Next Article in Journal
Drought and Ecological Flows in the Lower Guadiana River Basin (Southwest Iberian Peninsula)
Next Article in Special Issue
Cryptosporidium Oocysts Removal by Upflow Direct Filtration: Pilot Scale Assessment
Previous Article in Journal
Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Varese: Analysis and Characterization over Ten Years of Observations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Electrocoagulation as a Pretreatment for Electroxidation of E. coli
Review

Legionellosis and Recent Advances in Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems: A Review

1
United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
2
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030676
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2020 / Accepted: 21 February 2020 / Published: 2 March 2020
This review discusses Legionella, among the most prolific and publicly well-known waterborne pathogens, and advances in potential treatment technologies. The number of cases associated with Legionella continues to rise, as does its public awareness. Currently, cases associated with premise plumbing account for the largest number of legionellosis cases in the United States. So, while it is important to understand Legionella as such, it is also important to investigate how to treat drinking water in premise plumbing for Legionella and other waterborne pathogens. While there are currently several methods recognized as potential means of inactivating waterborne pathogens, several shortcomings continue to plague its implementation. These methods are generally of two types. Firstly, there are chemical treatments such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ozone, and copper-silver ionization. Secondly, there are physical treatments such as thermal inactivation and media filtration. Their shortcomings range from being labor-intensive and costly to having negative health effects if not properly operated. Recently developed technologies including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation using light emitting diodes (LEDs) and innovative carbon nanotube (CNT) filters can better control waterborne pathogens by allowing for the simultaneous use of different treatment measures in plumbing systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: legionellosis; Legionella control; premise plumbing systems; treatment technologies legionellosis; Legionella control; premise plumbing systems; treatment technologies
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Carlson, K.M.; Boczek, L.A.; Chae, S.; Ryu, H. Legionellosis and Recent Advances in Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems: A Review. Water 2020, 12, 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030676

AMA Style

Carlson KM, Boczek LA, Chae S, Ryu H. Legionellosis and Recent Advances in Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems: A Review. Water. 2020; 12(3):676. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030676

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carlson, Kelsie M., Laura A. Boczek, Soryong Chae, and Hodon Ryu. 2020. "Legionellosis and Recent Advances in Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems: A Review" Water 12, no. 3: 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030676

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop