Special Issue "Water Supply and Water Scarcity"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Use and Scarcity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Vasileios Tzanakakis
Website
Guest Editor
Soil and Water Resources Research Institute (HAO-Demeter), Thermi-Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece
Interests: quality of soil and water resources; wastewater treatment with land treatment systems; effluent reuse in agriculture
Assoc. Prof. Nikos Paranychianakis
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
Interests: effluent reuse; water use efficiency; decentralized treatment systems; N and C cycling; soil and wastewater microbiology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, the water sector encounters great challenges imposed by the demand to ensure adequate water supplies to support a growing population and to overcome the temporal and spatial inequalities in water supply due to increasing climate variability. The findings of several studies indicate strong shifts in the availability and quality of water supplies in the future, driven predominantly by changes in climatic conditions (shifts in precipitation patterns, higher temperatures, longer and more intense droughts, and more frequent heatwaves) and changes in the distribution and the size of the world’s population. These shifts challenge the existing legislation, policies, and applied management strategies, including national/regional water management plans that need to be reconsidered and updated to meet growing requirements and protect water resources.

The Special Issue “Water Supply and Water Scarcity” of the journal, Water, aims to address the above aspects, placing emphasis on the current knowledge and future trends and challenges that are covered by specific scientific domains and themes. In particular, we seek research and review manuscripts dealing with the evolution of water management practices in water-limited regions; improved management of water in agricultural, urban, and industrial sectors; improved water use efficiency; the exploitation and sustainable use of non-conventional water resources (e.g., effluent reuse, desalinated water, and drainage water); the development of (waste)water treatment technologies; the impact of climate change on water availability and quality; the effects of decreased water availability on ecosystem functioning and productivity; environmental and public health issues related to emerging pollutants/contaminants; and the development and adoption of appropriate water policies.

Dr. Vasileios Tzanakakis
Assoc. Prof. Nikos Paranychianakis
Dr. Andreas Angelakis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water supply
  • water scarcity
  • water management
  • water use efficiency
  • non-conventional water resources
  • (waste)water treatment technologies
  • climate change
  • ecosystem functioning and productivity
  • emerging pollutants/contaminants
  • water policy

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessCommunication
Assessment of Water Quality in Indo-Gangetic Plain of South-Eastern Asia under Organic vs. Conventional Rice Farming
Water 2020, 12(4), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040960 - 28 Mar 2020
Abstract
Water contamination is often reported in agriculturally intensive areas such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in south-eastern Asia. We evaluated the impact of the organic and conventional farming of basmati rice on water quality during the rainy season (July to October) of 2011 [...] Read more.
Water contamination is often reported in agriculturally intensive areas such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in south-eastern Asia. We evaluated the impact of the organic and conventional farming of basmati rice on water quality during the rainy season (July to October) of 2011 and 2016 at Kaithal, Haryana, India. The study area comprised seven organic and seven conventional fields where organic farming has been practiced for more than two decades. Water quality parameters used for drinking (nitrate, NO3; total dissolved solids (TDS); electrical conductivity (EC) pH) and irrigation (sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC)) purposes were below permissible limits for all samples collected from organic fields and those from conventional fields over the long-term (~15 and ~20 years). Importantly, the magnitude of water NO3 contamination in conventional fields was approximately double that of organic fields, which is quite alarming and needs attention in future for farming practices in the IGP in south-eastern Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Study on the Ecological Operation and Watershed Management of Urban Rivers in Northern China
Water 2020, 12(3), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030914 - 24 Mar 2020
Abstract
Small- and medium-sized rivers are facing a serious degradation of ecological function in water resource-scarce regions of Northern China. Reservoir ecological operation can restore the damaged river ecological environment. Research on reservoir ecological operation and watershed management of urban rivers is limited in [...] Read more.
Small- and medium-sized rivers are facing a serious degradation of ecological function in water resource-scarce regions of Northern China. Reservoir ecological operation can restore the damaged river ecological environment. Research on reservoir ecological operation and watershed management of urban rivers is limited in cold regions of middle and high latitudes. In this paper, the urban section of the Yitong River was selected as the research object in Changchun, Northern China. The total ecological water demand and reservoir operation water (79.35 × 106 m3 and 15.52 × 106 m3, respectively) were calculated by the ecological water demand method, and a reservoir operation scheme was established to restore the ecological function of the urban section of the river. To examine the scientific basis and rationality of the operation scheme, the water quality of the river and physical habitat after carrying out the scheme were simulated by the MIKE 11 one-dimensional hydrodynamic-water quality model and the Physical Habitat Simulation Model (PHABSIM). The results indicate that the implementation of the operation scheme can improve the ecological environment of the urban section of the Yitong River. A reform scheme was proposed for the management of the Yitong River Basin based on the problems in the process of carrying out the operation schemes, including clarifying department responsibility, improving laws and regulations, strengthening service management, and enhancing public participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Assessment of A Rainwater Harvesting System in A Multi-Storey Residential Building in Brazil
Water 2020, 12(2), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020546 - 15 Feb 2020
Cited by 1Correction
Abstract
This article aims to present an economic feasibility and user satisfaction analysis of a rainwater harvesting system in a multi-storey residential building (where there is rainwater to supply toilets) located in Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This research used detailed methods and also considered the [...] Read more.
This article aims to present an economic feasibility and user satisfaction analysis of a rainwater harvesting system in a multi-storey residential building (where there is rainwater to supply toilets) located in Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This research used detailed methods and also considered the opinion and habits of users regarding the use of a rainwater harvesting system. The water end-uses were estimated through questionnaire survey in each flat. The potential for potable water savings was estimated using computer simulations. Simulations were performed using the computer programme Netuno, version 4 and economic feasibility analyses were performed considering different rainwater demands. Analyses associated with the habits of the residents, the satisfaction of users and the importance of saving potable water were also carried out. Showers were responsible for the highest share (54.2%) of water consumption in the flats, followed by the other end-uses: washing machine (21.3%), kitchen tap (9.3%), toilet flush (9.2%) and washbasins (2.6%). The most economically feasible system, which presented lower payback and higher internal rate of return, corresponds to the system sized to supply rainwater only to toilet flushing. Such a system would need a rainwater tank with a capacity smaller than the capacity of the one currently in use. In general, residents expressed satisfaction regarding the rainwater harvesting system installed in the building. The study is important because, besides obtaining water end-uses in the flats, it also investigates the perception of residents related to rainwater harvesting, which has been little explored in the scientific literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The First Drying Lake in Chile: Causes and Recovery Options
Water 2020, 12(1), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010290 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Located southwest of the city of Santiago (Chile), the Aculeo Lagoon used to be an important body of water, providing environmental, social, and economic services to both locals (mostly drinking water and small-scale agricultural irrigation) and tourists who visited the area for fishing, [...] Read more.
Located southwest of the city of Santiago (Chile), the Aculeo Lagoon used to be an important body of water, providing environmental, social, and economic services to both locals (mostly drinking water and small-scale agricultural irrigation) and tourists who visited the area for fishing, sailing, and other recreational activities. The lagoon dried completely in May of 2018. The phenomenon has been attributed to the current climatic drought. We implemented and calibrated a surface-groundwater model to evaluate the hydrogeologic causes of the lagoon’s disappearance, and to develop feasible solutions. The lagoon’s recovery requires a series of urgent actions, including environmental education and significant investment in infrastructure to import water. Ultimately, there are two goals: bringing back historic water levels and ensuring the sustainability of water resources at the catchment scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Projected Changes in the Water Budget for Eastern Colombia Due to Climate Change
Water 2020, 12(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010065 - 23 Dec 2019
Abstract
There is a lack of information about the effect of climate change on the water budget for the eastern side of Colombia, which is currently experiencing an increased pressure on its water resources due to the demand for food, industrial use, and human [...] Read more.
There is a lack of information about the effect of climate change on the water budget for the eastern side of Colombia, which is currently experiencing an increased pressure on its water resources due to the demand for food, industrial use, and human demand for drinking and hygiene. In this study, the lumped model BROOK90 was utilized with input based on the available historical and projected meteorological data, as well as land use and soil information. With this data, we were able to determine the changes in the water balance components in four different regions, representing four different water districts in Eastern Colombia. These four regions reflect four different sets of climate and geographic conditions. The projected data were obtained using the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM), in which two global climate models were used in addition to two different climate scenarios from each. These are the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. Results showed that the temporal and spatial distribution of water balance components were considerably affected by the changing climate. A reduction in the generated streamflow for all of the studied regions is shown and changes in the evapotranspiration and stored water were varied for each region according to both the climate scenario as well as the characteristics of soil and land use for each area. The results of spatial change of the water balance components showed a direct link to the geography of each region. Soil moisture was reduced considerably in the next decades, and the percentage of decrease varied for each scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Consequences of the Integration of a Hyperbolic Funnel into a Showerhead for Droplets, Jet Break-Up Lengths, and Physical-Chemical Parameters
Water 2019, 11(12), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122446 - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Introducing a hyperbolic vortex into a showerhead is a possibility to achieve higher spray velocities for a given discharge without reducing the nozzle diameter. Due to the introduction of air bubbles into the water by the vortex, the spray is pushed from a [...] Read more.
Introducing a hyperbolic vortex into a showerhead is a possibility to achieve higher spray velocities for a given discharge without reducing the nozzle diameter. Due to the introduction of air bubbles into the water by the vortex, the spray is pushed from a transition (dripping faucet) regime into a jetting regime, which results in higher droplet and jet velocities using the same nozzle diameter and throughput. The same droplet and jet diameters were realized compared to a showerhead without a vortex. Assuming that the satisfaction of a shower experience is largely dependent on the droplet size and velocity, the implementation of a vortex in the showerhead could provide the same shower experience with ~14% less water consumption compared to the normal showerhead. A full optical and physical analysis was presented, and the important chemical parameters were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Acute Water-Scarcity Monitoring for Africa
Water 2019, 11(10), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101968 - 21 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Acute and chronic water scarcity impacts four billion people, a number likely to climb with population growth and increasing demand for food and energy production. Chronic water insecurity and long-term trends are well studied at the global and regional level; however, there have [...] Read more.
Acute and chronic water scarcity impacts four billion people, a number likely to climb with population growth and increasing demand for food and energy production. Chronic water insecurity and long-term trends are well studied at the global and regional level; however, there have not been adequate systems in place for routinely monitoring acute water scarcity. To address this gap, we developed a monthly monitoring system that computes annual water availability per capita based on hydrologic data from the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) and gridded population data from WorldPop. The monitoring system yields maps of acute water scarcity using monthly Falkenmark classifications and departures from the long-term mean classification. These maps are designed to serve FEWS NET monitoring objectives; however, the underlying data are publicly available and can support research on the roles of population and hydrologic change on water scarcity at sub-annual and sub-national scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Management of Water Resources in the Island of Crete, Greece
Water 2020, 12(6), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061538 (registering DOI) - 28 May 2020
Abstract
Crete, located in the South Mediterranean Sea, is characterized by long coastal areas, varied terrain relief and geology, and great spatial and inter-annual variations in precipitation. Under average meteorological conditions, the island is water-sufficient (969 mm precipitation; theoretical water potential 3284 hm3 [...] Read more.
Crete, located in the South Mediterranean Sea, is characterized by long coastal areas, varied terrain relief and geology, and great spatial and inter-annual variations in precipitation. Under average meteorological conditions, the island is water-sufficient (969 mm precipitation; theoretical water potential 3284 hm3; and total water use 610 hm3). Agriculture is by far the greatest user of water (78% of total water use), followed by domestic use (21%). Despite the high average water availability, water scarcity events commonly occur, particularly in the eastern-south part of the island, driven by local climatic conditions and seasonal or geographical mismatches between water availability and demand. Other critical issues in water management include the over-exploitation of groundwater, accounting for 93% of the water used in agriculture; low water use efficiencies in the farms; limited use of non-conventional water sources (effluent reuse); lack of modern frameworks of control and monitoring; and inadequate cooperation among stakeholders. These deficiencies impact adversely water use efficiency, deteriorate quality of water resources, increase competition for water and water pricing, and impair agriculture and environment. Moreover, the water-limited areas may display low adaptation potential to climate variability and face increased risks for the human-managed and natural ecosystems. The development of appropriate water governance frameworks that promote the development of integrated water management plans and allow concurrently flexibility to account for local differentiations in social-economic favors is urgently needed to achieve efficient water management and to improve the adaptation to the changing climatic conditions. Specific corrective actions may include use of alternative water sources (e.g., treated effluent and brackish water), implementation of efficient water use practices, re-formation of pricing policy, efficient control and monitoring, and investment in research and innovation to support the above actions. It is necessary to strengthen the links across stakeholders (e.g., farmers, enterprises, corporations, institutes, universities, agencies, and public authorities), along with an effective and updated governance framework to address the critical issues in water management, facilitate knowledge transfer, and promote the efficient use of non-conventional water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Open AccessReview
Irrigation of World Agricultural Lands: Evolution through the Millennia
Water 2020, 12(5), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051285 - 01 May 2020
Abstract
Many agricultural production areas worldwide are characterized by high variability of water supply conditions, or simply lack of water, creating a dependence on irrigation since Neolithic times. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of irrigation of [...] Read more.
Many agricultural production areas worldwide are characterized by high variability of water supply conditions, or simply lack of water, creating a dependence on irrigation since Neolithic times. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of irrigation of agricultural lands worldwide, based on bibliographical research focusing on ancient water management techniques and ingenious irrigation practices and their associated land management practices. In ancient Egypt, regular flooding by the Nile River meant that early agriculture probably consisted of planting seeds in soils that had been recently covered and fertilized with floodwater and silt deposits. On the other hand, in arid and semi-arid regions farmers made use of perennial springs and seasonal runoff under circumstances altogether different from the river civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and early dynasties in China. We review irrigation practices in all major irrigation regions through the centuries. Emphasis is given to the Bronze Age civilizations (Minoans, Egyptians, and Indus valley), pre-Columbian, civilizations from the historic times (e.g., Chinese, Hellenic, and Roman), late-Columbians (e.g., Aztecs and Incas) and Byzantines, as well as to Ottomans and Arabs. The implications and impacts of irrigation techniques on modern management of water resources, as well as on irrigated agriculture, are also considered and discussed. Finally, some current major agricultural water management challenges are outlined, concluding that ancient practices could be adapted to cope with present challenges in irrigated agriculture for increasing productivity and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Investigation of the Current Situation and Prospects for the Development of Rainwater Harvesting as a Tool to Confront Water Scarcity Worldwide
Water 2019, 11(10), 2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102168 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Nowadays, available water resources face severe pressures due to demographic, economic, social causes, environmental degradation, climate change, and technological changes on a global scale. It is well known that rainwater harvesting, a simple and old method, has the potential to supplement surface and [...] Read more.
Nowadays, available water resources face severe pressures due to demographic, economic, social causes, environmental degradation, climate change, and technological changes on a global scale. It is well known that rainwater harvesting, a simple and old method, has the potential to supplement surface and groundwater resources in areas that have inadequate water supply. In recent decades, many countries have supported the updated implementation of such a practice to confront the water demand increase and to reduce the frequency, peak, and volume of urban runoff. These considerations motivate interest in examining the current situation and the prospect of further development of this method worldwide. The present paper aims at the investigation of the current situation of rainwater harvesting (RWH) as an alternative water source to confront water scarcity in various countries around the world. In particular, the paper presents the following: (a) the causes of water shortage; (b) a concise historical overview of the temporal development of the RWH method; (c) the evolution of the concept of RWH; (d) the efforts to renew interest in RWH; and (e) incentives and perspectives for the spreading of the RWH method in various countries worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Maykot, J.K. and Ghisi, E. Assessment of A Rainwater Harvesting System in A Multi-Storey Residential Building in Brazil. Water 2020, 12, 546
Water 2020, 12(5), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051482 (registering DOI) - 22 May 2020
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Back to TopTop