenon, cutaneous tumors, and others. These reactions exhibit different onset times for symptoms, ranging from immediate manifestations after tattoo application to symptoms emerging several years later. Given the limited information on a tattoo’s side effects, this review aims to elucidate the clinical spectrum of cutaneous complications of tattoos in different patients. The analysis will investigate both allergic and nonallergic clinical presentations of tattoo-related side effects, microscopic findings from skin biopsies, and therapeutic outcomes. This exploration is essential to improve our understanding of tattoo-related cutaneous complications and associated differential diagnoses and highlight the significance of patient awareness regarding potential risks before getting a tattoo. Full article
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11 pages, 1246 KiB  
Brief Report
Night-Time Hot Spring Bathing Is Associated with a Lower Systolic Blood Pressure among Japanese Older Adults: A Single-Institution Retrospective Cohort Study
by Satoshi Yamasaki, Tomotake Tokunou, Toyoki Maeda and Takahiko Horiuchi
Geriatrics 2024, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9010002 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1746
Abstract
Hot spring bathing is practiced to help manage hypertension. We retrospectively investigated the effects of hot spring bathing on hypertension with the aim of identifying a novel approach to prevent and manage hypertension. The study cohort comprised 99 patients aged ≥65 years admitted [...] Read more.
Hot spring bathing is practiced to help manage hypertension. We retrospectively investigated the effects of hot spring bathing on hypertension with the aim of identifying a novel approach to prevent and manage hypertension. The study cohort comprised 99 patients aged ≥65 years admitted to Kyushu University Beppu Hospital between 1 December 2021 and 30 November 2022 who could walk by themselves and who used hot springs for ≥3 days during their hospital stay. The changes in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the night-time bathing group (n = 21) compared with the noontime (n = 26) and afternoon (n = 52) groups. Night-time hot spring bathing was significantly associated with reduced systolic blood pressure the next morning in older adults. Although prospective randomized controlled trials on night-time hot spring bathing as a hypertension treatment are warranted to investigate whether the practice can prevent hypertension among adults aged ≥65 years, we have initiated a single-center, phase II study on the relationship between sleep quality and quality of life in hypertensive patients after night-time hot spring bathing. Full article
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9 pages, 905 KiB  
Article
The Advanced Care Study: Current Status of Lipedema in Spain, A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study
by Alexo Carballeira Braña and Johana Poveda Castillo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(17), 6647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20176647 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2055
Abstract
Introduction: The pathologic features of fatty tissue in lipedema are often challenging to diagnose, thus allowing for variable bias and leading to underdiagnosis. Lipedema is a disease that is currently little known worldwide, but it represents a public health problem and demands immediate, [...] Read more.
Introduction: The pathologic features of fatty tissue in lipedema are often challenging to diagnose, thus allowing for variable bias and leading to underdiagnosis. Lipedema is a disease that is currently little known worldwide, but it represents a public health problem and demands immediate, well-directed healthcare. Insufficient scientific information limits medical action, which limits making diagnoses and addressing an adequate multidisciplinary treatment. This study aims to evaluate the current state of lipedema in Spain to contextualize the disease’s pathophysiological characteristics and thus achieve a consensus that unifies and defines its diagnostic criteria and medical management. Likewise, this study aims to determine the effectiveness of the various treatments applied to the study patients and to evaluate the consequences of the pandemic related to this disease. Material and methods: The present work is a descriptive, cross-sectional study that analyzed online questionnaires. It was applied to 1069 patients and collected over 9 months between 2021 and 2022. The questionnaires were distributed to the leading national and regional associations of patients affected by lipedema. The study included all patients in a group who had a diagnosis of lipedema and in a group of undiagnosed patients with six or more symptoms. The variables analyzed were age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), type of lipedema (according to Schingale’s classification), symptoms (according to Wolf’s classification, modified by Herbst), and treatments performed (physiotherapy, compression garments, sports, diet, radiofrequency, mesotherapy, and surgery), associated with the score given by the patients regarding the degree of improvement in their disease with each of these treatments. Results: There were 967 women and 2 men between 18 and 75 years old (mean of 38.5 years); a body weight between 33 and 150 kg (mean 75.8 kg); a height between 144 and 180 cm (mean 164 cm); and an average body mass index (BMI) of 28.1. The most common kind of lipedema in our study population was type III (affecting the hips, thighs, and calves). The treatment that individually improved patients’ quality of life the most was surgery, only surpassed by the multidisciplinary approach to the disease, including conservative measures. Conclusions: With this study, we can conclude that, in Spain, there is a real problem associated with the diagnosis of lipedema, specifying the need to seek this diagnosis actively and propose multidisciplinary management, since it offers the best overall results, of course not without forgetting that surgery is one of the most critical pillars in the approach to this disease. Consistent with the results obtained in this study, criteria were proposed and applied to represent a statistical value at the time of ruling on the clinical diagnosis of lipedema, considering that a patient who presents six or more of these diagnostic criteria, with a very high probability, will have lipedema. Full article
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16 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
Trends in Health Communication: Social Media Needs and Quality of Life among Older Adults in Malaysia
by Hana W. Jun Chen, Roy Rillera Marzo, Nur Hafizah Sapa, Absar Ahmad, Haryati Anuar, Mohammed Faez Baobaid, Nurul Akmal Jamaludin, Hazian Hamzah, Siamak Sarrafan, Hassan Omar Ads, Kavitha Ashok Kumar, Jalal Hadi, Hafsah Sazali and Mohammed A. Abdalqader
Healthcare 2023, 11(10), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11101455 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
Background: While social media continues to dominate, social media platforms have become powerful health communication tools for older users. However, fulfilling their social media needs can be both detrimental and beneficial to their quality of life (QoL). This study assessed social media needs [...] Read more.
Background: While social media continues to dominate, social media platforms have become powerful health communication tools for older users. However, fulfilling their social media needs can be both detrimental and beneficial to their quality of life (QoL). This study assessed social media needs as they relate to QoL among older adults in Malaysia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and adopted convenience sampling to recruit participants. The participants were required to self-report their sociodemographic profile, social media use and needs, and QoL. Social media use and needs were assessed using the Social Networking Sites Uses and Needs (SNSUN) scale, and QoL was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the predictors of QoL. Results: The findings revealed that the fulfilment of social integrative needs was the strongest predictor of higher QoL in all domains. However, those using social media for their affective needs demonstrated lower psychological health quality. Conclusions: Fulfilling social integrative needs is the key to improving the QoL among older adults. The continuous development of age-friendly applications is essential to keep up with constantly changing social media trends and bridge the gap of social media inequalities. More importantly, it would enable older adults to utilize social media to its fullest potential and enjoy a higher QoL through accessible health communication tools. Full article
25 pages, 8590 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates in a Multi-Profile Hospital over 5 Years (2017–2021)
by Beata Mączyńska, Magdalena Frej-Mądrzak, Jolanta Sarowska, Krystyna Woronowicz, Irena Choroszy-Król and Agnieszka Jama-Kmiecik
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(6), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12062414 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
In recent years, we have witnessed a growing drug resistance among bacteria, which is associated with the use and availability of an increasing number of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, as well as with their irrational and excessive use. The present study aims to analyze [...] Read more.
In recent years, we have witnessed a growing drug resistance among bacteria, which is associated with the use and availability of an increasing number of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, as well as with their irrational and excessive use. The present study aims to analyze changes in the drug resistance of Gram-negative Enterobacterales: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, isolated from infections in a multi-profile hospital over five years (from 2017 to 2021). Among the practical outcomes of the evaluation of these data will be the possibility of determining changes in susceptibility to the antibiotics used in the hospital. In turn, this will help propose new therapeutic options, especially for empirical therapy that is necessary in severe infections. The analysis of the use of individual groups of antibiotics allowed for identification of the causes of the increasing resistance of Gram-negative bacilli. The highest number of infections whose etiological agent was K. pneumoniae ESBL(+) and E. coli ESBL(+) was observed in 2018. In the analyzed five-year period, the number of multi-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae strains increased successively, which seems to be related to the growing use, especially in the pandemic period, of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mainly penicillins with inhibitors, third-generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Full article
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12 pages, 907 KiB  
Article
Disparities of Health Program Information Systems in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Indonesian Health Facility Research 2019
by Sri Idaiani, Harimat Hendarwan and Maria Holly Herawati
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 4384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20054384 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Although a recording and reporting format for health centers already exists for Indonesia’s standard information system, numerous health applications still need to meet the needs of each program. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential disparities in information systems in the application [...] Read more.
Although a recording and reporting format for health centers already exists for Indonesia’s standard information system, numerous health applications still need to meet the needs of each program. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential disparities in information systems in the application and data collection of health programs among Indonesian community health centers (CHCs) based on provinces and regions. This cross-sectional research used data from 9831 CHCs from the Health Facilities Research 2019 (RIFASKES). Significance was assessed using a chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The number of applications was depicted on a map using the spmap command with STATA version 14. It showed that region 2, which represented Java and Bali, was the best, followed by regions 1, which comprised Sumatra Island and its surroundings, and 3, Nusa Tenggara. The highest mean, equaling that of Java, was discovered in three provinces of region 1, namely, Jambi, Lampung, and Bangka Belitung. Furthermore, Papua and West Papua had less than 60% for all types of data-storage programs. Hence, there is a disparity in the health information system in Indonesia by province and region. The results of this analysis recommend future improvement of the CHCs’ information systems. Full article
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Related Factors of Lower Urinary Tract Infection in Frail Older Adults Undergoing Major Noncardiac Surgery
by Warin Thangrom, Inthira Roopsawang and Suparb Aree-Ue
Geriatrics 2023, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8020033 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Urinary tract infections are the most common complication after surgery in older adults, resulting in poor operative outcomes and reduced quality of life after discharge. However, there is limited research investigating the relationships between urinary tract infection and associated factors in frail older [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections are the most common complication after surgery in older adults, resulting in poor operative outcomes and reduced quality of life after discharge. However, there is limited research investigating the relationships between urinary tract infection and associated factors in frail older surgical patients, particularly in Thailand. This retrospective study included 220 frail older patients aged ≥ 60 years who had undergone major noncardiac surgery at a tertiary care hospital in Thailand from January 2015 to December 2019. The sample was recruited using the criteria indicated in the modified Frailty Index-11 and having the blood glucose level determined within 2 h before surgery. The prevalence of lower urinary tract infections was 15% post-surgery. Firth’s logistic regression analysis revealed that the equation could predict the accuracy of lower urinary tract infections by 88.5%. Frailty, blood glucose levels, complication during admission, and personal factors together predicted the variability of lower urinary tract infections. Adjusting for other variables, being an older adult with severe frailty and complications during hospital admission significantly increased the risk of developing lower urinary tract infections (odds ratio = 3.46, p < 0.05; odds ratio = 9.53, p < 0.001, respectively). Full article
18 pages, 1697 KiB  
Review
Endometrial Inflammation and Impaired Spontaneous Decidualization: Insights into the Pathogenesis of Adenomyosis
by Hiroshi Kobayashi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(4), 3762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043762 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Adenomyosis is an estrogen-dependent gynecologic disease characterized by the myometrial invasion of the endometrial tissue. This review summarized the current understanding and recent findings on the pathophysiology of adenomyosis, focusing on repeated menstruation, persistent inflammation, and impaired spontaneous decidualization. A literature search was [...] Read more.
Adenomyosis is an estrogen-dependent gynecologic disease characterized by the myometrial invasion of the endometrial tissue. This review summarized the current understanding and recent findings on the pathophysiology of adenomyosis, focusing on repeated menstruation, persistent inflammation, and impaired spontaneous decidualization. A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases from inception to 30 April 2022. Thirty-one full-text articles met the eligibility criteria. Repeated episodes of physiological events (i.e., endometrial shedding, damage, proliferation, differentiation, repair, and regeneration) during the menstrual cycle are associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, and immune processes. The decidualization process in humans is driven by the rise in progesterone levels, independently of pregnancy (i.e., spontaneous decidualization). Adenomyotic cells produce angiogenic and fibrogenic factors with the downregulation of decidualization-associated molecules. This decidualization dysfunction and persistent inflammation are closely related to the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Recently, it has been found that the reproductive tract microbiota composition and function in women with adenomyosis differ from those without. An increase in opportunistic pathogens and a decrease in beneficial commensals may promote impaired defense mechanisms against inflammation and predispose women to uncontrolled endometrial inflammation. However, currently, there is no direct evidence that adenomyosis is linked to pre-existing inflammation and impaired spontaneous decidualization. Overall, persistent inflammation, impaired spontaneous decidualization, and microbiota dysbiosis (i.e., an imbalance in the composition and function of endometrial microbiota) may be involved in the pathophysiology of adenomyosis. Full article
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14 pages, 438 KiB  
Article
Allelic Discrimination of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Controlled Study
by Amal Ahmed Mohammed, Dina M. Abo El-Matty, Rola Abdel-Azeem, Khaled Raafat, Mona A. Hussein, Amira R. El-Ansary, Wael Hafez, Hatem Ahmed Hassan, Nourelhuda Ahmed Nassar, Nora Mahmoud Selim, Doaa Ghaith, Amal A. El Kholy, Soha M. Abd El Salam, Fatme Al Anouti and Alaa S. Wahba
Healthcare 2023, 11(4), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11040485 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
(1) Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the rapidly growing healthcare problems, and several vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms seem to modulate the risk of T2DM. Our research was designed to investigate the allelic discrimination of VDR polymorphisms and T2DM [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the rapidly growing healthcare problems, and several vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms seem to modulate the risk of T2DM. Our research was designed to investigate the allelic discrimination of VDR polymorphisms and T2DM occurrence risk. (2) Methods: This case-control research included 156 patients with T2DM and 145 healthy control subjects. Most of the study population were males 56.6% vs. 62.8% in the case and control groups, respectively. Genotyping for VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs228570 (Fok1), rs7975232 (Apa1), and rs1544410 (Bsm1) was compared between both groups. (3) Results: There was a negative link between vitamin D levels and insulin sensitivity. A significant difference was noted in the allelic discrimination of VDR polymorphism rs228570 and rs1544410 between the study groups (p < 0.001). No difference was observed in the allelic discrimination of VDR polymorphism rs7975232 between the groups (p = 0.063). Moreover, T2DM patients had significantly higher levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin HbA1c, 2-h post-prandial blood sugar (PP), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), total cholesterol, and triglycerides (p < 0.001), while High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly decreased (p = 0.006). (4) Conclusions: VDR polymorphisms had a positive association with T2DM risk among the Egyptian population. Further large-scale research using deep sequencing of samples is strongly urged to investigate different vitamin D gene variants and interactions, as well as the influence of vitamin D on T2DM. Full article
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11 pages, 3179 KiB  
Article
Application of Multilocus Sequence Typing for the Characterization of Leptospira Strains in Malaysia
by Fairuz Amran, Nurul Atiqah Noor Halim, Ayu Haslin Muhammad, Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Khalid, Nur Mukmina Dasiman, Nadia Aqilla Shamsusah, Abdul Khalif Adha Abd Talib, Mohamed Asyraf Noh, Mohammad Ridhuan Mohd Ali and Rohaidah Hashim
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8020069 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. It is considered an emerging disease in Malaysia and is a notifiable disease. This study was conducted to characterize Malaysian isolates from human, animal and environmental samples via MLST and rrs2 sequencing [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. It is considered an emerging disease in Malaysia and is a notifiable disease. This study was conducted to characterize Malaysian isolates from human, animal and environmental samples via MLST and rrs2 sequencing in an attempt to develop a Malaysian genotypic database. An existing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based MLST scheme was performed to facilitate subsequent sequencing. Out of 46 extracted DNA, 36 had complete MLST profiles whereby all six genes were amplified and sequenced. Most of the pathogenic Leptospira genotypes with full MLST profiles were L. interrogans serogroup Bataviae (n = 17), followed by L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica (n = 9), L. interrogans serogroup Sejroe (n = 2), L. interrogans serogroup Australis (n = 2), L. kirschneri (n = 2), L. interrogans serogroup Grippotyphosa (n = 1) and L. interrogans serogroup Pyrogenes (n = 3). Two samples (R3_SER/17 and R4_SER/17) were not closely related with any of the reference strains. For the samples with incomplete MLST profiles, leptospiral speciation was conducted through rrs2 analysis, in which four samples were identified as L. borgpetersenii, five samples were closely related to L. kmetyi and one sample was known as L. yasudae. This study shows that molecular approaches that combine both MLST and rrs2 sequencing have great potential in the comprehensive characterization of pathogenic Leptospira because they can be performed directly from cultured and clinical samples. Full article
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11 pages, 1440 KiB  
Article
Prevalence, Risk Factors and Outcomes Associated with Physical Restraint in Acute Medical Inpatients over 4 Years—A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Umberto Spennato, Nathalie Lerjen, Jennifer Siegwart, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz, Daniel Koch and Tristan Struja
Geriatrics 2023, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8010015 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
Background: Physical restraints are frequently used in acute care hospitals. Their application is associated with negative outcomes, while their intended preventive effect is debated. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of physical restraints and associated outcomes on medical wards in a tertiary care hospital. [...] Read more.
Background: Physical restraints are frequently used in acute care hospitals. Their application is associated with negative outcomes, while their intended preventive effect is debated. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of physical restraints and associated outcomes on medical wards in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Retrospective cohort study (January 2018 to December 2021). We included all adult medical in-patients and excluded patients with admission to the intensive care unit, short stays (length of stay (LOS) < 48 h), and patients declining informed consent. Results: Of 11,979 admissions, the prevalence of patients with at least one restraint was 6.4% (n = 772). Sensor mats were used most frequently (73.0%, n = 666), followed by blanket restrictions (14.5%, n = 132), bedrails (8.8%, n = 80) and belts (3.7%, n = 34). On average, restraints were applied 19 h (standard deviation (SD) ± 161) before a fall. Average restraint duration was 42 h (SD ± 57). Patients with a restraint had longer LOS 8 days (IQR 5–14) vs. 5 days (IQR 3–9). Median nurses’ time expenditure was 309 h (IQR 242–402) vs. 182 h (IQR 136–243) for non-restrained patients. Patients with restraints fell more often (22.5% vs. 2.7%) and were more likely to die (13.3% vs. 5.1%). These differences persisted after adjusting a regression model for important clinical confounders. We saw a decline in the duration of restraints over the years, but no variation between wards. Conclusion: Approximately 6% of medical patients, mostly older and severely ill, were affected by restraint use. For the first time, we report data over 4 years up to ward-level granularity. Full article
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13 pages, 1653 KiB  
Article
Vitamin C as a Potential Interplaying Factor between Obesity and COVID-19 Outcome
by Wael Hafez, Husam Saleh, Mahmoud Abdelshakor, Shougyat Ahmed, Sana Osman and Muneir Gador
Healthcare 2023, 11(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11010093 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
(1) Background: Obesity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. Obesity can interfere with the action of vitamin C. The study aimed to investigate the association between BMI and severe outcomes of COVID-19 while considering vitamin C levels; (2) Methods: This was [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Obesity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. Obesity can interfere with the action of vitamin C. The study aimed to investigate the association between BMI and severe outcomes of COVID-19 while considering vitamin C levels; (2) Methods: This was a retrospective study of 63 COVID-19 patients treated at the NMC Royal Hospital, United Arab Emirates; (3) Results: There was no significant difference in vitamin C levels among patients in all BMI categories (p > 0.05). The risk of severe COVID-19 significantly increased by 5.4 times among class 1 obese patients compared with normal BMI (OR = 5.40, 95%CI: (1.54–21.05), p = 0.010). Vitamin C did not affect the risk of COVID-19 severity or mortality across BMI categories (p = 0.177, p > 0.05, respectively). The time till viral clearance was significantly different among patients in different BMI categories when vitamin C levels were considered (p = 0.02). Although there was no significant difference in vitamin C levels across BMI categories, there was a significant interaction between vitamin C levels and viral clearance rate in obese patients; (4) Conclusions: Given the safety of vitamin C supplements and our findings, proper vitamin C uptake and supplementation for patients of various BMI levels are encouraged. Full article
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18 pages, 4837 KiB  
Article
Body Mass Index and Clinical Outcomes in Adult COVID-19 Patients of Diverse Ethnicities
by Wael Hafez, Mahmoud Abdelshakor, Samy Kishk, Amr Gebril, Muneir Gador, Sana Osman, Hesham Mohamed Abuelsaoud and Ahmed Abdelrahman
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122575 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 11863
Abstract
(1) Background: Body mass index (BMI) was observed to affect COVID-19 outcomes; however, the complete spectrum of clinical outcomes concerning BMI remains unexplored. The current study aimed to investigate the correlation between BMI and the severity and mortality of COVID-19, as well as [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Body mass index (BMI) was observed to affect COVID-19 outcomes; however, the complete spectrum of clinical outcomes concerning BMI remains unexplored. The current study aimed to investigate the correlation between BMI and the severity and mortality of COVID-19, as well as ICU admission, radiological findings, clinical presentation, and time to viral clearance. (2) Methods: This retrospective study included 1796 multiethnic patients with COVID-19 treated at NMC Royal Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE. (3) Results: COVID-19’s adjusted odds of severity increased by 3.7- and 21.5-fold in classes I and III, respectively (p = 0.001). The odds of mortality were not significantly different after adjustment for age, sex, and race. The adjusted odds of ICU admission increased significantly by 3-fold and non-significantly by 4-fold in obesity classes I and II, respectively. Pneumonia was significantly higher in patients who were overweight and class I, II, and III obese. Furthermore, class III obese patients had a greater risk of presenting with combined respiratory and gastrointestinal manifestations (p < 0.001). The median time to viral clearance with a BMI > 40 kg/m2 was moderately higher than that with a BMI < 40 kg/m2. (4) Conclusions: High BMI was associated with pneumonia, ICU admission, severity, and mortality due to COVID-19. Full article
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4 pages, 206 KiB  
Opinion
COVID-19 Era and the Constantly Reemerging Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants Calls for Special Attention for the Geriatrics: A Real Challenge
by L. V. Simhachalam Kutikuppala, Venkataramana Kandi, Ashish K. Sarangi, Snehasish Mishra and Ranjan K. Mohapatra
Geriatrics 2022, 7(6), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7060143 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Global public health is significantly challenged due to the continuing COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak brought forth by the severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) [...] Full article
16 pages, 8644 KiB  
Article
Socioeconomic Inequalities in the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases among Older Adults in India
by Bikash Khura, Parimala Mohanty, Lipilekha Patnaik, Keerti Bhusan Pradhan, Jagdish Khubchandani and Bijaya Kumar Padhi
Geriatrics 2022, 7(6), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7060137 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Understanding socioeconomic inequalities in non-communicable disease prevalence and preventive care usage can help design effective action plans for health equality programs among India’s aging population. Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently used as model non-communicable diseases for research and policy purposes [...] Read more.
Understanding socioeconomic inequalities in non-communicable disease prevalence and preventive care usage can help design effective action plans for health equality programs among India’s aging population. Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently used as model non-communicable diseases for research and policy purposes as these two are the most prevalent NCDs in India and are the leading causes of mortality. For this investigation, data on 31,464 older persons (aged 60 years and above) who took part in the Longitudinal Ageing Survey of India (LASI: 2017–2018) were analyzed. The concentration index was used to assess socioeconomic inequality whereas relative inequalities indices were used to compare HTN, DM, and preventive care usage between the different groups of individuals based on socioeconomic status. The study reveals that wealthy older adults in India had a higher frequency of HTN and DM than the poor elderly. Significant differences in the usage of preventive care, such as blood pressure/blood glucose monitoring, were found among people with HTN or DM. Furthermore, economic position, education, type of work, and residential status were identified as important factors for monitoring inequalities in access to preventive care for HTN and DM. Disparities in non-communicable diseases can be both a cause and an effect of inequality across social strata in India. Full article
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9 pages, 570 KiB  
Article
Association between Polypharmacy and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function among Elderly Patients in an Urban Municipality Area of Kolkata, India: A Record-Based Cross-Sectional Study
by Shambo Samrat Samajdar, Saibal Das, Sougata Sarkar, Shatavisa Mukherjee, Ashish Pathak, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Indranil Saha, Santanu Kumar Tripathi, Jyotirmoy Pal, Nandini Chatterjee and Shashank R Joshi
Geriatrics 2022, 7(6), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7060136 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
We assessed the association between polypharmacy and cardiovascular autonomic function among community-dwelling elderly patients having chronic diseases. Three hundred and twenty-one patients from an urban municipality area of Kolkata, India were studied in August 2022. The anticholinergic burden and cardiac autonomic function (Valsalva [...] Read more.
We assessed the association between polypharmacy and cardiovascular autonomic function among community-dwelling elderly patients having chronic diseases. Three hundred and twenty-one patients from an urban municipality area of Kolkata, India were studied in August 2022. The anticholinergic burden and cardiac autonomic function (Valsalva ratio, orthostatic hypotension, change in diastolic blood pressure after an isometric exercise, and heart rate variability during expiration and inspiration) were evaluated. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to find out the association of polypharmacy and total anticholinergic burden with cardiac autonomic neuropathy. A total of 305 patients (age, 68.9 ± 3.4; 65.9% male) were included. Of these patients, 81 (26.6%) were on polypharmacy. Out of these 81 patients, 42 patients were on ninety-eight potential inappropriate medications. The anticholinergic burden and the proportion of patients with cardiac autonomic neuropathy were significantly higher among patients who were on polypharmacy than those who were not (8.1 ± 2.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.9; p = 0.03 and 56.8% vs. 44.6%; p = 0.01). The presence of polypharmacy and a total anticholinergic burden of > 3 was significantly associated with cardiac autonomic neuropathy (aOR, 2.66; 95% CI, 0.91–3.98 and aOR, 2.51; 95% CI, 0.99–3.52, respectively). Thus, polypharmacy was significantly associated with cardiac autonomic neuropathy among community-dwelling elderly patients. Full article
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12 pages, 2777 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index on the Survival of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients after Radical Esophagectomy
by Jianyu Song, Yulan Lin, Juwei Zhang, Shuang Liu, Jinsong Zhou, Qiaoyan Zeng, Zheng Lin, Rong Fu, Minglian Qiu and Zhijian Hu
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(22), 6737; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11226737 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
We aimed to investigate whether the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) can predict the postoperative overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Between 1 July 2015 and 31 July 2021, a retrospective cohort study was conducted [...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate whether the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) can predict the postoperative overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Between 1 July 2015 and 31 July 2021, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients with primary ESCC who underwent radical esophagectomy. A total of 352 patients were included, with median age of 63.00 (IQR (interquartile range) 56.00–68.00). The patients were divided into low (n = 300) and high (n = 52) ACCI groups based on the optimal cut-off value of 5 points. Chronic pulmonary disease (38.4%) was the most common comorbidity. The results of the multivariate Cox regression showed that the ACCI (HR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.04–2.56), tumor size (HR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.05–2.66), pTNM (II vs. I, HR = 4.74, 95%CI: 1.82–12.32; III vs. I, HR = 6.08, 95%CI: 2.37–15.60), and postoperative chemotherapy (HR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.40–0.91) were significantly associated with the OS. Furthermore, the ACCI, tumor size, pTNM, and postoperative chemotherapy were also significantly associated with the CSS. Interactions were identified between the ACCI and postoperative chemotherapy, pTNM stage, and tumor size in relation to the OS and CSS. In conclusion, the ACCI may be an independent prognostic factor affecting the long-term prognosis of patients after radical esophagectomy. Full article
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7 pages, 890 KiB  
Case Report
Plasmapheresis for a Patient with Catatonia and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Report and Literature Review
by Pei-Shan Tsai, Yu Chen, Shou-Yen Chen, Chung-Yuan Hsu, Jiao-En Wu, Chih-Chun Lee and Tien-Ming Chan
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(22), 6670; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11226670 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematous (NPSLE) encompasses various psychiatric and neurological manifestations that develop in patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), secondary to the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). Although neuropsychiatric manifestations are commonly described in NPSLE, catatonia has been less frequently [...] Read more.
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematous (NPSLE) encompasses various psychiatric and neurological manifestations that develop in patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), secondary to the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). Although neuropsychiatric manifestations are commonly described in NPSLE, catatonia has been less frequently reported in patients with SLE. The roles of benzodiazepines (BZDs), immunosuppression, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have all been reported in the management of catatonia. Furthermore, another research reported that catatonic symptoms associated with NPSLE were considerably improved by TPE. We, herein, report a case of catatonia in a patient with newly diagnosed NPSLE who exhibited a favorable prognosis through the early initiation of systemic immunosuppressants and TPE. Furthermore, we have reviewed the literature on the role of medication and plasmapheresis (PP), or TPE, in the treatment of catatonia that is associated with SLE. Full article
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12 pages, 1520 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Forecasting Monkeypox Cases Using Stochastic Models
by Moiz Qureshi, Shahid Khan, Rashad A. R. Bantan, Muhammad Daniyal, Mohammed Elgarhy, Roy Rillera Marzo and Yulan Lin
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(21), 6555; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11216555 - 4 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
Background: Monkeypox virus is gaining attention due to its severity and spread among people. This study sheds light on the modeling and forecasting of new monkeypox cases. Knowledge about the future situation of the virus using a more accurate time series and stochastic [...] Read more.
Background: Monkeypox virus is gaining attention due to its severity and spread among people. This study sheds light on the modeling and forecasting of new monkeypox cases. Knowledge about the future situation of the virus using a more accurate time series and stochastic models is required for future actions and plans to cope with the challenge. Methods: We conduct a side-by-side comparison of the machine learning approach with the traditional time series model. The multilayer perceptron model (MLP), a machine learning technique, and the Box–Jenkins methodology, also known as the ARIMA model, are used for classical modeling. Both methods are applied to the Monkeypox cumulative data set and compared using different model selection criteria such as root mean square error, mean square error, mean absolute error, and mean absolute percentage error. Results: With a root mean square error of 150.78, the monkeypox series follows the ARIMA (7,1,7) model among the other potential models. Comparatively, we use the multilayer perceptron (MLP) model, which employs the sigmoid activation function and has a different number of hidden neurons in a single hidden layer. The root mean square error of the MLP model, which uses a single input and ten hidden neurons, is 54.40, significantly lower than that of the ARIMA model. The actual confirmed cases versus estimated or fitted plots also demonstrate that the multilayer perceptron model has a better fit for the monkeypox data than the ARIMA model. Conclusions and Recommendation: When it comes to predicting monkeypox, the machine learning method outperforms the traditional time series. A better match can be achieved in future studies by applying the extreme learning machine model (ELM), support vector machine (SVM), and some other methods with various activation functions. It is thus concluded that the selected data provide a real picture of the virus. If the situations remain the same, governments and other stockholders should ensure the follow-up of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) among the masses, as the trends will continue rising in the upcoming 10 days. However, governments should take some serious interventions to cope with the virus. Limitation: In the ARIMA models selected for forecasting, we did not incorporate the effect of covariates such as the effect of net migration of monkeypox virus patients, government interventions, etc. Full article
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9 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Elderly People’s Memories about the Itinerary of the HIV/AIDS Diagnosis
by Alessandra de Oliveira, Luana Reis, Arianna Lopes, Elaine Santana, Pollyanna Lima, Thaiza Nobre and Luciana Reis
Geriatrics 2022, 7(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7050119 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1508
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the remembrances of elderly people about their illness and the path taken in health services until diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. This is a cross-sectional and descriptive analytical study, with a qualitative approach and theoretical and methodological support from the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the remembrances of elderly people about their illness and the path taken in health services until diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. This is a cross-sectional and descriptive analytical study, with a qualitative approach and theoretical and methodological support from the social representations theory and conducted with 38 elderly people. A questionnaire with sociodemographic data, health conditions, and a script for semi-structured interviews was used. Data analysis was performed with the support of the QRS NVivo® software and in light of Bardin’s content analysis. In relation to the itinerary to the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, the memories are from manifestations of opportunistic diseases and of a long trajectory with health problems and hospitalizations in search of a late diagnosis. The representation of death associated with the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS materializes for some with the loss of the partner in this process of searching for the diagnosis. Full article
8 pages, 223 KiB  
Article
Impact of Sex in Left Atrial Indices for Prognosis of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
by Shiro Hoshida, Koichi Tachibana, Nobutaka Masunaga, Yukinori Shinoda, Tomoko Minamisaka, Hirooki Inui, Keisuke Ueno, Masahiro Seo, Masamichi Yano, Takaharu Hayashi, Akito Nakagawa, Yusuke Nakagawa, Shunsuke Tamaki, Takahisa Yamada, Yoshio Yasumura, Yohei Sotomi, Shungo Hikoso, Daisaku Nakatani and Yasushi Sakata
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(19), 5910; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11195910 - 7 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Objective: We aim to clarify the differences in the association between re-admission for heart failure (HF) and left atrial (LA) overload indices by sex in heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods: We analyzed 898 HFpEF patients hospitalized for acute decompensated [...] Read more.
Objective: We aim to clarify the differences in the association between re-admission for heart failure (HF) and left atrial (LA) overload indices by sex in heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Methods: We analyzed 898 HFpEF patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Blood tests and transthoracic echocardiography were performed before discharge. The primary endpoint was re-admission for HF during the first year. Results: The ratio of diastolic elastance to arterial elastance (p = 0.014), a relative index of LA pressure overload, in men and LA volume index (LAVI, p = 0.020) in women were significant for re-admission for HF during the first year in the multivariable Fine–Gray analysis. Stroke volume (SV)/LA volume (LAV), another index for LAV overload, was not a significant prognostic factor of re-admission for HF during this time. Conclusion: LA overload was an important prognostic factor for HF re-readmission during the first year after enrolment in patients with HFpEF, but the indices relating to LA overload differed by sex. Full article
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