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Open AccessCommunication

Assessment of Water Quality in Indo-Gangetic Plain of South-Eastern Asia under Organic vs. Conventional Rice Farming

1
Climate Change Science Institute and Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
2
Department of Crop and Soil Science, Klamath Basin Research and Extension Center, Oregon State University, 6923 Washburn Way, Klamath Falls, OR 97603, USA
3
School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, No. 24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065, China
4
Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India
5
National Centre of Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi 110012, India
6
Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors have contributed equally in every aspect of this article. Therefore they both are leading/first authors.
Water 2020, 12(4), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040960
Received: 1 March 2020 / Revised: 21 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 28 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Water contamination is often reported in agriculturally intensive areas such as the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in south-eastern Asia. We evaluated the impact of the organic and conventional farming of basmati rice on water quality during the rainy season (July to October) of 2011 and 2016 at Kaithal, Haryana, India. The study area comprised seven organic and seven conventional fields where organic farming has been practiced for more than two decades. Water quality parameters used for drinking (nitrate, NO3; total dissolved solids (TDS); electrical conductivity (EC) pH) and irrigation (sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC)) purposes were below permissible limits for all samples collected from organic fields and those from conventional fields over the long-term (~15 and ~20 years). Importantly, the magnitude of water NO3 contamination in conventional fields was approximately double that of organic fields, which is quite alarming and needs attention in future for farming practices in the IGP in south-eastern Asia. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; conventional farming; organic farming; nitrate; residual sodium carbonate; sodium adsorption ratio; total dissolved solids water quality; conventional farming; organic farming; nitrate; residual sodium carbonate; sodium adsorption ratio; total dissolved solids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sihi, D.; Dari, B.; Yan, Z.; Sharma, D.K.; Pathak, H.; Sharma, O.P.; Nain, L. Assessment of Water Quality in Indo-Gangetic Plain of South-Eastern Asia under Organic vs. Conventional Rice Farming. Water 2020, 12, 960.

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