Special Issue "Wave and Tide Modelling in Coastal and Ocean Hydrodynamics"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Oceans and Coastal Zones".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Tai-Wen Hsu
Website
Guest Editor
Harbor & River Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung City, Taiwan
Interests: ocean engineering; wave dynamics; computational fluid dynamics; ocean energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The rise and fall of sea levels and the motion of ocean water play an important role in the way coastal ecosystems function are important to coastal and ocean engineering, such as coastline protection, ocean energy, and ship navigation safety. Owing to the advanced theory analysis and development of computer hardware and software, numerical modelling has become a powerful and practical tool to study and understand coastal and ocean hydrodynamics.

The aim and scope of the Special Issue is to invite paper contributions of the recent development and application of tide and wave modeling in coastal and ocean hydrodynamics. Research articles covering the area of Boussinesq equations, free-surface flows, internal waves, island wakes, Princeton Ocean Model (POM), shallow-water equations, solitary waves, and storm surges are welcomed for possible inclusion in this Special Issue of Water.

Prof. Dr. Tai-Wen Hsu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Boussinesq equations
  • hydrodynamics
  • internal waves
  • modeling
  • Navier–Stokes equations
  • shallow-water equations
  • solitary waves
  • tide
  • waves

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Discrepancies on Storm Surge Predictions by Parametric Wind Model and Numerical Weather Prediction Model in a Semi-Enclosed Bay: Case Study of Typhoon Haiyan
Water 2020, 12(12), 3326; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123326 - 26 Nov 2020
Abstract
This study explores the discrepancies of storm surge predictions driven by the parametric wind model and the numerical weather prediction model. Serving as a leading-order storm wind predictive tool, the parametric Holland wind model provides the frictional-free, steady-state, and geostrophic-balancing solutions. On the [...] Read more.
This study explores the discrepancies of storm surge predictions driven by the parametric wind model and the numerical weather prediction model. Serving as a leading-order storm wind predictive tool, the parametric Holland wind model provides the frictional-free, steady-state, and geostrophic-balancing solutions. On the other hand, WRF-ARW (Weather Research and Forecasting-Advanced Research WRF) provides the results solving the 3D time-integrated, compressible, and non-hydrostatic Euler equations, but time-consuming. To shed light on their discrepancies for storm surge predictions, the storm surges of 2013 Typhoon Haiyan in the Leyte Gulf and the San Pedro Bay are selected. The Holland wind model predicts strong southeastern winds in the San Pedro Bay after Haiyan makes landfall at the Leyte Island than WRF-ARW 3 km and WRF-ARW 1 km. The storm surge simulation driven by the Holland wind model finds that the water piles up in the San Pedro Bay and its maximum computed storm surges are almost twice than those driven by WRF-ARW. This study also finds that the storm surge prediction in the San Pedro Bay is sensitive to winds, which can be affected by the landfall location, the storm intensity, and the storm forward speed. The numerical experiment points out that the maximum storm surges can be amplified by more 5–6% inside the San Pedro Bay if Haiyan’s forward speed is increased by 10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tide Modelling in Coastal and Ocean Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Characteristics of Coastal Highway Wave Attack and Nearshore Morphology: Provincial Highway No. 9, Taiwan
Water 2020, 12(11), 3274; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113274 - 21 Nov 2020
Abstract
This study explores coastal hazard characteristics along Provincial Highway No. 9 (hereafter the Provincial Highway) in Taiwan. Numerical simulation was conducted to analyze wave attacks and medium-to-long-term coastal morphological change along the Provincial Highway and identify areas of high hazard potential. Hydrodynamic and [...] Read more.
This study explores coastal hazard characteristics along Provincial Highway No. 9 (hereafter the Provincial Highway) in Taiwan. Numerical simulation was conducted to analyze wave attacks and medium-to-long-term coastal morphological change along the Provincial Highway and identify areas of high hazard potential. Hydrodynamic and morphological change numerical models were used to simulate various meteorological scenarios in the research site; specifically, far-field, medium-field, and near-field simulations were performed. Subsequently, the simulated results were employed to analyze hazard characteristics and determine the potential for hazard along the Provincial Highway. According to the analysis of hazard characteristics, the high potential of wave attacks was revealed in the following sections of the highway: 440K+000-441K+000, areas near 424K+500, and 396K+000-396K+500, and the highest potential for erosion was shown in the areas near 418K+000 and 397K+500. Finally, these areas with a high potential for wave attacks and erosion were marked to create a map of hazard potential for the provincial highway, and thus provide insights into future construction works or hazard-prevention operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tide Modelling in Coastal and Ocean Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Wind Effects on Green Island Wake
Water 2020, 12(11), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113039 - 29 Oct 2020
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to apply the three-dimensional Princeton Ocean Model to study the wind effects on Kuroshio-induced island wake in the lee of Green Island, Taiwan. Numerical results indicate that the effect of NE winds squeezes the Kuroshio-induced island [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to apply the three-dimensional Princeton Ocean Model to study the wind effects on Kuroshio-induced island wake in the lee of Green Island, Taiwan. Numerical results indicate that the effect of NE winds squeezes the Kuroshio-induced island vortex street close to the coast and the SW winds tend to push the island vortex street farther away from the coast. The simulated vortex streets are analyzed by the dimensionless spatial lengths to quantify the prescribed feature. By comparing the three-dimensional results with different wind conditions, the Ekman transports are observed and the influence depths of wind effects are studied. Additionally, some cold eddies are found in temperature fields resulting from numerical simulations. These results are in qualitative agreement with field measurements and satellite images. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tide Modelling in Coastal and Ocean Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Simulation of Ocean Circulation of Dongsha Water Using Non-Hydrostatic Shallow-Water Model
Water 2020, 12(10), 2832; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102832 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A two-dimensional non-hydrostatic shallow-water model for weakly dispersive waves is developed using the least-squares finite-element method. The model is based on the depth-averaged, nonlinear and non-hydrostatic shallow-water equations. The non-hydrostatic shallow-water equations are solved with the semi-implicit (predictor-corrector) method and least-squares finite-element method. [...] Read more.
A two-dimensional non-hydrostatic shallow-water model for weakly dispersive waves is developed using the least-squares finite-element method. The model is based on the depth-averaged, nonlinear and non-hydrostatic shallow-water equations. The non-hydrostatic shallow-water equations are solved with the semi-implicit (predictor-corrector) method and least-squares finite-element method. In the predictor step, hydrostatic pressure at the previous step is used as an initial guess and an intermediate velocity field is calculated. In the corrector step, a Poisson equation for the non-hydrostatic pressure is solved and the final velocity and free-surface elevation is corrected for the new time step. The non-hydrostatic shallow-water model is verified and applied to both wave and flow driven fluid flows, including solitary wave propagation in a channel, progressive sinusoidal waves propagation over a submerged bar, von Karmann vortex street, and ocean circulations of Dongsha Atolls. It is found hydrostatic shallow-water model is efficient and accurate for shallow water flows. Non-hydrostatic shallow-water model requires 1.5 to 3.0 more cpu time than hydrostatic shallow-water model for the same simulation. Model simulations reveal that non-hydrostatic pressure gradients could affect the velocity field and free-surface significantly in case where nonlinearity and dispersion are important during the course of wave propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tide Modelling in Coastal and Ocean Hydrodynamics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Downscaling Study for Typhoon-Induced Coastal Inundation
Water 2020, 12(4), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041103 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 2Correction
Abstract
Typhoons can often cause inundation in lower coastal cities by inducing strong surges and waves. Being affected by typhoon annually, the coastal cities in South Korea are very vulnerable to typhoons. In 2016, a typhoon ‘CHABA’, with a maximum 10 min sustained wind [...] Read more.
Typhoons can often cause inundation in lower coastal cities by inducing strong surges and waves. Being affected by typhoon annually, the coastal cities in South Korea are very vulnerable to typhoons. In 2016, a typhoon ‘CHABA’, with a maximum 10 min sustained wind speed of about 50 m/s and a minimum central pressure of 905 hPa, hit South Korea, suffering tremendous damage. In particular, ‘CHABA’-induced coastal inundation resulted in serious damage to the coastal area of Busan where a lot of high-rise buildings and residential areas are concentrated, and was caused by the combined effect of tide, surge, and wave. The typhoon-induced surge raised sea levels during high tide, and the strong wave with a long period of more than 10 s eventually led to the coastal inundation at the same time. The present research focuses a numerical downscaling considering the effects of tide, surge and wave for coastal inundation induced by Typhoon ‘CHABA’. This downscaling approach applied several numerical models, which are the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) for typhoon simulation, the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) for tide and surge simulation, and the Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN) for wave simulation. In a domain covering the Korean Peninsula, typhoon-induced surges and waves were simulated applying the results simulated by WRF as meteorological conditions. In the downscaled domain ranged near the coastal area of Busan, the coastal inundation was simulated blending a storm tide height and an irregular wave height obtained from the domain, in which each height has 1 s interval. The irregular wave height was calculated using the significant wave height and peak period. Through this downscaling study, the impact of storm tide and wave on coastal inundation was estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tide Modelling in Coastal and Ocean Hydrodynamics)
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