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Open AccessArticle

Consequences of the Integration of a Hyperbolic Funnel into a Showerhead for Droplets, Jet Break-Up Lengths, and Physical-Chemical Parameters

1
Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
2
Institute of Hydraulics and Rural Water Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, Austria
3
Water Technology Group, NHL Stenden University of Applied Sciences, 8917 DD Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2446; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122446
Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 8 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Water Scarcity)
Introducing a hyperbolic vortex into a showerhead is a possibility to achieve higher spray velocities for a given discharge without reducing the nozzle diameter. Due to the introduction of air bubbles into the water by the vortex, the spray is pushed from a transition (dripping faucet) regime into a jetting regime, which results in higher droplet and jet velocities using the same nozzle diameter and throughput. The same droplet and jet diameters were realized compared to a showerhead without a vortex. Assuming that the satisfaction of a shower experience is largely dependent on the droplet size and velocity, the implementation of a vortex in the showerhead could provide the same shower experience with ~14% less water consumption compared to the normal showerhead. A full optical and physical analysis was presented, and the important chemical parameters were investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydraulics; dividing flow manifold; showerheads; sprays; dissolved oxygen hydraulics; dividing flow manifold; showerheads; sprays; dissolved oxygen
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van de Griend, M.V.; Agostinho, L.L.F.; Fuchs, E.C.; Dyer, N.; Loiskandl, W. Consequences of the Integration of a Hyperbolic Funnel into a Showerhead for Droplets, Jet Break-Up Lengths, and Physical-Chemical Parameters. Water 2019, 11, 2446.

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