Special Issue "Removal of Organic Pollution in Water Environment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 June 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Joanna Karpińska
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Poland
Interests: study of processes determining the durability of selected biologically active compounds in the environment; new photocatalysts; endogenous antioxidants; liquid chromatography
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Urszula Kotowska
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Poland
Interests: determination of emerging contaminants in wastewater; leachate and other objects of the water environment; phytoremediation; microextraction techniques; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The planned Special Issue will include the following topics:

Emerging pollutants (EPs) in waters

Endocrine active compounds in the water environment

Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in various water bodies

Advances in water purification processes

New advanced oxidation processess

Environmental risk assessment, toxiticity of emerging contaminants, their fate in the food chain

Leacheates of municipal landfills, their impact on groundwater quality and problems with its utilisation

Analytical methods employed to monitor the presence of EP in waters and for the monitoring of water purification processes

Phytoremediation of wastewaters

Purification of industrial wastewater

Sorption methods in wastewater treatment

Prof. Dr. Joanna Karpińska
Dr. Urszula Kotowska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wastewater
  • municipal landfields leachate
  • groundwater
  • emerging contaminants, advanced oxidation methods
  • phytoremediation
  • environmental risk assessment
  • endocrine disrupting compounds

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
Removal of Organic Pollution in the Water Environment
Water 2019, 11(10), 2017; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102017 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The development of civilization entails a growing demand for consumer goods. A side effect of the production and use of these materials is the production of solid waste and wastewater. Municipal and industrial wastewater usually contain a large amount of various organic compounds [...] Read more.
The development of civilization entails a growing demand for consumer goods. A side effect of the production and use of these materials is the production of solid waste and wastewater. Municipal and industrial wastewater usually contain a large amount of various organic compounds and are the main source of pollution of the aquatic environment with these substances. Therefore, the search for effective methods of wastewater and other polluted water treatment is an important element of caring for the natural environment. This Special Issue contains nine peer-review articles presenting research on the determination and removal of environmentally hazardous organic compounds from aqueous samples. The presented articles were categorized into three major fields: new approaches to the degradation of water pollutants, new methods of isolation and determination of the emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), and the occurrence of EOCs in the water environment. These articles present only selected issues from a very wide area, which is the removal of organic pollution in water environment, but can serve as important references for future studies. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Hormones and Other Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater Using Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification Microextraction with Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet Followed by GC-MS Detection
Water 2019, 11(8), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081638 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (USAEME-SFOD) has been applied to isolate hormones and other emerging contaminants from groundwater samples. Simultaneously with the extraction process, derivatization in the matrix was carried out using acetic anhydride. Quantification of studied organic pollutants [...] Read more.
Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (USAEME-SFOD) has been applied to isolate hormones and other emerging contaminants from groundwater samples. Simultaneously with the extraction process, derivatization in the matrix was carried out using acetic anhydride. Quantification of studied organic pollutants was done through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hormones included β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Other compounds belonged to groups of pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DIC)), antiseptics (triclosan (TRC)), preservatives (propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP)), sunscreen agents (benzophenone (BPH), and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (3MBC)), repellents (N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET)), industrial chemicals (bisphenol A (BPA), 4-t-octylphenol (4OP), 4-n-nonylphenol (4NP)). A non-toxic and inexpensive 1-undecanol was successfully used as the extraction solvent. Volume of extractant and derivatization agent, ionic strength, and time of extraction were optimized. Very low limits of detection (LoD) ranging from 0.01 to 5.9 ng/L were obtained. Recoveries ranged from 90% to 123%, with relative standard deviation being lower than 17%. The developed procedure was used to determine target compounds in groundwater collected at municipal waste landfills as well as in groundwater from wells distant from sources of pollution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Surface Sediment Contamination by PBDE in a Recharge Point of Guarani Aquifer in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
Water 2019, 11(8), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081601 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in several products, although they can act as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic and endocrine disruptors in organisms. In Brazil, their levels in aquatic sediments are poorly known; thus, concerns about the degree of exposure of the [...] Read more.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in several products, although they can act as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic and endocrine disruptors in organisms. In Brazil, their levels in aquatic sediments are poorly known; thus, concerns about the degree of exposure of the Brazilian population to PBDEs have grown. This study aimed to quantify the presence of PBDEs in sediment samples from an important groundwater water supply in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, and to contribute to studies related to the presence of PBDEs in Brazilian environments. Gas chromatography coupled with Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD) was used for quantification after submitting the samples to ultrasound-assisted extraction and clean-up steps. Results showed the presence of six PBDE, BDE-47 being the most prevalent in the samples, indicating a major contamination of the penta-PBDE commercial mixture. The concentration of ΣPBDEs (including BDE-28, -47, -66, -85, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154 and -209) varied between nd (not detected) to 5.4 ± 0.2 ng g−1. Although preliminary, our data show the anthropic contamination of a direct recharge area of the Aquifer Guarani by persistent and banned substances. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Use of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode for the Determination of Selected Biocides in Water Samples
Water 2019, 11(8), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081595 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, the remains of chemical substances in water environments, referred to as emerging organic contaminations, have been more and more often studied by analysts. This work shows the possibility of using a boron-doped diamond electrode to determine low concentration levels of [...] Read more.
In recent years, the remains of chemical substances in water environments, referred to as emerging organic contaminations, have been more and more often studied by analysts. This work shows the possibility of using a boron-doped diamond electrode to determine low concentration levels of remains of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. The study focused on selected biocides from the group of azole fungicides (itraconazole and posaconazole) and was performed using quick and sensitive electrochemical methods. The cyclic voltammetry method was used in order to determine the properties of these compounds, whereas analytical characterization was performed using square wave voltammetry. The work involved the specification of the optimum electrooxidation conditions of the selected fungicides, their comparative characterization, and the development of a new, sensitive methods of itraconazole and posaconazole assay. The proposed procedures allowed us to determine itraconazole in the range from 7.9 × 10−8 to 1.2 × 10−6 moL·L−1 and posaconazole in the range from 5.7 × 10−8 to 8.44 × 10−7 moL·L−1. The relative standard deviation of the measurements did not exceed 5.85%. The developed procedures were successfully used to determine itraconazole and posaconazole concentration in water samples and the assay recovery was between 93.5% and 102.8%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Budesonide and Sulfasalazine in Water and Wastewater Samples Using DLLME-SFO-HPLC-UV Method
Water 2019, 11(8), 1581; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081581 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) was applied to isolate budesonide (BUD) and sulfasalazine (SULF) from aqueous samples. The effects of different parameters on the efficiency on the extraction such as type of extrahent and dispersive solvent, ionic [...] Read more.
Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) was applied to isolate budesonide (BUD) and sulfasalazine (SULF) from aqueous samples. The effects of different parameters on the efficiency on the extraction such as type of extrahent and dispersive solvent, ionic strength, pH of sample, and centrifugation time were investigated. Moreover, the influence of foreign substances on a studied process was tested. The calibration curves were recorded. The linearity ranges for BUD and SULF were 0.022–8.611 µg mL−1 and 0.020–7.968 µg mL−1 with the limit of detection (LOD) 0.011 µg mL−1 and 0.012 µg mL−1, respectively. The enrichment factors (EF) for two analytes were high: for BUD it was 145.7 and for SULF, 119.5. The elaborated procedure was applied for HPLC-UV determination of these analytes in water and wastewater samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Platinum and Palladium from Wastewater by Means of Biosorption on Fungi Aspergillus sp. and Yeast Saccharomyces sp.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071522 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The emission of platinum group metals from different sources has caused elevated concentrations of platinum and palladium in samples of airborne particulate matter, soil, surface waters and sewage sludge. The ability of biomass of Aspergillus sp. and yeast Saccharomyces sp. for removal of [...] Read more.
The emission of platinum group metals from different sources has caused elevated concentrations of platinum and palladium in samples of airborne particulate matter, soil, surface waters and sewage sludge. The ability of biomass of Aspergillus sp. and yeast Saccharomyces sp. for removal of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) from environmental samples was studied in this work. The pH of the solution, the mass of biosorbent, and contact time were optimized. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and kinetic results were used for interpretation of the process equilibrium of Pt(IV) and Pd(II) on both microorganisms. The maximal efficiency of retention of Pt(IV) on yeast and fungi was obtained at acidic solutions (pH 2.0 for Pt(IV) and pH 2.5–3.5 for Pd(II)). The equilibrium of the biosorption process was attained within 45 min. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Langmuir isotherm. Kinetics of the Pt and Pd adsorption process suit well the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Fungi Aspergillus sp. shows higher adsorption capacity for both metals than yeast Saccharomyces sp. The maximum adsorption capacity of fungi was 5.49 mg g−1 for Pt(IV) and 4.28 mg g−1 for Pd(II). The fungi possess the ability for efficient removal of studied ions from different wastewater samples (sewage and road run-off water). It was also demonstrated, that quantitative recovery of Pd from industrial wastes could be obtained by biosorption using Aspergillus sp. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Liquid–Liquid Continuous Extraction and Fractional Distillation for the Removal of Organic Compounds from the Wastewater of the Oil Industry
Water 2019, 11(7), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071452 - 13 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This is the first study to carry out a laboratory-scale assay to assess the potentiality of continuous liquid–liquid extraction with dichloromethane (CLLEDCM) and high-power fractional distillation (HPFD) as a treatment to decontaminate the wastewater generated by the petroleum industry (WW). The [...] Read more.
This is the first study to carry out a laboratory-scale assay to assess the potentiality of continuous liquid–liquid extraction with dichloromethane (CLLEDCM) and high-power fractional distillation (HPFD) as a treatment to decontaminate the wastewater generated by the petroleum industry (WW). The analytical parameters of treated wastewater (TWW) evidenced a remarkable quality improvement compared to the original WW. CLLEDCM–HPFD yielded 92.4%–98.5% of the WW mass as more environmentally friendly water. Compared to the original values determined in the WW, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased by 95.0%–100.0%, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased by 90.5%–99.9%. Taking into account the yield of the treated water, the amount of pollutant removed, and the risks of each process, the order of the potentiality of these treatments, from highest to lowest, was HPFD > CLLEDCM–HPFD > CLLEDCM. CLLEDCM treatment alone produced TWW with poorer quality, and the CLLEDCM–HPFD sequence involved the greatest consumption of time and energy (0.390–0.905 kWh/kg). CLLEDCM-only was the least effective treatment because the TWW obtained failed to comply with the regulations of oil-producing countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into the Kinetics of Intermediate Formation during Electrochemical Oxidation of the Organic Model Pollutant Salicylic Acid in Chloride Electrolyte
Water 2019, 11(7), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071322 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The present study investigated the kinetics and formation of hydroxylated and chlorinated intermediates during electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid (SA). A chloride (NaCl) and sulfate (Na2SO4) electrolyte were used, along with two different anode materials, boron doped diamond (BDD) [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the kinetics and formation of hydroxylated and chlorinated intermediates during electrochemical oxidation of salicylic acid (SA). A chloride (NaCl) and sulfate (Na2SO4) electrolyte were used, along with two different anode materials, boron doped diamond (BDD) and platinum (Pt). Bulk electrolysis of SA confirmed the formation of both hydroxylated and chlorinated intermediates. In line with the density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed in this study, 2,5- and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3- and 5- chlorosalicylic acid and 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid were the dominating products. In the presence of a chloride electrolyte, the formation of chlorinated intermediates was the predominant oxidation mechanism on both BDD and Pt anodes. In the absence of a chloride electrolyte, hydroxylated intermediates prevailed on the Pt anode and suggested the formation of sulfonated SA intermediates on the BDD anode. Furthermore, direct oxidation at the anode surface only played a subordinate role. First order kinetic models successfully described the degradation of SA and the formation of the observed intermediates. Rate constants provided by the model showed that chlorination of SA can take place at up to more than 60 times faster rates than hydroxylation. In conclusion, the formation of chlorinated intermediates during electrochemical oxidation of the organic model pollutant SA is confirmed and found to be dominant in chloride containing waters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on the Kinetics of Doxazosin Degradation in Simulated Environmental Conditions and Selected Advanced Oxidation Processes
Water 2019, 11(5), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051001 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The photochemical behavior of doxazosin (DOX) in simulated environmental conditions using natural waters taken from local rivers as a solvent was studied. The chemical characteristics of applied waters was done and a correlation analysis was used to explain the impact of individual parameters [...] Read more.
The photochemical behavior of doxazosin (DOX) in simulated environmental conditions using natural waters taken from local rivers as a solvent was studied. The chemical characteristics of applied waters was done and a correlation analysis was used to explain the impact of individual parameters of matrix on the rate of the DOX degradation. It was stated that DOX is a photoliable compound in an aqueous environment. Its degradation is promoted by basic medium, presence of environmentally important ions such as Cl, NO3, SO42 and organic matter. The kinetics of DOX reactions with OH and SO4 radicals were examined individually. The UV/H2O2, classical Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, were applied for the generation of hydroxyl radicals while the UV/VIS:Fe2(SO4)3:Na2SO2 system was employed for production of SO4 radicals. The obtained results pointed that photo-Fenton, as well as UV/VIS:Fe2(SO4)3:Na2SO2, are very reactive in ratio to DOX, leading to its complete degradation in a short time. A quantitative density functional theory (DFT) mechanistic study was carried out in order to explain the molecular mechanism of DOX degradation using the GAUSSIAN 09 program. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Pristine and Graphene-Quantum-Dots-Decorated Spinel Nickel Aluminate for Water Remediation from Dyes and Toxic Pollutants
Water 2019, 11(5), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050953 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Pristine nickel aluminate and the one decorated with graphene quantum dots were prepared via a cost-effective co-precipitation method. Both were fully characterized by thermogravimetry (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
Pristine nickel aluminate and the one decorated with graphene quantum dots were prepared via a cost-effective co-precipitation method. Both were fully characterized by thermogravimetry (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis techniques. The photocatalytic activity of nickel aluminate under simulated solar light irradiation was demonstrated towards potential pollutants, including a series of dyes (rhodamine B, quinoline yellow, eriochrome black T, methylene blue), toxic phenol and fungicide (thiram). Further profound enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of nickel aluminate was achieved after its decoration with graphene quantum dots. The mechanism of the photocatalytic degradation in the presence of the NiAl2O4/graphene quantum dots (GQDs) composite was investigated; hydroxyl radicals were found to play the leading role. This work offers new insight into the application of the conjunction of the inorganic spinel and the carbon nanostructure (i.e., GQDs), but also provides a simple and highly efficient route for potential water remediation from common pollutants, including dyes and colorless harmful substances. Full article
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