Special Issue "Small Scale and Decentralized Wastewater Treatment and Reuse within the Concept of Circular Economy"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018) | Viewed by 22966

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Simos Malamis
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Guest Editor
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15773 Athens, Greece
Interests: wastewater treatment; biological nutrient removal; activated sludge; membrane bioreactors; industrial wastewater; nature-based solutions
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Evina Katsou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK
Interests: Resource Recovery; Data analytics, knowledge discovery and process modelling; Circularity Modelling and Assessment
Dr. Alper Baba
E-Mail
Guest Editor
İzmir Institute of Technology, Engineering Faculty, 35430- Urla-Izmir, Turkey
Prof. Dr. Maria da Conceição Cunha
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Guest Editor
Universidade de Coimbra, Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores de Coimbra (INESCC), Department of Civil Engineering, Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: water distribution systems; flexible design; deep uncertainty issues in decision making; static robust optimization; dynamic robust optimization; multi and many objective methods; multi-criteria decision analysis
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Dr. Priyanie Amerasinghe
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Guest Editor
International Water Management Institute, Delhi, India
Prof. Dr. Michael K. Stenstrom
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Guest Editor
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Interests: aeration; oxygen transfer; wastewater; activated sludge; stormwater; antibiotic resistance; water reclamation
Dr. Andreas Angelakis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
HAO-Demeter, Agricultural Research Institution of Crete, 71300 Iraklion and Union of Hellenic Water Supply and Sewerage Operators, 41222 Larissa, Greece
Interests: wastewater treatment and water reuse; small and decentralized wastewater management systems; water technologies in ancient civilizations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our goal is to plan a Special Issue on “Small Scale and Decentralized Wastewater Treatment and Reuse within the Concept of a Circular Economy” to be published in Water. The manuscripts, which will be selected for publication, will demonstrate the state-of-the-art in wastewater treatment technologies, including various aspects related to wastewater treatment technologies, water reuse suitable for small scale and decentralized systems, recharge of wastewater to the underground and how these affect the circular economy concept. It will also include innovative onsite treatment and reuse systems, where the circular economy approach is shown at a household level.

Dr. Simos Malamis
Dr. Evina Katsou
Dr. Alper Baba
Dr. Maria da Conceição Cunha
Dr. Priyanie Amerasinghe
Dr. Michael Stenstrom
Dr. Andreas N. Angelakis
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • History of small-scale waste- and storm-waters management systems including effluent disposal.
  • History of water reuse
  • Evolution of waste- and storm-waters treatment and reuse.
  • Waste- and storm-waters treatment technologies with emphasis on small scale and decentralized systems.
  • Geothermal wastewater and its effects on the environment.
  • Urban waste- and storm-waters management.
  • On-site and decentralized waste- and storm-waters treatment systems.
  • Removal of trace organics and emerging contaminants.
  • Membrane and disinfection technologies.
  • Potential effluent uses (e. g., irrigation, industry, recreation, groundwater recharge, and (in)direct potable).
  • Water reuse planning, policy, monitoring requirements, and standards/criteria.
  • The role of water reuse for integrated water resources management.
  • Waste- and storm-waters treatment and reuse in future cites
  • Sewage biosolids management
  • Economic and social aspects of production and use of recycled water.
  • Health and ecological risk analysis in water recycling applications.
  • Resource recovery from sewage on a small scale

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Proposal of Sustainability Indicators for the Waste Management from the Paper Industry within the Circular Economy Model
Water 2018, 10(8), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081014 - 31 Jul 2018
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3361
Abstract
The optimization of water management in industrial processes is paramount in diminishing or mitigating, as far as possible, the negative externalities generated by its current use within the linear economy model. This research presents methods for the optimization of wastewater from paper mills [...] Read more.
The optimization of water management in industrial processes is paramount in diminishing or mitigating, as far as possible, the negative externalities generated by its current use within the linear economy model. This research presents methods for the optimization of wastewater from paper mills which are associated with the new sustainability and circular economy model. In this way, the concept of circular economy was applied to the wastewater treatment from a paper mill, with the objective of recovering the resources contained in this type of effluent. The wastewater treatment plant is based on a biological reactor of activated sludge, and treats a flow of 4868 m3·day−1. This study proposes the development and evaluation of indicators of circular economy applied to wastewater from a paper mill, as well as the assessment of the removal performance of color, total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand on the fifth day (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which are higher than 96% in all cases. Per 1 m3 of wastewater from a paper mill, a volume of 0.9 m3 of potentially reusable water and a recovered sludge mass of 0.7 kg are generated; the latter is reused as a mineral filler during the process itself. In light of this, a multivariable statistical analysis was applied to determine the relationship of the operation variables and indicators of circular economy. In this way, wastewater from the paper mill can be regarded as a technological nutrient, which is partially reintroduced into the production process, enabling the recovery of the water and mineral fillers that it contains. Full article
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Article
Treatment of Source-Separated Blackwater: A Decentralized Strategy for Nutrient Recovery towards a Circular Economy
Water 2018, 10(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040463 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2703
Abstract
Using a filter medium for organic matter removal and nutrient recovery from blackwater treatment is a novel concept and has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This paper demonstrates a combined blackwater treatment and nutrient-recovery strategy and establishes mechanisms for a more dependable [...] Read more.
Using a filter medium for organic matter removal and nutrient recovery from blackwater treatment is a novel concept and has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This paper demonstrates a combined blackwater treatment and nutrient-recovery strategy and establishes mechanisms for a more dependable source of plant nutrients aiming at a circular economy. Source-separated blackwater from a student dormitory was used as feedstock for a sludge blanket anaerobic-baffled reactor. The effluent from the reactor, with 710 mg L−1 NH4–N and 63 mg L−1 PO4–P, was treated in a sequence of upflow and downflow filtration columns using granular activated carbon, Cocos char and polonite as filter media at a flow rate of 600 L m−2 day−1 and organic loading rate of 430 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m−2 day−1. Filtration treatment of the anaerobic effluent with carbon adsorbents removed 80% of the residual organic matter, more than 90% of suspended solids, and turbidity while releasing more than 76% NH4–N and 85% of PO4–P in the liquid phase. The treatment train also removed total coliform bacteria and E. coli in the effluent, achieving concentrations below detection limit after the integration of ultraviolet (UV) light. These integrated technological pathways ensure simultaneous nutrient recovery as a nutrient solution, pathogen inactivation, and reduction of active organic substances. The treated nutrient-rich water can be applied as a source of value creation for various end-use options. Full article
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Article
A Monte-Carlo-Based Method for the Optimal Placement and Operation Scheduling of Sewer Mining Units in Urban Wastewater Networks
Water 2018, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020200 - 13 Feb 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Pressures on water resources, which have increased significantly nowadays mainly due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts, necessitate the development of innovative wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. In this context, a mid-scale decentralized technology concerning wastewater reuse is that of [...] Read more.
Pressures on water resources, which have increased significantly nowadays mainly due to rapid urbanization, population growth and climate change impacts, necessitate the development of innovative wastewater treatment and reuse technologies. In this context, a mid-scale decentralized technology concerning wastewater reuse is that of sewer mining. It is based on extracting wastewater from a wastewater system, treating it on-site and producing recycled water applicable for non-potable uses. Despite the technology’s considerable benefits, several challenges hinder its implementation. Sewer mining disturbs biochemical processes inside sewers and affects hydrogen sulfide build-up, resulting in odor, corrosion and health-related problems. In this study, a tool for optimal sewer mining unit placement aiming to minimize hydrogen sulfide production is presented. The Monte-Carlo method coupled with the Environmental Protection Agency’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to conduct multiple simulations of the network. The network’s response when sewage is extracted from it is also examined. Additionally, the study deals with optimal pumping scheduling. The overall methodology is applied in a sewer network in Greece providing useful results. It can therefore assist in selecting appropriate locations for sewer mining implementation, with the focus on eliminating hydrogen sulfide-associated problems while simultaneously ensuring that higher water needs are satisfied. Full article
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Article
Design of Indicators of Circular Economy as Instruments for the Evaluation of Sustainability and Efficiency in Wastewater from Pig Farming Industry
Water 2017, 9(9), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090653 - 31 Aug 2017
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 5087
Abstract
Circular economy intends to turn waste into resources that can be reintroduced into the production process, eliminating the negative externalities from it. The impact of pig manure on the environment is one of the main challenges in agriculture. The high amount of pig [...] Read more.
Circular economy intends to turn waste into resources that can be reintroduced into the production process, eliminating the negative externalities from it. The impact of pig manure on the environment is one of the main challenges in agriculture. The high amount of pig manure coming from the pig farming industry complicates the management of this type of effluents, leading to a serious impact on the environment, as it pollutes the soil, the water, and the air. The concept of the indicator of circular economy was introduced to evaluate the degree of approximation of the pig manure treatment process to the circular economy model. In light of this, these indicators showed the possibility of obtaining 0.97 m3 water h−1, 49.40 kg biofertilizer h−1, and 5.33 m3 biogas h−1 per 1 m3 pig manure h−1 treated, allowing us to assess the minimization of waste generation and the efficiency of the use of resources. By applying an anaerobic digestion process to treat pig manure, reductions of water and natural gas consumptions were 47.01% and 5.33%, respectively, which leads to a reduction in emissions of 171.98 kg CO2 h−1. Consequently, pig manure can be considered as a technological nutrient that is reintroduced into the productive system, enabling the recovery of energy, water, and biofertilizer contained therein. Full article
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Article
Treated Greywater Reuse for Hydroponic Lettuce Production in a Green Wall System: Quantitative Health Risk Assessment
Water 2017, 9(7), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9070454 - 23 Jun 2017
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 6592
Abstract
The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today, and the expansion of water reuse has been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce [...] Read more.
The scarcity and pollution of freshwater are extremely crucial issues today, and the expansion of water reuse has been considered as an option to reduce its impact. This study aims to assess the efficiency of an integrated greywater treatment system and hydroponic lettuce production as a part of a green wall structure, and to evaluate the health risk associated with the production and consumption of lettuce through a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and a chemical health risk assessment. The study was conducted based on the unique configuration of a source separation system; an on-site greywater treatment system; a green wall structure as a polishing step; and hydroponic lettuce production in the green wall structure. The final effluent from the system was used to grow three lettuce varieties by adding urine as a nutrient solution. Both water samples and plant biomass were collected and tested for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and heavy metals contamination. The system has gained a cumulative 5.1 log10 reduction of E. coli in the final effluent and no E. coli found in the plant biomass. The estimated annual infection risk for Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, and Norovirus was 10−6–10−8, 10−8–10−10, and 10−10–10−11 respectively. These results indicate that the system attained the health-based targets, 10−6 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year. Similarly, the health risk index (HRI) and targeted hazard quotient (THQ) results did not exceed the permissible level, thus the chemical health risk concern was insignificant. Full article
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Article
Performance and Microbial Diversity in a Low-Energy ANF-WDSRBC System for the Post-Treatment of Decentralized Domestic Wastewater
Water 2017, 9(5), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9050330 - 06 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Recently, more decentralized wastewater treatments are of great interest for rural regions. In this work, a novel ANF-WDSRBC system combined with an anoxic filter (ANF) and a four-stage water-dropping-self-rotating biological contactor (WDSRBC) was designed as a post-treatment option. With a total hydraulic retention [...] Read more.
Recently, more decentralized wastewater treatments are of great interest for rural regions. In this work, a novel ANF-WDSRBC system combined with an anoxic filter (ANF) and a four-stage water-dropping-self-rotating biological contactor (WDSRBC) was designed as a post-treatment option. With a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8.8 h and reflux ratio of 1:1, the ANF-WDSRBC system was operated 160 days. The results showed the ANF-WDSRBC system had better performance without mechanical aeration devices, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH4+–N) and total nitrogen (TN) were 61.4% ± 4.3%, 86.1% ± 3.7%, and 54.5% ± 3.9%, respectively. By means of high-throughput MiSeq sequencing, the results suggested that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi were the predominant phyla in the system. In the WDSRBC units, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, Bacillus, and Nitrospira were the main genera to take part in nitrification. Longilinea, Bellilinea, Thiobacillus, and Thauera in the ANF unit were the main genera to participate in denitrification and organic matters degradation. The novel ANF-WDSRBC system had great potential in the post-treatment of decentralized domestic wastewater. Full article
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