Topic Editors

Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
iBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

Advances in Human Pathogen Control—a 21st Century Challenge 2.0

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2024
Viewed by
5072

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence and reemergence of pathogens and the steep increase in resistance to available antimicrobials pose huge challenges to human health worldwide. Adequate responses to this challenge require a holistic approach, integrating advances in fundamental knowledge of pathogen biology and host–pathogen interactions to understand how to stop pathogens spreading, together with omics and bioinformatics to unveil druggable targets and the development of novel antimicrobials and immune-based therapies to control pathogens. This Topic aims to gather contributions ranging from basic biology, biochemistry, the genetics and genomics of human pathogens, and the omics and bioinformatics identification of targets of potential interest for drug development to contributions on the development of novel antimicrobials and new immune-based therapies to control pathogens. Papers on human host–pathogen interactions and related topics are also welcome.

Dr. Jorge H. Leitão
Dr. Nitin P. Amdare
Dr. Joana R Feliciano
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • pathogens
  • antimicrobials
  • omics and bioinformatics
  • human pathogens
  • immune-based therapies
  • human host–pathogen interactions

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Diseases
diseases
3.7 - 2013 18.8 Days CHF 1800 Submit
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
5.6 7.8 2000 16.3 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Microbiology Research
microbiolres
1.5 1.3 2010 16.6 Days CHF 1600 Submit
Pathogens
pathogens
3.7 5.1 2012 16.4 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Vaccines
vaccines
7.8 7.0 2013 19.2 Days CHF 2700 Submit

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
14 pages, 2790 KiB  
Article
Closing the Diagnostic Gap in Encephalitis and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis through Digital Case Classification and Viral Metagenomics
by Patrick E. Obermeier, Xiaolin Ma, Albert Heim and Barbara A. Rath
Microbiol. Res. 2024, 15(2), 900-913; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres15020059 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Encephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are often caused or triggered by viruses—but the specific pathogen commonly remains unidentified in routine care. We explored the use of viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in addition to PCR testing of non-invasive stool samples to see [...] Read more.
Encephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are often caused or triggered by viruses—but the specific pathogen commonly remains unidentified in routine care. We explored the use of viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in addition to PCR testing of non-invasive stool samples to see if unbiased testing could potentially increase diagnostic yield. To identify specific clinical cases at the point of care, we took advantage of a previously published digital app allowing instant clinical case classification based on consensus case criteria, the VACC-Tool. This hospital-based prospective digital surveillance program assessed 100 pediatric patients (mean age: 11 years, range: 0.15–17.85; 49% male) with case-confirmed encephalitis and/or ADEM. Analysis of case classification at the point of care revealed that in routine care, 96% of confirmed encephalitis/ADEM cases had been missed. Overall agreement of routine care diagnoses with digital encephalitis/ADEM case classification was <50%. Also in routine care, only 13% of cases held a virus-related diagnosis, i.e., herpesvirus (n = 8) and enterovirus infection (n = 5). Use of mNGS increased the yield of virus detection by 77% (n = 23 virus hits). Specifically, mNGS identified 10 additional virus species beyond herpes- and enteroviruses. Of the additional 23 virus hits detected with mNGS, PCR confirmation was possible post hoc in 14 cases (61%). Linking digital case classification, mNGS, and PCR testing may not be feasible in routine care at this point but may help to provide hints to the pathogenesis of encephalitis/ADEM in childhood, warranting further research and exploration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1439 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients—A Single Polish Centre Study
by Sylwia Jarzynka, Oliwia Makarewicz, Daniel Weiss, Anna Minkiewicz-Zochniak, Agnieszka Iwańska, Wojciech Skorupa, Marcin Padzik, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć and Gabriela Olędzka
Pathogens 2023, 12(12), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12121440 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most predominant pathogens of lung infections, often causing exacerbations in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and Methods: Microbiological characterization of 74 PA isolates and to evaluate the correlations between the bacterial features and [...] Read more.
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most predominant pathogens of lung infections, often causing exacerbations in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and Methods: Microbiological characterization of 74 PA isolates and to evaluate the correlations between the bacterial features and 44 adult Polish CF cohort clinical parameters. Results: The most common variant in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene was F508del (76.3%), followed by 3849+10kbC>T (26.3%). A total of 39.4% of the PA isolates showed multiple resistances. In patients with parameters pointing to a decline in lung function, there was a statistically significant moderate correlation with β-lactam resistance and a weak correlation between hospital frequency and colistin resistance. The mucoidity did not correlate with the biofilm formation ability, which showed 41.9% of the isolates. Proteolytic activity, observed in 60.8% of the clinical isolates, was weakly associated with motility detected in 78.4% of the strains. The genetic profiles of the PA were highly heterogeneous, and a weak positive correlation was established between cluster group and biofilm formation. Conclusion: The findings suggest that there is a high variety in P. aeruginosa populations in adult CF patients. There is a need to monitor PA strains in groups of patients with cystic fibrosis, in particular, in terms of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance related to a decline in lung function. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1599 KiB  
Brief Report
The Detection of Circulating Cell-Free DNA for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma in Immigrants from African Countries in Italy
by Valentina Dimartino, Fernanda Scopelliti, Caterina Cattani, Gianluca Nicolella and Andrea Cavani
Microbiol. Res. 2023, 14(4), 2034-2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres14040137 - 1 Dec 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
The rising migration and travel from and towards endemic areas has brought renewed concerns about many parasitic infections, including neglected tropical diseases, such as schistosomiasis. Although serology is the most widely used method for the screening of schistosomiasis in non-endemic countries, this technique [...] Read more.
The rising migration and travel from and towards endemic areas has brought renewed concerns about many parasitic infections, including neglected tropical diseases, such as schistosomiasis. Although serology is the most widely used method for the screening of schistosomiasis in non-endemic countries, this technique lacks sensitivity, especially to distinguish between past and ongoing infections. More recently, a molecular test based on the detection of Schistosoma cell-free DNA in the serum has been proposed as a diagnostic procedure for parasitosis. To test the performance of a blood PCR assay, this work investigated 102 serum samples collected from migrants coming from endemic areas by using primers specific to genomic regions of S. mansoni and S. haematobium patients. The results were then compared with the detection of specific IgG Abs with serological tests. Molecular analysis detected Schistosoma DNA in 32 patients. Among them, we characterized nine S. haematobium, 20 S. mansoni, and three coinfections. Compared with molecular assay, serological analysis detected specific antibodies against Schistosoma antigens in 52 out of 102 patients. Concordance between the two tests was found in 76 out of 102 patients (74.51%): in particular, both diagnostic tests were positive in 29 patients (28.43%) and negative in 47 (46.08%). The specificity of the molecular test was 94%. Overall, our data suggest that serological diagnosis could be combined with the molecular approach, providing the clinician with the serotyping of the parasite and useful information about the infection as well as the required further diagnostic procedures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1649 KiB  
Case Report
Chromoblastomycosis: New Perspective on Adjuvant Treatment with Acitretin
by Walter Belda, Jr., Luiz Felipe Domingues Passero, Caroline Heleno Chagas de Carvalho, Paula Celeste Rubiano Mojica and Pablo Andrade Vale
Diseases 2023, 11(4), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases11040162 - 8 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a neglected human disease, caused by different species of pigmented dematiaceous fungi that cause granulomatous and suppurative dermatosis. This infection is difficult to treat and there are limited therapeutic options, including terbinafine, itraconazole, and tioconazole. Classic treatment is administered for [...] Read more.
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a neglected human disease, caused by different species of pigmented dematiaceous fungi that cause granulomatous and suppurative dermatosis. This infection is difficult to treat and there are limited therapeutic options, including terbinafine, itraconazole, and tioconazole. Classic treatment is administered for a long period of time, but some patients do not respond properly, and therefore, such therapeutic approaches possess low cure rates. Therefore, it is vital to develop new strategies for the treatment of CBM. In this regard, it has been observed that the association of immunomodulatory molecules such as glucan with therapy carried out with antifungal drugs improves cutaneous lesions in comparison to treatment with antifungal drugs alone, suggesting that drug association may be an interesting and significant approach to incorporate into CBM therapy. Thus, the aim of this work was to associate classical antifungal therapy with the adjuvants imiquimod and acitretin. In the present case, we reported a patient with extensive CBM caused by Fonsaecae pedrosoi, that affected an extensive area of the right leg, that was left without treatment for 11 years. He was treated with a classical combination of itraconazole and terbinafine via the oral route plus topical imiquimod and oral acitretin, as an adjuvant therapy. After five months of treatment, a significant regression of verrucous plaques was observed, suggesting that the use of these adjuvants combined with the classical antifungal drugs, intraconazole plus terbinafine, can reduce treatment time and rapidly improve the patient’s quality of life. This result confirms that the use of coadjuvant drugs may be effective in the treatment of this infectious disease. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop