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Article

The Role of Non-Hydrostatic Effects in Nonlinear Dispersive Wave Modeling

by 1,2,*, 3,* and 2,4,*
1
Department of Marine Environmental Informatics, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
2
Center of Excellence for Ocean Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
3
Department Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1269D Engineering Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1691, USA
4
Department of Harbor & River Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3513; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123513
Received: 15 October 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave and Tide Modelling in Coastal and Ocean Hydrodynamics)
Surface water waves is an important research topic in coastal and ocean engineering due to its influences on various human activities. In this study, our purpose is to gain a deeper insight on the effects of non-hydrostatic (NHS) pressure on surface wave motions and its role in numerical modeling, based upon the high-order NHS model and optional vertical accelerations. The relative contribution of non-hydrostatic effects (Pnhs/Phs) and its sensitivity on phase celerity and amplitude of dispersive waves are quantified. The vertical structure of Pnhs/Phs clearly indicates stronger NHS effects in deeper waters and its significance near the surface. The NHS effects mainly slow down wave celerity and maintain incident amplitude for linear dispersive waves. The NHS effects are also responsible for increased amplitude and phase speed under strong non-linearity. The inter-relation between (un)realistic physical responses and model errors is discussed. Further, four experimental conditions for waves with complicated interactions are examined. Overall, the NHS effects play a critical role in side-band generation of bi-chromatic waves, and increased celerity and amplitude during nonlinear shoaling, as well as velocity moderation under co-existence of depth-varying currents. Possibly owing to weaker wave–wave interactions, however, wave directionality does not strongly interfere with FNHS/QNHS (Fully/Quasi Non-HydroStatic) effects on a fast-modulated nonlinear evolution of spatial focusing or diffraction waves. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-hydrostatic modeling; dispersion; nonlinearity; wave-wave interaction; wave-bottom interaction; wave-current interaction; wave directionality non-hydrostatic modeling; dispersion; nonlinearity; wave-wave interaction; wave-bottom interaction; wave-current interaction; wave directionality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Young, C.-C.; Wu, C.H.; Hsu, T.-W. The Role of Non-Hydrostatic Effects in Nonlinear Dispersive Wave Modeling. Water 2020, 12, 3513. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123513

AMA Style

Young C-C, Wu CH, Hsu T-W. The Role of Non-Hydrostatic Effects in Nonlinear Dispersive Wave Modeling. Water. 2020; 12(12):3513. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123513

Chicago/Turabian Style

Young, Chih-Chieh, Chin H. Wu, and Tai-Wen Hsu. 2020. "The Role of Non-Hydrostatic Effects in Nonlinear Dispersive Wave Modeling" Water 12, no. 12: 3513. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123513

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