Topic Editors

Department of Science and Technological Innovation, University of Eastern Piedmont, I-15121 Alessandria, Italy
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università, 100, Portici, 80055 Naples, Italy

Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 November 2023)
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54386

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The current climate change scenario is accelerating degradation, desertification, and salinization; the latter two are major threats to agriculture worldwide. Elucidating plant stress tolerance mechanisms is critical to relieving the effects of drought and salt stresses on plant growth. This topic will focus on recent advances in drought and salt tolerance in crop plants. Original research articles, reviews, and short communications are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Roberto Barbato
Prof. Dr. Veronica De Micco
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • drought stress
  • salt stress
  • climate change
  • crop
  • plants

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agriculture
agriculture
3.3 4.9 2011 17.7 Days CHF 2600
Agronomy
agronomy
3.3 6.2 2011 15.8 Days CHF 2600
Horticulturae
horticulturae
3.1 3.5 2015 14.7 Days CHF 2200
International Journal of Plant Biology
ijpb
- 2.0 2010 14.4 Days CHF 1200
Plants
plants
4.0 6.5 2012 15.3 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (36 papers)

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11 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Growth and Physiological Responses of a Medicinal Plant Phyla nodiflora to Salinity
by Anh Cong Pham, Tuan Chau Vo, Thang Duc Bui, Thi-Thao Hien Van and Dan Quang Tran
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 187-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010015 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Phyla nodiflora is a valuable medicinal plant growing in coastal areas, hypothesizing its adaptability to salinity; however, it has not been investigated. This study, for the first time, elucidated responses in the growth of the shoots and its physiology to different soil salinity [...] Read more.
Phyla nodiflora is a valuable medicinal plant growing in coastal areas, hypothesizing its adaptability to salinity; however, it has not been investigated. This study, for the first time, elucidated responses in the growth of the shoots and its physiology to different soil salinity of 50–400 mM NaCl. The data showed that the shoot’s dry biomass was not affected by the salinity levels up to 100 mM, and it only decreased 33.50–56.33% compared to the control under 200–400 mM NaCl, indicating that P. nodiflora is a salt-tolerant plant that could survive under high salinity. In addition, the plant also had physiological responses which indicated its salt-induced injuries and adaptation to the salt stress. The chlorophyll a content was increased while the chlorophyll b remained unchanged under the salt stress. The proline and salt accumulation increased under the salinity, but the K+ and NO3 accumulation decreased. Moreover, increases in malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage were observed, indicating salt-induced membrane damages. These responses suggested that the plant might evolve adaptive mechanisms to salinity. Our findings are useful information for further research in order to elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms and develop this plant for saline agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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23 pages, 4618 KiB  
Article
Physiological Responses to Salt Stress at the Seedling Stage in Wild (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and Cultivated (Oryza sativa L.) Rice
by Jacopo Trotti, Isabella Trapani, Federica Gulino, Maurizio Aceto, Miles Minio, Caterina Gerotto, Erica Mica, Giampiero Valè, Roberto Barbato and Cristina Pagliano
Plants 2024, 13(3), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13030369 - 26 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Domesticated rice Oryza sativa L. is a major staple food worldwide, and the cereal most sensitive to salinity. It originated from the wild ancestor Oryza rufipogon Griff., which was reported to possess superior salinity tolerance. Here, we examined the morpho-physiological responses to salinity [...] Read more.
Domesticated rice Oryza sativa L. is a major staple food worldwide, and the cereal most sensitive to salinity. It originated from the wild ancestor Oryza rufipogon Griff., which was reported to possess superior salinity tolerance. Here, we examined the morpho-physiological responses to salinity stress (80 mM NaCl for 7 days) in seedlings of an O. rufipogon accession and two Italian O. sativa genotypes, Baldo (mildly tolerant) and Vialone Nano (sensitive). Under salt treatment, O. rufipogon showed the highest percentage of plants with no to moderate stress symptoms, displaying an unchanged shoot/root biomass ratio, the highest Na+ accumulation in roots, the lowest root and leaf Na+/K+ ratio, and highest leaf relative water content, leading to a better preservation of the plant architecture, ion homeostasis, and water status. Moreover, O. rufipogon preserved the overall leaf carbon to nitrogen balance and photosynthetic apparatus integrity. Conversely, Vialone Nano showed the lowest percentage of plants surviving after treatment, and displayed a higher reduction in the growth of shoots rather than roots, with leaves compromised in water and ionic balance, negatively affecting the photosynthetic performance (lowest performance index by JIP-test) and apparatus integrity. Baldo showed intermediate salt tolerance. Being O. rufipogon interfertile with O. sativa, it resulted a good candidate for pre-breeding towards salt-tolerant lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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22 pages, 5281 KiB  
Article
Stem Hydraulic Conductance, Leaf Photosynthesis, and Carbon Metabolism Responses of Cotton to Short-Term Drought and Rewatering
by Zhenlin Lai, Kaibao Zhang, Zhenqi Liao, Hongtai Kou, Shengzhao Pei, Zhiyao Dou, Zhentao Bai and Junliang Fan
Agronomy 2024, 14(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14010071 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Water stress can trigger acclimation responses and damage plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrative responses of cotton hydraulic conductance, leaf photosynthesis, and carbon metabolism to short-term drought and subsequent rewatering. A water-controlled pot experiment was conducted in 2020, [...] Read more.
Water stress can trigger acclimation responses and damage plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the integrative responses of cotton hydraulic conductance, leaf photosynthesis, and carbon metabolism to short-term drought and subsequent rewatering. A water-controlled pot experiment was conducted in 2020, with soil water drying continuing for one day (D1), two days (D2), and three days (D3) after it reached 40% ± 5% of the soil water holding capacity at the blooming stage of cotton, and the soil was then rewatered to the soil water holding capacity. We investigated how the stem hydraulic conductance, gas exchange, and biochemical traits of cotton were affected by imposed drought stress and subsequent rewatering. The hydraulic characteristics of cotton in the D2 and D3 treatments evolved with damage, complete closure of stomatal conductance, and complete deterioration of photosynthesis, in addition to severe floating changes in the carbon metabolism affected by drought. The leaves’ functional characteristics after rewatering cannot be completely recovered to full-irrigation levels, and the recovery extent was strongly linked to the duration. Consequently, it is considered desirable to maintain normal physiological activity during the cotton reproductive period, and the drought episode can be sustained for 1 day in a long-term perspective when the soil water content is depleted to 40% ± 5% of the soil water holding capacity. These results can provide in-depth ideas for better understanding the hydraulic and physiological responses of cotton to drought episodes and rewatering, and they can help drought-affected cotton to cope with future climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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12 pages, 3365 KiB  
Article
Functional Trait Responses of Sophora alopecuroides L. Seedlings to Diverse Environmental Stresses in the Desert Steppe of Ningxia, China
by Jingdong Zhao, Chaoyi Shi, Le Wang, Xuejiao Han, Yuanjun Zhu, Jiankang Liu and Xiaohui Yang
Plants 2024, 13(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13010069 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
The seedling stage of plants is a crucial and vulnerable period in population and community dynamics. Despite this, studies on how plant traits respond to different environmental stresses often tend to overlook this early stage. Our study focused on Sophora alopecuroides L. seedlings [...] Read more.
The seedling stage of plants is a crucial and vulnerable period in population and community dynamics. Despite this, studies on how plant traits respond to different environmental stresses often tend to overlook this early stage. Our study focused on Sophora alopecuroides L. seedlings in Ningxia Yanchi desert steppe, analyzing the effects of sand burial, salinity, and drought on their key aboveground and belowground traits. The results showed that sand burial significantly negatively affected stem biomass (SB), leaf biomass (LB), stem diameter (SD), leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW), leaf area (LA), and total root volume (RV), but positively influenced total root length (RL). As sand burial depth increased, SB, LB, SD, LL, LW, LA, RV, root biomass (RB), RV, and lateral root numbers (LRN) significantly decreased. Salinity stress negatively affected SB, LB, SD, LL, LW, LA, RB, RL, and RV, with these traits declining as the stress concentration increased. Drought stress had a positive effect on SD and LL, with both traits showing an increase as the intensity of the drought stress intensified; however, it adversely affected RL. In Ningxia Yanchi desert steppe, salinity stress had the most significant effect on the traits of S. alopecuroides seedlings, followed by sand burial, with drought having the least significant effect. This study provides essential theoretical support for understanding how S. alopecuroides seedlings cope with environmental stresses in their early life stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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13 pages, 2823 KiB  
Article
Screening Potato Landraces to Cope with Climate Change in the Central Andes of Peru
by Edith Zevallos, Karina Marmolejo, Fernando Alvarez, Rocio Paitan, Ines Viza, Dante Becerra, Gina Rixi, Cecilia Silva-Diaz and Josue Inga
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2023, 14(4), 1167-1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb14040085 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Agriculture in the Andean region is mainly small-scale and rainfed, especially in Peru where almost 80% of its population depends on agriculture-related activities. Climate change in addition to social factors threatens the food security of this region. The forecast of more frequent dry [...] Read more.
Agriculture in the Andean region is mainly small-scale and rainfed, especially in Peru where almost 80% of its population depends on agriculture-related activities. Climate change in addition to social factors threatens the food security of this region. The forecast of more frequent dry spells would especially affect potato crops, domesticated centuries ago in the Andes, where there remains a great genetic diversity. This study aimed to characterize the response to drought stress of 79 potato landraces traditionally grown in the Central Andes of Peru (Pasco region) as a first selection for future breeding evaluations. The used indices were mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance (STI), stress susceptibility (SSI), and tolerance index (TOL), and a scoring methodology that integrates all of them into a single descriptor in a simple and fast way. The varied responses showed a wide genetic diversity within the assessed landraces, where at least nine of them own high resilience and productivity qualities, and many others are highly vulnerable to drought. It is recommended to complement these studies with physiological and molecular evaluations in stress situations, especially in those with tolerance qualities highlighted in this study, and thus promote the conservation of the biodiversity of this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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14 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Blue Carbon in Mangroves of the Arid Zones of San Ignacio and El Dátil Lagoons, El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve, Baja California, Mexico
by Jony R. Torres, Tannia Frausto-Illescas, Celeste Ortega-Trasviña, Ramón H. Barraza-Guardado, Zulia M. Sanchez-Mejía and Francisco Choix-Ley
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2023, 14(4), 1078-1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb14040078 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1565
Abstract
Estimation of carbon (C) stocks revealed a very high carbon sequestration potential of mangroves, which play a major role in the global C cycle. The C stored in the biomass of live trees can be estimated from above- and below-ground measurements, i.e., tree [...] Read more.
Estimation of carbon (C) stocks revealed a very high carbon sequestration potential of mangroves, which play a major role in the global C cycle. The C stored in the biomass of live trees can be estimated from above- and below-ground measurements, i.e., tree diameter and height, leaf litter, root biomass, necromass, and soil. The allocation of biomass and C in the scrub mangrove forest is influenced by various factors, including low structural development. The objective of this study was to estimate the carbon stock (in relation to biomass) and storage in the soil of the San Ignacio and El Dátil lagoons in an arid region of the north Pacific. Above-ground biomass (AGB) was estimated based on mangrove structure and leaf litter; below-ground biomass (BGB) was measured by extracting root cores (45 cm depth) and soil (1.2 m depth). Biomass values were converted to carbon with allometric equations. We found an inverse relationship between BGB content (roots) and above-ground structural development, with a mean total biomass (AGB + BGB) of 101.7 MgC ha−1. Below-ground carbon content (roots, necromass, and soil) was 2.8 times higher than above-ground carbon content (trees and litter). Control sites (devoid of vegetation) adjacent to the mangrove have recorded low carbon stocks of 7.3 MgC ha−1, which supports the recommendations for conserving and restoring degraded areas. The present study contributes valuable information on carbon related to mangrove biomass and stored in the soil of arid mangrove areas of northwestern Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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17 pages, 1625 KiB  
Article
Effects of Water Deficit on Growth and Productivity in Tomato Crops Irrigated with Water Treated with Very Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Resonance Fields
by Fernando Ferrari Putti, Jéssica Pigatto de Queiroz Barcelos, Bruno Cesar Goes, Renata Fernandes Alves, Mário Mollo Neto, Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva, Luís Roberto Almeida Gabriel Filho, Willian Aparecido Leotti Zanetti and Angela Vacaro de Souza
Plants 2023, 12(21), 3721; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12213721 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
The tomato crop is very sensitive to stress conditions. A water deficit is defined as when precipitation is less than the evapotranspiration (ETc) of the crop in a given period, and in this scenario of climate change, it is identified as responsible for [...] Read more.
The tomato crop is very sensitive to stress conditions. A water deficit is defined as when precipitation is less than the evapotranspiration (ETc) of the crop in a given period, and in this scenario of climate change, it is identified as responsible for global productivity losses. The use of potential technologies for better irrigation management, such as electromagnetically treated water, remains controversial. Thus, the objective of the present work was to investigate the effects of very low-frequency electromagnetic resonance field treatment on water for tomato crops submitted to different irrigation rates. For this, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions with different types of water: electromagnetically treated water (WTVLF) and untreated water (UNW), as well as four water replacement rates: 40, 60, 80, and 100% ETc. The electromagnetic treatment of the water was carried out using the commercial equipment AQUA4D®. The experiment was carried out in pots with five replications per treatment. Lower activity of SOD, POD, CAT, and APX enzymes was observed in plants irrigated with water treated with very low-frequency electromagnetic resonance fields (WTVLF), indicating less oxidative stress caused by water deficit. Water deficit reduced chlorophyll content, but the effects were less harmful with WTVLF water. The water deficit resulted in less accumulation of dry matter and less productivity in a linear relationship. However, plants irrigated with WTVLF showed increments of about 20% in dry matter accumulation and 20% in fruit production concerning plants irrigated with untreated water, independent of the irrigation rates. We can conclude that irrigation with WTVLF can be a solution to reduce the damage caused by water deficits and increase the productivity of tomato crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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17 pages, 11474 KiB  
Article
The Endophytic Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Alleviates Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Potato Plants
by Oksana G. Tomilova, Natalia A. Kryukova, Marina V. Efimova, Liliya V. Kolomeichuk, Irina S. Kovtun and Victor V. Glupov
Horticulturae 2023, 9(10), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9101140 - 16 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
The considerable decrease in crop productivity associated with the expansion of saline soils is an acute problem in agriculture. Endophytic fungi positively affect plant fitness under salinity conditions. The effects of potato inoculation with the conidia of the Beauveria bassiana strain Sar-31 on [...] Read more.
The considerable decrease in crop productivity associated with the expansion of saline soils is an acute problem in agriculture. Endophytic fungi positively affect plant fitness under salinity conditions. The effects of potato inoculation with the conidia of the Beauveria bassiana strain Sar-31 on growth (the weight of fresh and dry biomass, shoot and root length, numbers of stolons and leaves, and the leaf surface) and physiological indices (the concentration of pigments, free proline and malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes’ activity) were evaluated under moderate chloride salinity (100 mM). The results indicated that the plant’s association with the fungus mitigated the negative impact of salinity probably because of the activation of antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of free proline in potato tissues. Moreover, under the influence of B. bassiana Sar-31, the number of stolons significantly increased, which is one of the main characteristics of potato as an agricultural crop. Thus, Sar-31 may be a promising candidate for further investigation of its ability to stimulate growth and increase the stress tolerance of potato plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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19 pages, 4005 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Sodium Salt on Growth, Photosynthesis, Na+/K+ Homeostasis and Osmotic Adjustment of Atriplex canescens under Drought Stress
by Zhenzhong Zhang, Tan Zhang, Baosi Yin, Zhongjing Wang, Runjie Li and Shen Li
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092434 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Atriplex canescens is widely cultivated as drought and salt-tolerant fodder in arid regions of Northwest China, which is used for photoremediation of degraded land and soil and water conservation. To explore the growth performance of A. canescens when exposed to drought and salt [...] Read more.
Atriplex canescens is widely cultivated as drought and salt-tolerant fodder in arid regions of Northwest China, which is used for photoremediation of degraded land and soil and water conservation. To explore the growth performance of A. canescens when exposed to drought and salt stress, seedlings were treated with a range of drought stress (WC1: 75 ± 3.6%, WC2: 49 ± 2.9% and WC3: 27 ± 2.5% of soil water content) and the corresponding drought stress with additional sodium salt supplementation (NaCl:Na2SO4 = 1:1 with the total concentration of Na+ set to 150 mM). The findings of this paper indicated that moderate sodium salt could stimulate the growth of A. canescens and effectively alleviate the deleterious impact of drought stress by increasing the turgor potential (ψt) and relative water content (RWC) and decreasing the leaf water osmotic potential (ψs). Furthermore, the photosynthetic capacity was improved and the negative effects of drought stress on photosystem II (PSII) were mitigated. The extra 150 mM sodium salt also markedly increased the contribution of Na+ to ψs and the contribution of betaine to ψs. In summary, these results indicate that A. canescens can adapt to drought stress by accumulating enough Na+ for osmotic adjustment (OA). Additionally, this paper is aimed to provide a fundamental basis for the utilization and cultivation of A. canescens as a favored pasture crop in the Qaidam basin, thus increasing the ecological and environmental benefits for arid regions worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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11 pages, 1596 KiB  
Article
Physiological Comparison of Two Salt-Excluder Hybrid Grapevine Rootstocks under Salinity Reveals Different Adaptation Qualities
by Pranavkumar Gajjar, Ahmed Ismail, Tabibul Islam, Ahmed G. Darwish, Md Moniruzzaman, Eman Abuslima, Ahmed S. Dawood, Abdelkareem M. El-Saady, Violeta Tsolova, Ashraf El-Kereamy, Peter Nick, Sherif M. Sherif, Michael D. Abazinge and Islam El-Sharkawy
Plants 2023, 12(18), 3247; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12183247 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Like other plant stresses, salinity is a central agricultural problem, mainly in arid or semi-arid regions. Therefore, salt-adapted plants have evolved several adaptation strategies to counteract salt-related events, such as photosynthesis inhibition, metabolic toxicity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. European grapes are [...] Read more.
Like other plant stresses, salinity is a central agricultural problem, mainly in arid or semi-arid regions. Therefore, salt-adapted plants have evolved several adaptation strategies to counteract salt-related events, such as photosynthesis inhibition, metabolic toxicity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. European grapes are usually grafted onto salt-tolerant rootstocks as a cultivation practice to alleviate salinity-dependent damage. In the current study, two grape rootstocks, 140 Ruggeri (RUG) and Millardet et de Grasset 420A (MGT), were utilized to evaluate the diversity of their salinity adaptation strategies. The results showed that RUG is able to maintain higher levels of the photosynthetic pigments (Chl-T, Chl-a, and Chl-b) under salt stress, and hence accumulates higher levels of total soluble sugars (TSS), monosaccharides, and disaccharides compared with the MGT rootstock. Moreover, it was revealed that the RUG rootstock maintains and/or increases the enzymatic activities of catalase, GPX, and SOD under salinity, giving it a more efficient ROS detoxification machinery under stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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21 pages, 2858 KiB  
Article
Combined Effects of Straw Return with Nitrogen Fertilizer on Leaf Ion Balance, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Rice Yield in Saline-Sodic Paddy Fields
by Kun Dang, Cheng Ran, Hao Tian, Dapeng Gao, Jinmeng Mu, Zhenyu Zhang, Yanqiu Geng, Qiang Zhang, Xiwen Shao and Liying Guo
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092274 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Soil salinization is a prevalent global environmental issue that significantly hampers crop growth and yield. However, there has been limited research on the impact of nitrogen fertilization and various management practices in alleviating saline-sodic stress in crops. In order to examine the impact [...] Read more.
Soil salinization is a prevalent global environmental issue that significantly hampers crop growth and yield. However, there has been limited research on the impact of nitrogen fertilization and various management practices in alleviating saline-sodic stress in crops. In order to examine the impact of combined straw and nitrogen fertilizer application on the physiological and photosynthetic characteristics of rice in saline-sodic paddy fields, a three-year field experiment was conducted in Jilin Province, China. The experiment was conducted as a split-zone trial, where the main zone consisted of straw (S) and the secondary zone consisted of nitrogen fertilizer (N). Two levels of straw were 0 t ha−1 (B) and 7 t ha−1 (T). Four nitrogen treatments were applied: 0, 150, 250, and 350 kg ha−1, denoted as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively. The results show that the combination of straw and nitrogen fertilizer has been found to effectively reduce the Na+/K+ value, malondialdehyde content, and the relative electric leakage of rice leaves in saline-sodic soil. Furthermore, it increases leaf water potential, relative water content, and chlorophyll content, thereby promoting rice photosynthesis and improving rice yield. The rice yield exhibited the greatest positive effect when straw and nitrogen fertilizer were combined at a rate of 250 kg ha−1. The effectiveness of this combination improves over time. However, it is important to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when using straw returning. This approach not only ensures stable rice yield in saline-sodic fields, but also has positive effects on the economic impact of fertilizer application and soil environment preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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18 pages, 6327 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Selenium Endows Salt-Tolerant and Salt-Sensitive Soybeans with Salt Tolerance through Plant-Microbial Coactions
by Yin Wang, Chao Xu, Hada Wuriyanghan, Zheng Lei, Yanni Tang, Huan Zhang and Xiaohu Zhao
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2271; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092271 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Soil salinization is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects soybean growth and yield, underscoring the need to enhance plant salt tolerance for sustainable agriculture development. Selenium is a beneficial element that has been shown to promote plant growth, development and stress resistance. [...] Read more.
Soil salinization is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects soybean growth and yield, underscoring the need to enhance plant salt tolerance for sustainable agriculture development. Selenium is a beneficial element that has been shown to promote plant growth, development and stress resistance. This study employed pot experiments to investigate the effects of different salt levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl) on salt-tolerant (Zhonghuang 13) and salt-sensitive soybean (Dongnong 63) varieties. Additionally, the critical salt concentration (100 mM NaCl) was selected to explore the effects of exogenous selenium (0, 0.5, 1 and 3 mg·kg−1) on improving salt tolerance in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybeans under salt stress. Results showed that as salt concentration increased, plant height, shoot and root fresh weight, SPAD value and enzyme activity of both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybeans significantly decreased. The increasing concentration of exogenous selenium significantly decreased the proline content of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant soybeans by 40.65–58.87% and 38.51–50.46%, respectively, and the MDA content by 19.33–30.36% and 16.94–37.48%, respectively. Selenium supplementation also reduced the content of Na+ in salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant soybeans and improved K+ absorption in soybeans, which increased the K+/Na+ ratio. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene demonstrated that selenium application optimized the rhizosphere microecology structure of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean varieties and enhanced functional genes related to lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and cell motility of rhizosphere microorganisms. In summary, selenium application improved the salt tolerance of the two soybean varieties by enhancing the physiological resistance to salt stress and optimizing the structure and function of the rhizosphere microbial community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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14 pages, 2178 KiB  
Article
Co-Expression of JcNAC1- and JcZFP8-Improved Agronomic Traits of Tobacco and Enhanced Drought Resistance through NbbHLH1 and NbbHLH2
by Xianfei Niu, Zhiping Lai, Linghui Wang, Rui Ma, Yingying Ren, Xueying Wang, Cheng Cheng, Ting Wang, Fang Chen and Ying Xu
Plants 2023, 12(17), 3029; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12173029 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Previous studies have identified numerous transcription factors involved in drought response, each of which play different roles in plants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two transcription factors on drought response in Jatropha curcas L., JcNAC1 and [...] Read more.
Previous studies have identified numerous transcription factors involved in drought response, each of which play different roles in plants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two transcription factors on drought response in Jatropha curcas L., JcNAC1 and JcZFP8. The overexpression of these transcription factors in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) improved drought resistance, but JcZFP8 delayed germination and JcNAC1 reduced biomass and yield. By constitutively co-expressing these two genes in tobacco, drought resistance was improved, and the negative effects of each of them were overcome. The transgenic plants with double-gene co-expression showed stronger drought tolerance with 1.76-fold greater accumulation of proline and lower H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) content to 43 and 65% of wildtype (WT) levels, respectively. The expression levels of NbbHLH1 and NbbHLH2 genes upregulated linearly with the increased drought tolerance of double genes co-expression plants. In drought conditions, the leaf water contents of bhlh1, bhlh2, and bhlh1bhlh2 deletion mutants obtained by CRISPR-CAS9 knockout technique were maintained at 99%, 97%, and 97% of WT. The bhlh1bhlh2 was found with lower germination rate but with higher reactive oxygen levels (1.64-fold H2O2 and 1.41-fold MDA levels). Thus, the co-expression of two transcription factors with different functions overcame the adverse traits brought by a single gene and enhanced the shared drought-tolerant traits, which can provide guidance on theory and selection of gene combinations for the application of multi-gene co-expression in agriculture in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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21 pages, 9156 KiB  
Article
A Transcription Factor SlNAC4 Gene of Suaeda liaotungensis Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance through Regulating ABA Synthesis
by Jiahui Liu, Hongfei Wang, Mingxing Su, Qianqian Li, Honglin Xu, Jieqiong Song, Changping Li and Qiuli Li
Plants 2023, 12(16), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12162951 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) transcription factors are ubiquitously distributed in plants and play critical roles in the construction of plant organs and abiotic stress response. In this study, we described the cloning of a Suaeda liaotungensis K. NAC transcription factor gene [...] Read more.
The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) transcription factors are ubiquitously distributed in plants and play critical roles in the construction of plant organs and abiotic stress response. In this study, we described the cloning of a Suaeda liaotungensis K. NAC transcription factor gene SlNAC4, which contained 1450 bp, coding a 331 amino acid. We found that SlNAC4 was highly expressed in stems of S. liaotungensis, and the expression of SlNAC4 was considerably up-regulated after salt, drought, and ABA treatments. Transcription analysis and subcellular localization demonstrated that the SlNAC4 protein was located both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and contained a C-terminal transcriptional activator. The SlNAC4 overexpression Arabidopsis lines significantly enhanced the tolerance to salt and drought treatment and displayed obviously increased activity of antioxidant enzymes under salt and drought stress. Additionally, transgenic plants overexpressing SlNAC4 had a significantly higher level of physiological indices. Interestingly, SlNAC4 promoted the expression of ABA metabolism-related genes including AtABA1, AtABA3, AtNCED3, AtAAO3, but inhibited the expression of AtCYP707A3 in overexpression lines. Using a yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay, we identified that the SlNAC4 transcription factor could bind to the promoters of those ABA metabolism-related genes. These results indicate that overexpression of SlNAC4 in plants enhances the tolerance to salt and drought stress by regulating ABA metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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15 pages, 1957 KiB  
Article
QTL-seq Identifies Pokkali-Derived QTLs and Candidate Genes for Salt Tolerance at Seedling Stage in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Decha Songtoasesakul, Wanchana Aesomnuk, Sarinthip Pannak, Jonaliza Lanceras Siangliw, Meechai Siangliw, Theerayut Toojinda, Samart Wanchana and Siwaret Arikit
Agriculture 2023, 13(8), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13081596 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Rice is a staple food crop that plays a pivotal role in global food security, feeding more than half of the world’s population. Soil salinity is one of the most important global problems affecting rice productivity. Salt stress at the seedling stage inhibits [...] Read more.
Rice is a staple food crop that plays a pivotal role in global food security, feeding more than half of the world’s population. Soil salinity is one of the most important global problems affecting rice productivity. Salt stress at the seedling stage inhibits root growth, impairs nutrient and water uptake, and affects overall plant vigor, resulting in poor establishment and reduced growth. Therefore, acquiring salt tolerance, especially at the seedling stage, is critical for successful rice production in salinity-affected areas. In this study, 160 RILs derived from a cross between Pokkali and KDML105 were evaluated for their salt tolerance at the seedling stage. QTL-seq analysis with this population identified nine QTLs associated with salt tolerance. Through a comprehensive examination of the effects of coding sequence variants of the 360 annotated genes within the QTLs and gene expression under salt stress, 47 candidate genes were prioritized. In particular, Os01g0200700 (metallothionein-like protein) and Os12g0625000 (O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase) were suggested as potential candidates based on annotated functions and expression data. The results provide valuable insights for improving rice productivity and resistance under salt stress conditions during the critical seedling stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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23 pages, 6450 KiB  
Article
Drought Tolerance Evaluation and Verification of Fifty Pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) Varieties under Water Deficit Condition
by Jingrui Li, Kumail Abbas, Weihong Wang, Binbin Gong, Lin Wang, Shenglin Hou, Hui Xia, Xiaolei Wu, Lida Chen and Hongbo Gao
Agronomy 2023, 13(8), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13082087 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Reduced available water resources have become the main limiting factor for the production of leafy vegetable, such as pakchoi, which can be effectively addressed by growing water-efficient varieties. Therefore, it is particularly important for evaluation and verification of drought tolerant varieties. In this [...] Read more.
Reduced available water resources have become the main limiting factor for the production of leafy vegetable, such as pakchoi, which can be effectively addressed by growing water-efficient varieties. Therefore, it is particularly important for evaluation and verification of drought tolerant varieties. In this study, 50 different varieties of pakchoi were detected for their morphological and physiological indicators under both normal-irrigated and water-deficiency environments. Based on systematic analysis of these evaluation indicators using different evaluation methods, the significant indicators were identified and the prediction model was established followed by validation of different drought tolerant of pakchoi varieties. The results showed that considerable differences were observed in all the indicators detected under conditions of water deprivation compared with normal irrigation. Frequency distribution revealed that the indictors sensitivity with significant changes to water-deficient conditions was ordered as follows: aboveground fresh and dry weight, followed by belowground fresh and dry weight, root volume, root length, root activity, and soluble sugar. Correlation analysis showed that each indicator was significantly or extremely significantly associated with other indices, indicating that there is a certain degree of association between the indices. Principal component analysis (PCA) turned 16 indicators into four independent components, with a cumulative contribution ratio of 80.147%. According to the results of drought tolerance comprehensive evaluation value (D-value) analysis and cluster analysis, 50 varieties were ranked in relation to drought tolerance and classified into five categories, among them Jinhui, Qingguan, Dongyue, Xiazhijiao, and Hanszifei, which were classified as highly drought-tolerant cultivars. Moreover, the stepwise regression model was established and demonstrated that soluble sugar, average root diameter, belowground fresh weight, root volume, and leaf number were selected as key indicators which can be used for screening and identifying drought-pakchoi varieties. Furthermore, the tolerance capacity of pakchoi varieties was further validated using one representative variety selected from five groups and treated with water-deficit stress. It was demonstrated that the established model was verified consistent with drought tolerance of pakchoi varieties, and tolerance capacity was closely related to increasing epidermal stomatal density, maintaining high photosynthesis, and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity to reduce damage (ROS). The results proposed the key drought tolerance indicators and evaluation methods, which provide the basis for the screening of leaf-vegetable varieties with different drought-tolerances, as well the identified varieties could be used for effective water-saving production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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18 pages, 6240 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Scan for Genetic Signatures Based on the Whole-Genome Resequencing of Salt- and Drought-Tolerant Rice Varieties
by Conghui Jiang, Yulong Wang, Jinjun Zhou, Muhammad Abdul Rehman Rashid, Yaping Li, Yongbin Peng, Lixia Xie, Guanhua Zhou, Yanan He, Wei Sun, Chongke Zheng and Xianzhi Xie
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071936 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1203
Abstract
Identifying elite stress-tolerant varieties and elucidating the genetic mechanisms mediating stress resistance can help breeders develop and exploit new rice germplasm resources. In this study, we identified five salt-tolerant varieties and five drought-tolerant upland rice varieties by survival rate and drought tolerance grade [...] Read more.
Identifying elite stress-tolerant varieties and elucidating the genetic mechanisms mediating stress resistance can help breeders develop and exploit new rice germplasm resources. In this study, we identified five salt-tolerant varieties and five drought-tolerant upland rice varieties by survival rate and drought tolerance grade and constructed variation maps of the resistance using a deep-sequencing approach. Using 116 rice accessions from the 3000 Rice Genomes Project, we characterized the population structure of sequenced varieties. Through comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis, we screened 39 salt-response candidate genes. Natural variation analysis on root length-related drought candidate gene showed that Hap1 and Hap4 were the predominant haplotypes in indica, while Hap5 was the predominant haplotype in japonica. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that carbohydrate metabolic process, defense response, and response to stimulus were the common GO terms associated with salt and drought tolerance. Selective signatures in elite stress-tolerant varieties indicated that multiple important stress tolerance genes, namely OsRac1, Pikp-2, Xa26, OsSIRP4, and wsl1, were selected and utilized in these sequenced rice varieties. These findings may be useful for clarifying the genetic variations among elite stress-tolerant varieties, while also laying the foundation for a more comprehensive investigation of the genetic basis of salt and drought tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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14 pages, 4990 KiB  
Article
Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf. Response to Osmotic Stress Determined via Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing and Next-Generation Sequencing
by Qiuxu Liu, Fangyan Wang, Yalin Xu, Chaowen Lin, Xiangyan Li, Wenzhi Xu, Hong Wang and Yongqun Zhu
Plants 2023, 12(14), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142624 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Drought, as a widespread environmental factor in nature, has become one of the most critical factors restricting the yield of forage grass. Sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.), as a tall and large grass, has a large biomass and is widely used as [...] Read more.
Drought, as a widespread environmental factor in nature, has become one of the most critical factors restricting the yield of forage grass. Sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.), as a tall and large grass, has a large biomass and is widely used as forage and biofuel. However, its growth and development are limited by drought stress. To obtain novel insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the drought response and excavate drought tolerance genes in sudangrass, the first full-length transcriptome database of sudangrass under drought stress at different time points was constructed by combining single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT) and next-generation transcriptome sequencing (NGS). A total of 32.3 Gb of raw data was obtained, including 20,199 full-length transcripts with an average length of 1628 bp after assembly and correction. In total, 11,921 and 8559 up- and down-regulated differentially expressed genes were identified between the control group and plants subjected to drought stress. Additionally, 951 transcription factors belonging to 50 families and 358 alternative splicing events were found. A KEGG analysis of 158 core genes exhibiting continuous changes over time revealed that ‘galactose metabolism’ is a hub pathway and raffinose synthase 2 and β-fructofuranosidase are key genes in the response to drought stress. This study revealed the molecular mechanism underlying drought tolerance in sudangrass. Furthermore, the genes identified in this study provide valuable resources for further research into the response to drought stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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13 pages, 3001 KiB  
Article
Non-Invasive Micro-Test Technology and Reciprocal Grafting Provide Direct Evidence of Contrasting Na+ Transport Strategies between Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita maxima
by Mengliang Niu, Wei Luo, Liang Luo, Shanshan Chen, Huixia Zhao, Hao Zhang and Yike Qian
Agronomy 2023, 13(7), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13071843 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 908
Abstract
Cucurbita species are widely used as rootstocks for cucumber, watermelon, and other plants for the restriction of toxic Na+ transport from root to shoot. Previous studies have found distinct salt tolerance strategies between Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita maxima; the former accumulates [...] Read more.
Cucurbita species are widely used as rootstocks for cucumber, watermelon, and other plants for the restriction of toxic Na+ transport from root to shoot. Previous studies have found distinct salt tolerance strategies between Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita maxima; the former accumulates a large amount of Na+ in the root, while the latter accumulates Na+ in the shoot. To further study the mechanism of Na+ transport in plants, four reciprocal grafts were made between MB (C. moschata) and JHL (C. maxima), denoted as MB/MB, JHL/JHL, MB/JHL, and JHL/MB (scion/rootstock). The results showed that using MB as the rootstock effectively reduced the accumulation of Na+ in the scion. Conversely, JHL rootstock tended to transfer more Na+ to the scion. To clarify this phenomenon, the velocities of Na+ flows on the root surface, stem, and vein of grafting combinations were measured using non-invasive micro-test technology. Compared with the seedlings using JHL as rootstock, the grafted combination with MB as rootstock had a higher root Na+ efflux and lower Na+ fluxes in the stem and vein. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the critical roles of salt overly sensitive 1 and high-affinity potassium as components of the mechanism enabling Na+ exclusion from the root and Na+ unloading from the stem xylem. Compared with the seedlings using MB as rootstocks, the JHL-grafted plants showed more rapid stomatal closure and decreased transpiration rate in the first three hours after salt stress but maintained a higher level under prolonged salt treatment (120 h). The tissue tolerances of JHL and MB were assessed using the isolated leaves under NaCl to exclude the influence of the root and stem. The results showed that the salinity inflicted more serious damage to MB leaves than to JHL leaves. qRT-PCR analyses indicated that the intracellular Na+/H+ transporter in the leaf vein was involved in this process. All these findings indicated that C. moschata and C. maxima adopted different strategies for regulating Na+ transport, and grafting can be used as a tool to create more salt-tolerant plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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17 pages, 9049 KiB  
Article
Effects of Drought Stress on the Morphological Structure and Flower Organ Physiological Characteristics of Camellia oleifera Flower Buds
by Pu-Rui Guo, Ling-Li Wu, Ying Wang, Dan Liu and Jian-An Li
Plants 2023, 12(13), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12132585 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Investigations on the impact of drought stress on the reproductive growth of C. oleifera have been relatively limited compared to the extensive research conducted on its nutritional growth. To study the effects of drought stress on the growth and development of C. oleifera [...] Read more.
Investigations on the impact of drought stress on the reproductive growth of C. oleifera have been relatively limited compared to the extensive research conducted on its nutritional growth. To study the effects of drought stress on the growth and development of C. oleifera flower buds, we investigated the effects of drought stress on the bud anatomical structure, relative water content, relative electrical conductivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmoregulation substance content, and hormone contents of C. oleifera using 4-year-old potted plants (‘Huaxin’ cultivar) as experimental materials. We observed C. oleifera flower bud shrinkage, faded pollen colour, shortened style length, decreased relative water content, increased relative electrical conductivity, and decreased pollen germination rate under drought stress. As the stress treatment duration increased, the malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar (SS), soluble protein (SP), and proline (Pro) contents, as well as peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities increased. Moreover, the levels of the plant hormones indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin (CTK) increased, whereas those of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) decreased, and those of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin a3 (GA3) first increased and then decreased. Compared to the control group, the drought treatment group exhibited stronger antioxidant capacity, water regulation ability, and drought stress protection. These results indicate that C. oleifera is adaptable to drought-prone environments. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the evaluation of drought resistance in C. oleifera, as well as the development of water management strategies for cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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17 pages, 6486 KiB  
Article
The Sweet Potato K+ Transporter IbHAK11 Regulates K+ Deficiency and High Salinity Stress Tolerance by Maintaining Positive Ion Homeostasis
by Hong Zhu, Jiayu Guo, Tao Ma, Shuyan Liu, Yuanyuan Zhou, Xue Yang, Qiyan Li, Kaiyue Yu, Tongshuai Wang, Sixiang He, Chunmei Zhao, Jingshan Wang and Jiongming Sui
Plants 2023, 12(13), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12132422 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
The K+ transporter KT/HAK/KUP (K+ transporter/high-affinity K+/K+ uptake) family has a critical effect on K+ uptake and translocation in plants under different environmental conditions. However, the functional analysis of KT/HAK/KUP members in sweet potatoes is still limited. [...] Read more.
The K+ transporter KT/HAK/KUP (K+ transporter/high-affinity K+/K+ uptake) family has a critical effect on K+ uptake and translocation in plants under different environmental conditions. However, the functional analysis of KT/HAK/KUP members in sweet potatoes is still limited. The present work reported the physiological activity of a new gene, IbHAK11, in the KT/HAK/KUP family in sweet potatoes. IbHAK11 expression increased significantly in the low K+-tolerant line compared with the low K+-sensitive line following treatment with low K+ concentrations. IbHAK11 upregulation promoted root growth in Arabidopsis under low K+ conditions. Under high saline stress, transgenic lines had superior growth and photosynthetic characteristics compared with the wild-type (WT). As for IbHAK11-overexpressing plants, activation of both the non-enzymatic and enzymatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging systems was observed. Therefore, IbHAK11-overexpressing plants had lower malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS levels (including H2O2 and O2−) compared with WT under salt-induced stress. We also found that under both low K+ and high salinity conditions, overexpression of IbHAK11 enhanced K+ translocation from the root to the shoot and decreased Na+ absorption in Arabidopsis. Consequently, IbHAK11 positively regulated K+ deficiency and high salinity stresses by regulating K+ translocation and Na+ uptake, thus maintaining K+/Na+ homeostasis in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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15 pages, 2642 KiB  
Article
Drought Impact on the Morpho-Physiological Parameters of Perennial Rhizomatous Grasses in the Mediterranean Environment
by Claudia Arias, Gladys Lino, Elena Sánchez, Salvador Nogués and Xavier Serrat
Agriculture 2023, 13(6), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture13061233 - 12 Jun 2023
Viewed by 986
Abstract
The selection of non-food crops for bioenergy production in limiting environments is a priority for energy security and climate change mitigation. Therefore, more studies are needed on the interactions between species and environmental factors in specific sites which allows their selection for biomass [...] Read more.
The selection of non-food crops for bioenergy production in limiting environments is a priority for energy security and climate change mitigation. Therefore, more studies are needed on the interactions between species and environmental factors in specific sites which allows their selection for biomass production. The objective of this work is to study the impact of drought on the morpho-physiological parameters of perennial rhizomatous grasses Panicum virgatum L., Miscanthus × giganteus, and Arundo donax L. in the Mediterranean environment. Plants were grown on field and trials were carried out under support-irrigation and rainfed conditions during two consecutive years. Morpho-physiological parameters were measured in May, June and August, and dry biomass at the end of the experiment. Under rainfed conditions, A. donax presented the highest photosynthesis rate (25, 15 and 10 CO2 m−2 s−1), relative water content (85–90%), and dry biomass (~4500 g plant−1) compared with P. virgatum (20, 5 and 5 CO2 m−2 s−1, 65–85% RWC and ~1400 g plant−1) and Miscanthus (18, 4 and 0 CO2 m−2 s−1, 80–10% RWC and ~260 g plant−1). It is concluded that A. donax would be the best perennial rhizomatous grass to be used as bioenergy crop under Mediterranean conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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21 pages, 4054 KiB  
Article
Mining Salt Tolerance SNP Loci and Prediction of Candidate Genes in the Rice Bud Stage by Genome-Wide Association Analysis
by Rui Wang, Zhenzhen Zhou, Mengyuan Xiong, Mingyu Du, Xingxing Lin, Cuiping Liu, Mingwei Lu, Zhengbo Liu, Yinping Chang and Erbao Liu
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112163 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
Mining salt tolerance genes is significant for breeding high-quality salt-tolerant rice varieties in order to improve the utilization of saline–alkaline land. In this study, 173 rice accessions were measured for their germination potential (GP), germination rate (GR), seedling length (SL), root length (RL), [...] Read more.
Mining salt tolerance genes is significant for breeding high-quality salt-tolerant rice varieties in order to improve the utilization of saline–alkaline land. In this study, 173 rice accessions were measured for their germination potential (GP), germination rate (GR), seedling length (SL), root length (RL), germination potential relative to salt damage rate (GPR), germination rate relative to salt damage rate (GRR), seedling length relative to salt damage rate (SLR), relative salt damage rate at the germination stage (RSD) and comprehensive relative salt damage rate in the early seedling stage (CRS) under normal and salt stress conditions. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 1,322,884 high-quality SNPs obtained by resequencing. Eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to salt tolerance traits at the germination stage were detected in 2020 and 2021. They were related to the GPR (qGPR2) and SLR (qSLR9), which were newly discovered in this study. Three genes were predicted as salt tolerance candidate genes: LOC_Os02g40664, LOC_Os02g40810, and LOC_Os09g28310. At present, marker-assisted selection (MAS) and gene-edited breeding are becoming more widespread. Our discovery of candidate genes provides a reference for research in this field. The elite alleles identified in this study may provide a molecular basis for cultivating salt-tolerant rice varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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10 pages, 11082 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Melatonin Regulates Physiological Responses and Active Ingredient Levels in Polygonum cuspidatum under Drought Stress
by Ru-Jie Shi, Ming-Yan Ye, Yue Liu, Qiang-Sheng Wu, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah and Nong Zhou
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2141; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112141 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Polygonum cuspidatum, an important medicinal plant, is rich in resveratrol and polydatin, but it frequently suffers from drought stress in the nursery stage, which inhibits the plant’s growth, active components concentrations, and the price of rhizome in the later stage. The purpose [...] Read more.
Polygonum cuspidatum, an important medicinal plant, is rich in resveratrol and polydatin, but it frequently suffers from drought stress in the nursery stage, which inhibits the plant’s growth, active components concentrations, and the price of rhizome in the later stage. The purpose of this study was to analyze how exogenous 100 mM melatonin (MT) (an indole heterocyclic compound) affected biomass production, water potential, gas exchange, antioxidant enzyme activities, active components levels, and resveratrol synthase (RS) gene expression of P. cuspidatum seedlings growing under well-watered and drought stress conditions. The 12-week drought treatment negatively affected the shoot and root biomass, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange parameters (photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate), whereas the application of exogenous MT significantly increased these variables of stressed and non-stressed seedlings, accompanied by higher increases in the biomass, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance under drought versus well-watered conditions. Drought treatment raised the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase in the leaves, while the MT application increased the activities of the three antioxidant enzymes regardless of soil moistures. Drought treatment reduced root chrysophanol, emodin, physcion, and resveratrol levels, while it dramatically promoted root polydatin levels. At the same time, the application of exogenous MT significantly increased the levels of the five active components, regardless of soil moistures, with the exception of no change in the emodin under well-watered conditions. The MT treatment also up-regulated the relative expression of PcRS under both soil moistures, along with a significantly positive correlation between the relative expression of PcRS and resveratrol levels. In conclusion, exogenous MT can be employed as a biostimulant to enhance plant growth, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant enzyme activities, and active components of P. cuspidatum under drought stress conditions, which provides a reference for drought-resistant cultivation of P. cuspidatum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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32 pages, 4740 KiB  
Article
Photosynthesis Performance at Different Growth Stages, Growth, and Yield of Rice in Saline Fields
by Supranee Santanoo, Watanachai Lontom, Anoma Dongsansuk, Kochaphan Vongcharoen and Piyada Theerakulpisut
Plants 2023, 12(9), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12091903 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2300
Abstract
Photosynthetic performance and biomass at different growth stages of the salt-sensitive KDML105 rice cultivar, three improved lines (RD73, CSSL8-94, and TSKC1-144), and the salt-tolerant standard genotype (Pokkali) were investigated under non-saline, semi-saline, and the heavy-saline field conditions in the northeast of Thailand. In [...] Read more.
Photosynthetic performance and biomass at different growth stages of the salt-sensitive KDML105 rice cultivar, three improved lines (RD73, CSSL8-94, and TSKC1-144), and the salt-tolerant standard genotype (Pokkali) were investigated under non-saline, semi-saline, and the heavy-saline field conditions in the northeast of Thailand. In the non-saline field, net photosynthesis rates (Pn) of all genotypes remained high from the early vegetative stage to the milky stage and then dramatically reduced at maturity. In contrast, in both saline fields, Pn was the highest at the early vegetative stage and continuously declining until maturity. Leaf chlorophyll content remained high from the early vegetative to milky stage then reduced at maturity for all three field conditions. During the reproductive phase, Pn of KDML105 and the improved lines were reduced by 4–17% in the heavy-saline field, while that of Pokkali was increased (11–19% increase over that of the non-saline). Pokkali also showed a prominent increase in water use efficiency (WUE) under salinity. Nevertheless, rice leaves under saline conditions maintained the PSII integrity, as indicated by the pre-dawn values of maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) of higher than 0.8. Pokkali under the semi-saline and the heavy-saline conditions exhibited 51% and 27% increases in final biomass, and 64% and 42% increases in filled grain weight plant−1, respectively. In the semi-saline condition, RD73, TSKC1-144, CSSL8-94, and KDML105 showed moderate salt tolerance by displaying 24%, 18.6%, 15%, and 11.3% increases in final biomass, and 24%, 4%, 13%, and 6% increases in filled grain weight plant−1, respectively. In contrast, in the heavy-saline field, final biomass of RD73, KDML105, CSSL8-94, and TSKC1-144 showed 48%, 45%, 38%, and 36% reductions from that in the non-saline field, while the filled grain weight plant−1 were reduced by 45%, 58%, 35%, and 32%, respectively. This indicated that the improved lines carrying drought- and/or salt-tolerance genes achieved an increased salt tolerance level than the parental elite cultivar, KDML105. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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19 pages, 5924 KiB  
Article
Effect of Seawater Irrigation on Arthrocnemum macrostachyum Growing in Extensive Green Roof Systems under Semi-Arid Mediterranean Climatic Conditions
by Angeliki T. Paraskevopoulou, Nikolaos Ntoulas, Dionysia Bourtsoukli and Konstantinos Bertsouklis
Agronomy 2023, 13(5), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051198 - 24 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
The effects of climate change in coastal semi-arid and arid Mediterranean areas are intense. Green roofs planted with native plant species that are able to withstand saline conditions can contribute to supporting climate-change adaptation and species preservation in wetlands, enhancing the character of [...] Read more.
The effects of climate change in coastal semi-arid and arid Mediterranean areas are intense. Green roofs planted with native plant species that are able to withstand saline conditions can contribute to supporting climate-change adaptation and species preservation in wetlands, enhancing the character of local landscapes and reducing disaster risk. Considering the limited availability of water resources, there is increasing interest in the use of seawater for irrigation, particularly near coastal areas. The growth of a native Mediterranean halophyte, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, on a simulated extensive green roof system with six different irrigation treatments with or without seawater for 97 days is presented. The irrigation treatments included tap water every 4 or 8 days, seawater every 4 or 8 days, and seawater alternated with tap water every 4 or 8 days. The plants’ growth indices, heights, ground-cover surface areas, and relative shoot water content, as well as the electrical conductivity of the green roof’s substrate leachates (ECL), were measured at regular intervals. Overall, the plants irrigated with tap water every 4 days and the plants irrigated with seawater alternated with tap water every 4 days showed the greatest growth amongst the different irrigation treatments, while the plants irrigated with seawater or seawater alternated with tap water every 8 days showed the least growth. Furthermore, the plants irrigated with tap water every 8 days or seawater every 4 days showed intermediate growth. To conserve water, irrigation with seawater alternated with tap water every 4 days is proposed. To further conserve water, irrigation every 4 days with seawater only is also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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13 pages, 1909 KiB  
Article
Variation in Hydric Response of Two Industrial Hemp Varieties (Cannabis sativa) to Induced Water Stress
by Hang Duong, Brian Pearson, Steven Anderson, Erin Berthold and Roger Kjelgren
Horticulturae 2023, 9(4), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9040431 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
Information on industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) water use and water stress is sparse. We studied water stress impact in two essential-oil hemp cultivars (‘Wife’ and ‘Cherry’) prompted by anecdotal differences in growth and water use. In a greenhouse setting, we measured [...] Read more.
Information on industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) water use and water stress is sparse. We studied water stress impact in two essential-oil hemp cultivars (‘Wife’ and ‘Cherry’) prompted by anecdotal differences in growth and water use. In a greenhouse setting, we measured water relations, water use, growth, and essential oil (CBD-cannabidiol and THC-delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) concentrations. Water stress did not significantly affect THC and CBD concentrations, but both cultivars responded to water stress by reducing transpiration through notably different mechanisms. ‘Cherry’ had more anisohydric behavior, maintaining high stomatal conductance (Gs) and more negative leaf water potential until root zone water depletion triggered partial afternoon stomatal closure to moderate stress, resulting in lower flower and CBD yield. By contrast, water-stressed ‘Wife’ rapidly defoliated half its leaf area in balance with less applied water and so maintained high Gs and flower yield on par with well-watered plants, suggesting potential for deficit irrigation to conserve water and reduce post-harvest vegetation management. Differences in water use translated to provisionally suggested crop coefficients of 1 for ‘Cherry’ and 1.3–1.5 for ‘Wife’, but further research is needed. Because hemp is genetically diverse, and cultivar naming conventions are currently lax, further germplasm screening and research are needed to determine the extent to which either conservative ‘Cherry’ or the water-stress defoliation response of ‘Wife’ is found in the larger population of hemp cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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14 pages, 2355 KiB  
Article
The Genotypic Variability among Short-Season Soybean Cultivars for Nitrogen Fixation under Drought Stress
by Dilrukshi Kombala Liyanage, Davoud Torkamaneh, François Belzile, Parthiba Balasubramanian, Brett Hill and Malinda S. Thilakarathna
Plants 2023, 12(5), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12051004 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Soybean fixes atmospheric nitrogen through the symbiotic rhizobia bacteria that inhabit root nodules. Drought stress negatively affect symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in soybean. The main objective of this study was to identify allelic variations associated with SNF in short-season Canadian soybean varieties under [...] Read more.
Soybean fixes atmospheric nitrogen through the symbiotic rhizobia bacteria that inhabit root nodules. Drought stress negatively affect symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in soybean. The main objective of this study was to identify allelic variations associated with SNF in short-season Canadian soybean varieties under drought stress. A diversity panel of 103 early-maturity Canadian soybean varieties was evaluated under greenhouse conditions to determine SNF-related traits under drought stress. Drought was imposed after three weeks of plant growth, where plants were maintained at 30% field capacity (FC) (drought) and 80% FC (well-watered) until seed maturity. Under drought stress, soybean plants had lower seed yield, yield components, seed nitrogen content, % nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa), and total seed nitrogen fixed compared to those under well-watered conditions. Significant genotypic variability among soybean varieties was found for yield, yield parameters, and nitrogen fixation traits. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 2.16 M single nucleotide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for different yield and nitrogen fixation related parameters for 30% FC and their relative performance (30% FC/80% FC). In total, five quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions, including candidate genes, were detected as significantly associated with %Ndfa under drought stress and relative performance. These genes can potentially aid in future breeding efforts to develop drought-resistant soybean varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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14 pages, 8451 KiB  
Article
Identification of CoDREB Genes for Drought and Cold Tolerance in Camellia oleifera
by Ying Wang, Purui Guo, Song Sheng, Jian’an Li and Jindong Yan
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2023, 14(1), 228-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb14010019 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
DREB is a plant-specific transcription factor family that plays a pleiotropic regulatory role in response to abiotic stresses such as drought and cold. In this study, we identified 51 DREB genes of Camellia oleifera. These CoDREBs ranged from 88 to 518 amino acids [...] Read more.
DREB is a plant-specific transcription factor family that plays a pleiotropic regulatory role in response to abiotic stresses such as drought and cold. In this study, we identified 51 DREB genes of Camellia oleifera. These CoDREBs ranged from 88 to 518 amino acids (average/median 259/237 aa). The predicted molecular weights (MW) of the CoDREB proteins ranged from 9.7 kDa to 59.6 kDa, and the isoelectric points (pI) ranged from 4.62 to 10.44. A gene structure analysis showed that 43/51 (84.3%) CoDREBs were intronless, and the number of exons varied from one to three. Then, we focused on the response of CoDREB genes in terms of plant drought and cold acclimation. Under short-/long-term drought stress, CoDREB1.2/4.1/4.4/4.8/4.12/4.15/5.1/5.3/5.5/6.2 have different regulations in response to long-term drought response, and CoDREB1.4/2.5/4.6/4.1/6.3/6.5 specifically in the short term. Additionally, in response to mild/severe drought and followed by recovery, we found that CoDREBs may be involved in a complex drought-responsive regulatory network. Under cold stress, CoDREB5.2 and CoDREB6.5 are significantly up-regulated, and CoDREB may participate in the regulation of the low-temperature response of C. oleifera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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15 pages, 3651 KiB  
Article
Study on Root Hydraulic Lift of Drought-Tolerant and Drought-Sensitive Potato Cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.)
by Panfeng Yao, Yajie Li, Kazim Ali, Chunli Zhang, Tianyuan Qin, Zhenzhen Bi, Yuhui Liu, Zhen Liu, Philip Kear, Chao Sun and Jiangping Bai
Agronomy 2023, 13(2), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13020443 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1816
Abstract
In order to investigate the relationship between hydraulic lift and drought tolerance in potato, four cultivars differing in drought susceptibilities were selected, and a pot experiment with three different irrigation conditions was carried out in a randomized complete block design. Under irrigation conditions [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the relationship between hydraulic lift and drought tolerance in potato, four cultivars differing in drought susceptibilities were selected, and a pot experiment with three different irrigation conditions was carried out in a randomized complete block design. Under irrigation conditions (WW), hydraulic lift of soil water was not observed in the upper pots. Under half-irrigation (DW) and drought (DD) conditions, the water content increased in the upper pots, along with a change in root-related traits, higher biomass, and lower proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations observed in the drought-tolerant cultivars (Longshu NO.3 and Xindaping), whereas the drought-sensitive cultivars (Favorita and Atlantic) had contrary results. As the degree of drought stress increased, the phenomenon of hydraulic lift was inhibited completely, along with a reduction in soil water content and biomass and an increase in Pro and MDA accumulation. Genotypes of Longshu NO.3 and Xindaping exhibited higher tolerance to drought stress than Favorita and Atlantic under drought conditions. In addition, similar results were also obtained for the determination of plant height, leaf water content, root activity, and root–shoot ratio. This study revealed that there was a phenomenon of hydraulic redistribution among different potato cultivars, along with hydraulic lift strongly associated with the root growth, biomass allocation, and other physiological traits that potentially confer drought resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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19 pages, 1951 KiB  
Article
The Response of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Genotypes at Different Ploidy Levels to Salt (NaCl) Stress
by Murat Aycan, Emine Gulden Erkilic, Yasin Ozgen, Irem Poyraz and Mustafa Yildiz
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2023, 14(1), 199-217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb14010017 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide to produce sugar. The production of sugar beet and other plants is in danger due to the world’s increasingly salinized soils. Although different sugar beet genotypes exist at various ploidy levels, [...] Read more.
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide to produce sugar. The production of sugar beet and other plants is in danger due to the world’s increasingly salinized soils. Although different sugar beet genotypes exist at various ploidy levels, most of them are diploid (2X) with 18 chromosomes. The majority of polyploid plants have different variations, morphologies, and anatomy. Diploid and polyploid plants especially have different morphology, physiology, cellularity, and biochemistry. As a result, polyploidy has been identified as an essential component in determining plant salt tolerance. To evaluate the effects of salt (NaCl) stress on sugar beet genotypes, diploid (2X), triploid (3X), and tetraploid (4X) genotypes were exposed to 0 (control), 50, and 150 mM NaCl concentrations for seven weeks. Under control conditions, the diploid (2X) genotype showed higher growth performance compared to the tetraploid (4X) and triploid (3X) genotypes, respectively. Regarding germination and early-stage growth performance, a reduction of about 50% was observed in the diploid (2X) genotype under salt stress compared to the control condition. The diploid (2X) genotype showed higher germination, a greater salt tolerance index, and better seedling growth performance than the other ploidy levels. Late-stage growth, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, cytological findings, and total chlorophyll content were all shown to be higher and less reduced (around 30%) under salt stress in diploid (2X) genotypes. Even though all of the findings in this study showed a decrease when plants were exposed to salt (NaCl), the diploid (2X) ploidy level plants displayed more robust growth and development than the triploid (3X) and tetraploid (4X) genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Stresses)
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15 pages, 5977 KiB  
Article
Drought Tolerance of Mungbean Is Improved by Foliar Spray of Nanoceria
by Djanaguiraman Maduraimuthu, Senthil Alagarswamy, Jeyakumar Prabhakaran, Kalarani M. Karuppasami, Prasad B. R. Venugopal, Vanitha Koothan, Sritharan Natarajan, Vijayalakshmi Dhashnamurthi, Ravichandran Veerasamy, Sivakumar Rathinavelu and Boominathan Parasuraman
Agronomy 2023, 13(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13010201 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
In crops, drought stress reduces the photosynthetic rate and gamete function through oxidative damage. Earlier studies showed that nanoceria possesses an antioxidant property; however, the ability of nanoceria to alleviate drought-stress-stimulated oxidative damage in pulse crops has not been studied. Therefore, experiments were [...] Read more.
In crops, drought stress reduces the photosynthetic rate and gamete function through oxidative damage. Earlier studies showed that nanoceria possesses an antioxidant property; however, the ability of nanoceria to alleviate drought-stress-stimulated oxidative damage in pulse crops has not been studied. Therefore, experiments were conducted to assess the impacts of nanoceria on drought-induced oxidative damage in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. We hypothesize that foliar application of nanoceria under drought stress can scavenge the excess produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to its inherent properties which could result in increased photosynthesis and reproductive success of mungbean. Three experiments were conducted under well-watered and limited-moisture conditions. The traits associated with oxidative damage, photosynthesis, reproductive success, and yield were recorded. Results showed that for mungbean, the optimum concentration of nanoceria for foliar spray was 100 mg L−1. Field and pot culture experiments showed that foliar application of nanoceria under drought decreased the superoxide radical content (29%), hydrogen peroxide content (28%), and membrane damage (35%) over water spray. Nanoceria increased the photosynthetic rate (38%), pod-set percentage (16%), and seed weight m−2 (44%) in drought-stressed plants compared to control plants. The increased photosynthetic rate by nanoceria spray under drought stress is associated with lesser oxidative damage and stomatal limitation caused by nanoceria’s inherent ROS-scavenging ability. Hence, foliar application of nanoceria at the rate of 100 mg L−1 under drought stress could increase mungbean seed yield per plant through increased photosynthetic rate and pod-set percentage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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15 pages, 4245 KiB  
Article
Root Physiological Changes and Transcription Analysis of Iris domestica in Response to Persistent Drought
by Qiang Ai, Yingxin Sun, Ailin Dai, Zeliang LYU, Cuijing Liu, Mei Han and Limin Yang
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121162 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Iris domestica is a popular gardening plant. Although the species is considered tolerant to drought, its growth and development are often affected by drought conditions. Therefore, revealing the regulatory mechanisms of drought tolerance in this species will aid in its cultivation and molecular [...] Read more.
Iris domestica is a popular gardening plant. Although the species is considered tolerant to drought, its growth and development are often affected by drought conditions. Therefore, revealing the regulatory mechanisms of drought tolerance in this species will aid in its cultivation and molecular breeding. In this study, morpho-physiological and transcriptome analyses of the roots of I. domestica plants were performed under persistent drought conditions. Peroxidase activity, proline content, and tectoridin content increased under sustained drought conditions. Transcriptome analysis showed that the roots of I. domestica seedlings respond to drought mainly by regulating the expression of drought-resistant genes and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. This study provides basic data for identifying drought response mechanisms in Iris domestica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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13 pages, 1957 KiB  
Article
Overexpression of Maize Glutathione S-Transferase ZmGST26 Decreases Drought Resistance of Arabidopsis
by Yushi Jiang, Yuzhe Zhang, Ruijie Duan, Jiayi Fan, Peng Jiao, Hongji Sun, Shuyan Guan and Siyan Liu
Agronomy 2022, 12(12), 2948; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy12122948 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
Drought stress critically endangers the growth and development of crops. Glutathione S-transferase plays a vital role in response to abiotic stress. However, there are few studies on the role of glutathione S-transferase in maize drought stress. In this study, the significantly downregulated expression [...] Read more.
Drought stress critically endangers the growth and development of crops. Glutathione S-transferase plays a vital role in response to abiotic stress. However, there are few studies on the role of glutathione S-transferase in maize drought stress. In this study, the significantly downregulated expression of ZmGST26 in roots under drought stress was analyzed by qRT-PCR. Promoter analyses showed that there were several cis-acting elements related to drought stress and that were involved in oxidative response in the promoter region of ZmGST26. Subcellular localization results showed that ZmGST26 was localized in the nucleus. The transgenic lines of the Arabidopsis over-expressing ZmGST26 were more sensitive to drought stress and ABA in seed germination and inhibited ABA-mediated stomatal closure. Under drought stress, phenotypic analyses showed that the germination rate, root length and survival rate of ZmGST26 overexpressing lines were significantly lower than those of wild-type lines. The determination of physiological and biochemical indexes showed that the water loss rate, malondialdehyde, O2 and H2O2 of the overexpression lines significantly increased compared with wild-type Arabidopsis, but the antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, SOD and POD), and proline and chlorophyll contents were significantly reduced. Subsequently, the qRT-PCR analysis of drought stress-related gene expression showed that, under drought stress conditions, the expression levels of DREB2A, RD29A, RD29B and PP2CA genes in ZmGST26 overexpression lines were significantly lower than those in wild-type Arabidopsis. In summary, ZmGST26 reduced the drought resistance of plants by aggravating the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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20 pages, 2415 KiB  
Article
Efficiency of Sodium and Calcium Chloride in Conferring Cross-Tolerance to Water Deficit in Periwinkle
by Nahid Zomorrodi, Abdolhossein Rezaei Nejad, Sadegh Mousavi-Fard, Hassan Feizi, Nikolaos Nikoloudakis and Dimitrios Fanourakis
Horticulturae 2022, 8(11), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8111091 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1850
Abstract
The potential of using pre-stress NaCl or CaCl2 applications to confer a cross-tolerance to a water deficit was evaluated in periwinkle. The plants initially received five applications of NaCl (0, 30 and 50 mM), or CaCl2 (15 and 25 mM) via [...] Read more.
The potential of using pre-stress NaCl or CaCl2 applications to confer a cross-tolerance to a water deficit was evaluated in periwinkle. The plants initially received five applications of NaCl (0, 30 and 50 mM), or CaCl2 (15 and 25 mM) via irrigation, and then they were cultivated under different water deficit regimes (80, 50 and 20% available water content). The water deficit induced smaller and denser stomata. It promoted a water use efficiency, a proline content and antioxidant enzyme activity. However, it downgraded the aesthetic value (plant stature, flower size and vegetation greenness), magnified the stem bending probability and strongly decreased the floral longevity. It additionally impeded the growth by reductions in the leaf area and photosynthesis. Plants undergoing a water deficit maintained a lower hydration and expressed oxidative damage symptoms, including enhanced chlorophyll and membrane degradation. As the water deficit intensified, these effects were more pronounced. Pre-stress CaCl2 or NaCl applications generally restored most of the water severity-induced effects, with the former being more effective. For CaCl2, the highest concentration (25 mM) was generally optimal, whereas NaCl was the lowest concentration (30 mM). In conclusion, pre-stress CaCl2 or NaCl applications effectively confer a cross-tolerance to the water deficit by promoting the aesthetic value and extending the floral longevity, with the promotive effects being incremental as the water deficit becomes more severe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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15 pages, 3026 KiB  
Article
Selection of Soybean Genotypes under Drought and Saline Stress Conditions Using Manhattan Distance and TOPSIS
by Bruno Rodrigues de Oliveira, Alan Mario Zuffo, Jorge González Aguilera, Fábio Steiner, Sheda Méndez Ancca, Luis Angel Paucar Flores and Hebert Hernán Soto Gonzales
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212827 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
The search for soybean genotypes more adapted to abiotic stress conditions is essential to boost the development and yield of the crop in Brazil and worldwide. In this research, we propose a new approach using the concept of distance (or similarity) in a [...] Read more.
The search for soybean genotypes more adapted to abiotic stress conditions is essential to boost the development and yield of the crop in Brazil and worldwide. In this research, we propose a new approach using the concept of distance (or similarity) in a vector space that can quantify changes in the morphological traits of soybean seedlings exposed to stressful environments. Thus, this study was conducted to select soybean genotypes exposed to stressful environments (saline or drought) using similarity based on Manhattan distance and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. TOPSIS is a multi-criteria decision method for selecting the best alternative using the concept of distance. The use of TOPSIS is essential because the genotypes are not absolutely similar in both treatments. That is, just the distance measure is not enough to select the best genotype simultaneously in the two stress environments. Drought and saline stresses were induced by exposing seeds of 70 soybean genotypes to −0.20 MPa iso-osmotic solutions with polyethylene glycol–PEG 6000 (119.6 g L−1) or NaCl (2.36 g L−1) for 14 days at 25 °C. The germination rate, seedling length, and seedling dry matter were measured. We showed here how the genotypic stability of soybean plants could be quantified by TOPSIS when comparing drought and salinity conditions to a non-stressful environment (control) and how this method can be employed under different conditions. Based on the TOPSIS method, we can select the best soybean genotypes for environments with multiple abiotic stresses. Among the 70 tested soybean genotypes, RK 6813 RR, ST 777 IPRO, RK 7214 IPRO, TMG 2165 IPRO, 5G 830 RR, 98R35 IPRO, 98R31 IPRO, RK 8317 IPRO, CG 7464 RR, and LG 60177 IPRO are the 10 most stable genotypes under drought and saline stress conditions. Owing to high stability and gains with selection verified for these genotypes under salinity and drought conditions, they can be used as genitors in breeding programs to obtain offspring with higher resistance to antibiotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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