Special Issue "Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2022 | Viewed by 6411

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tushar Kanti Sen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Chemical Engineering Department, King Faisal University (KFU), P.O. Box 380, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
2. Chemical Engineering, WA School of Mines: Minerals, Energy and Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
Interests: water research; wastewater treatment; adsorption at solid/liquid interface; biosorption; anaerobic digestion and dewatering of wastewater sludge; rheology of slurry/sludge; chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water pollution occurs when toxic inorganic and organic pollutants/potential pollutants from various industrial and human activities are directly and indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment. A number of treatment technologies such as membrane processes, filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, solid/liquid adsorption, coagulation, oxidation/reduction, etc., have been used to separate various water pollutants. Among the various separation techniques in water pollution control, adsorption at the solid/liquid interface is considered to be a superior technique because of its simple design, universal nature, high effectiveness, ease of operation and regeneration. When our water is polluted, it is not only devastating to the environment, but also to human health. Further, there are various federal and state government and environmental protection agencies who strictly enforce regulations on minimizing pollutants from liquid discharge effluent streams. In view of the importance of water quality and the environmental aspect, it is considered worthwhile to address the state-of-the-art adsorption at the solid/liquid interface for the removal of water pollutants from water and wastewater systems. Adsorption at the solid/liquid interface may be defined as the selective concentration or retention of one or more liquid phase component of a mixture on a solid surface or at the solid/liquid interface by various physical and chemical forces. The nature and types of adsorbents are the main controlling parameters for effectiveness of the adsorption process. Therefore, the present Special Issue entitled “Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment” aims for the publication of original research or review papers on the removal of inorganic/organic pollutants from water by various conventional and  nonconventional alternative adsorbents and to provide more research information on the mechanism of adsorption. The overall scope of this Special Issue includes up-to-date development on the current state of knowledge on various adsorbents such as activated carbon, nanomaterials, functional materials, clay minerals and various agricultural biomass-based adsorbents and their applications in the broad field of the separation and purification of water pollutants. Specifically, the topics for this Special Issue include but are not restricted to:

  • The synthesis and characteristics of various adsorbent materials including biomass adsorbents, clay minerals and new emerging alternative adsorbents, composite adsorbents and their adsorptive effectiveness in water purification under various physicochemical process parameters;
  • Kinetics, thermodynamics and equilibrium: experimental data, novel theories and models;
  • Adsorption calculations and modelling;
  • Continuous column process and process design: packed bed and moving bed systems, fluidised bed, bubble column operations and dynamic modelling;
  • Industrial wastewater treatments—any case study.

Dr. Tushar Kanti Sen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • water pollution
  • adsorptive separation technique
  • agricultural by-product solid waste adsorbents
  • clay minerals
  • wastewater treatment
  • nanomaterials in wastewater treatment
  • anaerobic digestion
  • conditioning agents in dewatering
  • sludge rheology

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
The Sorbents Based on Acrylic Fiber Impregnated by Iron Hydroxide (III): Production Methods, Properties, Application in Oceanographic Research
Water 2022, 14(15), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152303 - 24 Jul 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Sorbents based on Fe(OH)3 and aluminum oxide are widely used in oceanology for the recovery of cosmogenic radionuclides 7Be, 32Si, 32P, and 33P from the seawater. It is also possible to use them for the recovery of the [...] Read more.
Sorbents based on Fe(OH)3 and aluminum oxide are widely used in oceanology for the recovery of cosmogenic radionuclides 7Be, 32Si, 32P, and 33P from the seawater. It is also possible to use them for the recovery of the natural radionuclides 210Pb, 234Th. A comparative study of the sorbents based on Fe(OH)3 and acrylic fiber obtained through various impregnation methods was carried out, and their comparison with granulated aluminum oxide. The possibility of extracting trace amounts of phosphorus and beryllium under laboratory and field conditions with these sorbents was studied. The sorption of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th on the natural content by the two-column method was investigated. It is shown that fiber samples obtained by oxidation with sodium ferrate and the “classical” method have the highest sorption characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Enhanced Methylene Blue Adsorption by Cu-BTC Metal-Organic Frameworks with Engineered Particle Size Using Surfactant Modulators
Water 2022, 14(12), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121864 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) featuring porous structures and large specific surface areas have shown great potential in removing organic pollutants from wastewater via adsorption processes. Although the particle size of MOFs determines the adsorption performance (something known as the size-dependent effect), engineering it into [...] Read more.
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) featuring porous structures and large specific surface areas have shown great potential in removing organic pollutants from wastewater via adsorption processes. Although the particle size of MOFs determines the adsorption performance (something known as the size-dependent effect), engineering it into desirable dimensions for enhancing the adsorption performance is a great challenge. Here, we develop a practical and facile approach to regulate the particle size of copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Cu-BTC) adsorbents with high tunability by screening the functional modulator of various surfactants adding in hydrothermal synthesis procedure. The effect of surfactant type and concentration on the particle size of Cu-BTC was systematically investigated. The results show that the nonionic surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) demonstrated the greatest ability to control the particle size of Cu-BTC among other counterparts (e.g., N, N, N-trimethyl-1-dodecanaminium bromide (DTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG1000), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)). By increasing the PVP concentration to 0.14 mmol L−1, the average particle size of Cu-BTC could be correspondingly reduced by more than ten times, reaching to a comparative smaller value of 2.4 μm as compared with the reported counterparts. In addition, the PVP allowed a large increase of the surface area of Cu-BTC according to porosity analysis, resulting in a great enhancement of methylene blue (MB) adsorption. The PVP-modulated Cu-BTC showed fast adsorption kinetics for MB removal accompanied with a maximum adsorption capacity of 169.2 mg g−1, which was considerably competitive with most of the analogs reported. Therefore, our study may inspire concepts for engineering the particle size of Cu-BTCs with improved properties for more practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Copper Bioremediation Ability of Ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum Isolated from Industrial Wastewater
Water 2022, 14(9), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091419 - 29 Apr 2022
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The growing problems of environmental damage have been caused by the continuous outrush of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. To resolve this issue, bioremediation is playing a safe and eco-friendly role in the removal of these heavy metals from environmental wastewater bodies. It [...] Read more.
The growing problems of environmental damage have been caused by the continuous outrush of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. To resolve this issue, bioremediation is playing a safe and eco-friendly role in the removal of these heavy metals from environmental wastewater bodies. It has provoked demand with regard to understanding the mechanisms of bioaccumulation and detoxification developed by the organisms living in the heavy metal-exposed industrial wastewater. The present investigation focuses on Paramecium multimicronucleatum, a ciliated protozoan isolated from industrial wastewater, with the objective of assessing its capabilities as an environmental bioremediator. Purified cell culture was maintained in bold basal salt medium and optimum growth conditions were determined. A maximum growth rate of 6.0–9.0 × 103 cells/mL at 25–30 °C and pH 7.0 was observed, and therefore revealed to be the optimal growth conditions for this species. It can tolerate 40–50 µg/mL of copper ion stress with little effect on growth rate as compared to control. It is able to uptake more than 80% of copper ions from the medium in 96 h. A significant twofold rise in glutathione content and non-protein thiols was recorded as an indication of a defensive mechanism in place to fight against the oxidative stress caused by the copper treatment. A notable increase of 50–70 µg/mL in total protein content of stressed cells in comparison to non-stressed was also observed as potential induction of some particular proteins for the purpose of resistance against copper stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Evaluation of Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics of Cationic Ion Using Agro-Industrial Residues of Plantain (Musa paradisiaca)
Water 2022, 14(9), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14091383 - 24 Apr 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the adsorptive capacity of Cr (VI) on the residues of the plantain starch extraction process in a batch system, determining the effect of temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dose. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR and SEM. The [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the adsorptive capacity of Cr (VI) on the residues of the plantain starch extraction process in a batch system, determining the effect of temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dose. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR and SEM. The Cr (VI) solution was placed in contact with the adsorbent at pH 2 and 200 rpm. The results revealed the presence of COO, OH and CHx+ functional groups in the adsorbent. In addition, the adsorption process is controlled by chemisorption and electrostatic interactions. We also found that temperature and adsorbent dose are the variables with significant influence. The highest adsorption capacity was 64.46 mg/g at 55 °C, 200 mg/L and 0.14 g of biomaterial. Based on the kinetic behavior, it was found that the data are adjusted by the pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models. The fit of the isotherms to the Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models establishes that the limiting step of the process is the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic parameters determine that the process is endothermic, with strong biomass–metal bonds that are favorable and spontaneous as the temperature increases. The results indicate that the residual plantain pulp is a residue that can be used in the removal of Cr (VI) ions, and it contributes to the state of the art in terms of the use of new agro-industrial waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Evaluation of Three Biomaterials from Coconut Mesocarp for Use in Water Treatments Polluted with an Anionic Dye
Water 2022, 14(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030408 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 916
Abstract
Coconut consumption leads to the generation of a large number of fibrous residues such as epicarp and mesocarp. In this study, bioadsorbents were prepared from coconut shells (CS), coconut cellulose (CC) and treated coconut cellulose (MCC) with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) for [...] Read more.
Coconut consumption leads to the generation of a large number of fibrous residues such as epicarp and mesocarp. In this study, bioadsorbents were prepared from coconut shells (CS), coconut cellulose (CC) and treated coconut cellulose (MCC) with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) for the elimination of Congo red (CR) in a watery solution. The impact of the adsorbent quantity (15, 25 and 35 mg) and initial concentration (40, 70 and 100 mg/L) were evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) confirmed the existence of OH, C=O, COOH and CH2 groups in the adsorbents as well as the deformation of the bands between 3400 and 3800 cm−1 after the adsorption of CR, which was attributed to its capture in the bioadsorbent. From the bromatological analysis, a content of 48.94% lignin, 35.99% cellulose and 10.51% hemicellulose was found. SEM images showed a lignocellulosic essential surface origin for all adsorbents with presence of folds, roughness of an irregular exposed area and fibrous filaments. The average particle size was 0.45 mm and adsorbents had a mean porosity of 0.58. Increasing the initial concentration had a beneficial influence on the removal efficiency of CR, achieving a 99.9% removal with MCC. CS showed slow kinetics in the initial stages whereas CC and MCC achieved 78% and 99.98% removal at 120 min, respectively; an equilibrium was reached at 480 and 20 min, respectively. MCC, CC and CS achieved a maximum qe of 256.12 mg/g, 121.62 mg/g and 17.76 mg/g, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Effectiveness and Characterization of Novel Mineral Clay in Cd2+ Adsorption Process: Linear and Non-Linear Isotherm Regression Analysis
Water 2022, 14(3), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14030279 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 532
Abstract
The excellent adsorption properties of clay minerals make the optimization of heavy metal removal the subject of numerous research projects. In the present study, ASLAVITAL cosmetic clay (ACC) powder was applied for the removal of Cd2+ from water. The main deposit of [...] Read more.
The excellent adsorption properties of clay minerals make the optimization of heavy metal removal the subject of numerous research projects. In the present study, ASLAVITAL cosmetic clay (ACC) powder was applied for the removal of Cd2+ from water. The main deposit of ACC clay is the Pădurea Craiului Mountains in Romania. A wide range of morpho-structural approaches (SEM, EDX, FTIR, Raman, XRD) were used to characterize the morphology and elemental composition of the adsorbent. As expected for clay minerals, Al (Wt(%) = 11.4 ± 0.9) and Si (Wt(%) = 13.7 ± 1.4) are the main constituents of ACC. After adsorption, Wt(%) = 0.2 ± 0.01 Cd2+ was detected in the sample. As proved before, the initial metal concentration is the primary influencing factor; therefore, batch adsorption of 10–160 mg/L Cd2+ was investigated. After 190 min, an efficiency of 99% was reached, and the quantity in equilibrium increased from 1–8 mg/g. The best fit in linear form was obtained for the Langmuir II. model, where R2 = 0.954 (RL = 0.037–0.027). Based on linear isotherm models, physical bonds formed between ACC and Cd2+ during the favorable adsorption. For the non-linear fits, the Liu model proved to be the best R2 = 0.965, χ2 = 1.101. Pseudo-II-order kinetic model described the experimental data R2 = 0.988–0.999; qexp and qcalc were almost identical (the differences ranged 0.03–0.34). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Enhanced Single and Simultaneous As(III) Adsorption in Pearl River Delta Water by Hexylamine Functionalized Vermiculite
Water 2021, 13(17), 2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13172412 - 02 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Enhanced As(III) removal (>99.7) was achieved by a novel organoclay (HEX-VER) adsorbent in Pearl River Delta water. Single and simultaneous As(III) removal in the presence of Cd(II) and/or Pb(II) by batch adsorption tests was analyzed. Spectroscopic, spectrometric, microscopic, and potentiometric techniques were used [...] Read more.
Enhanced As(III) removal (>99.7) was achieved by a novel organoclay (HEX-VER) adsorbent in Pearl River Delta water. Single and simultaneous As(III) removal in the presence of Cd(II) and/or Pb(II) by batch adsorption tests was analyzed. Spectroscopic, spectrometric, microscopic, and potentiometric techniques were used for characterization of the adsorbents. The parameters affecting As(III) adsorption, including pH, kinetic, isotherm, thermodynamic, and co-existing ions (Cl, F, NO3, CO32−, SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were also investigated. The results showed that HEX-VER owned different morphology and larger average pore diameter after functionalization, resulting in an improvement of As (III) adsorption capacity. Further analysis confirmed that adsorption was of the monomolecular layer, well-described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The dominant mechanisms for As(III) removal were ion-exchange and complexation. Moreover, HEX-VER was regenerated for five consecutive cycles, and the removal ratio was ≈ 92%, showing its great regeneration potential. These findings suggest that the proposed inexpensive adsorbent has potential for practical applications of As(III) removal from river water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Comparison of Sr Transport in Compacted Homoionous Na and Ca Bentonite Using a Planar Source Method Evaluated at Ideal and Non-Ideal Boundary Condition
Water 2021, 13(11), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111520 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 995
Abstract
With the aim to determine the influence of dominant interlayer cation on the sorption and diffusion properties of bentonite, diffusion experiments with Sr on the compacted homoionous Ca- and Na-forms of Czech natural Mg/Ca bentonite using the planar source method were performed. The [...] Read more.
With the aim to determine the influence of dominant interlayer cation on the sorption and diffusion properties of bentonite, diffusion experiments with Sr on the compacted homoionous Ca- and Na-forms of Czech natural Mg/Ca bentonite using the planar source method were performed. The bentonite was compacted to 1400 kg·m−3, and diffusion experiments lasted 1, 3 or 5 days. Two methods of apparent diffusion coefficient Da determination based on the analytical solution of diffusion equation for ideal boundary conditions in a linear form were compared and applied. The determined Da value for Ca-bentonite was 1.36 times higher than that for Na-bentonite sample. Values of Kd were determined in independent batch sorption experiments and were extrapolated for the conditions of compacted bentonite. In spite of this treatment, the use of Kd values determined by batch sorption experiments on a loose material for the determination of effective diffusion coefficient De values from planar source diffusion experiments proved to be inconsistent with the standard Fickian description of diffusion taking into account only the pore diffusion in compacted bentonite. Discrepancies between Kd and De values were measured in independent experiments, and those that resulted from the evaluation of planar source diffusion experiments could be well explained by the phenomenon of surface diffusion. The obtained values of surface diffusion coefficients Ds were similar for both studied systems, and the predicted value of total effective diffusion coefficient De(tot) describing Sr transport in the Na-bentonite was four times higher than in the Ca-bentonite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid/Liquid Adsorption in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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