Surface water waves is an important research topic in coastal and ocean engineering due to its influences on various human activities. In this study, our purpose is to gain a deeper insight on the effects of non-hydrostatic (NHS) pressure on surface wave motions and its role in numerical modeling, based upon the high-order NHS model and optional vertical accelerations. The relative contribution of non-hydrostatic effects (Pnhs
) and its sensitivity on phase celerity and amplitude of dispersive waves are quantified. The vertical structure of Pnhs
clearly indicates stronger NHS effects in deeper waters and its significance near the surface. The NHS effects mainly slow down wave celerity and maintain incident amplitude for linear dispersive waves. The NHS effects are also responsible for increased amplitude and phase speed under strong non-linearity. The inter-relation between (un)realistic physical responses and model errors is discussed. Further, four experimental conditions for waves with complicated interactions are examined. Overall, the NHS effects play a critical role in side-band generation of bi-chromatic waves, and increased celerity and amplitude during nonlinear shoaling, as well as velocity moderation under co-existence of depth-varying currents. Possibly owing to weaker wave–wave interactions, however, wave directionality does not strongly interfere with FNHS/QNHS (Fully/Quasi Non-HydroStatic) effects on a fast-modulated nonlinear evolution of spatial focusing or diffraction waves.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited