Special Issue "Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 February 2023 | Viewed by 3292

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ismail Albayrak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
Interests: upstream and downstream fish migrations; hydro-abrasion at hydraulic structures; sediment bypass tunnels and turbines; reservoir sedimentation and management; suspended sediment and bed load transports in open channel flows; turbulent open-channel flows; hydraulic structures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Laurent David
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut Pprime, CNRS- Université de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, 11 Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, TSA 51124, 86073 Poitiers, CEDEX 9, France
Interests: upstream and downstream fish migration; eco-hydraulics; environmental hydrodynamics; turbulent open-channel flows; fluid–structure interaction; cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transports; rheology; renewable energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Ana Teixeira da Silva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), P.O. Box 5685 Torgard, 7485 Trondheim, Norway
Interests: upstream and downstream fish migration; ecohydraulics; fish passage engineering; ecology and fish conservation and restoration; fish physiology; fish evolution and behavior; biomechanics of fish; environmental hydrodynamics; renewable energy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydropower dams represent barriers for animal movement, in both the upstream and downstream directions. For instance, fish can be blocked or delayed during their spawning migration and can be subjected to injury or death when passing turbines, spillways, or bypasses during their downstream migration, resulting in cumulative negative impacts on individual and population levels.

Fish-friendly turbines, collection systems, sensory barriers, mechanical and behavioral barriers, physical barriers, and fish-friendly operations are widely known technological concepts that can be implemented to mitigate the negative impacts of hydropower dams by protecting and guiding fish that are migrating downstream. Compared to downstream fish passage technologies, upstream fish passage technologies are well advanced but still need to be adapted for multi-species of different biomechanical requirements and attraction flow at the entrance. Furthermore, the head and layout of hydropower dams require specific technological adaptations. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on both upstream and downstream fish migration research from different regions of the world as well as different hydropower dam layouts.

Contributions from the latest laboratory, field, and/or numerical research studies on available or innovative new solutions as well as tools to evaluate the effectiveness of these solutions are invited. Original research papers and critical reviews will also be considered. All scales of application are accepted.

Dr. Ismail Albayrak
Prof. Dr. Laurent David
Dr. Ana Teixeira da Silva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • upstream fish passage solutions
  • downstream fish passage solutions
  • fish-friendly turbines
  • physical barriers
  • mechanical and behavioral barriers
  • sensory barriers
  • collection systems
  • bypass systems
  • flow–fish interactions
  • fish behavior

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Diagonal Brush Fish Pass: Prototype Measurements
Water 2023, 15(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010088 - 27 Dec 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The present study investigates the hydrodynamic characteristics of the diagonal brush upstream fishway at the Incirli run-of-river hydropower plant on Iyidere River in Turkey. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were conducted in the fish pass using a Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter under real-time operation conditions. [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the hydrodynamic characteristics of the diagonal brush upstream fishway at the Incirli run-of-river hydropower plant on Iyidere River in Turkey. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were conducted in the fish pass using a Micro acoustic Doppler velocimeter under real-time operation conditions. The diagonal arrangement of brush blocks creates favorable hydrodynamic conditions (i.e., lateral momentum exchange) that allow fish to minimize swimming energy. We found that the spatially averaged lateral component of Reynolds shear stress is 2.2 times higher than spatially averaged vertical component of Reynolds shear stress, which could be due to the lateral velocity gradient in the vicinity of brush blocks. It is shown that the low-velocity zones behind the brush blocks constitute important resting sites for fish. The monitoring data showed that inlet water levels have considerable effects on the turbulence quantities. The brushes become submerged with the increased reservoir water level from 102 m to 102.05 m above sea level. The maximum turbulent kinetic energy was increased by a factor of three compared to unsubmerged conditions. We found a strong relationship between the average energy dissipation rate per unit mass and the Reynolds number. On the other hand, the prototype data reveal the inverse relationship between the Darcy-Weissbach friction factor and the relative submergence of bristles. The present results allow the efficient design of diagonal fish passes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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Article
Ethohydraulic Experiments Investigating Retention Rates of an Electrified Bar Rack
Water 2022, 14(24), 4036; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244036 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Bar racks at water intakes of hydropower plants serve mainly to protect the turbines from floating debris. Additionally, they can be utilized to protect downstream migrating fish in order to prevent a potentially harmful turbine passage. The Bar Rack FishProtector consists of a [...] Read more.
Bar racks at water intakes of hydropower plants serve mainly to protect the turbines from floating debris. Additionally, they can be utilized to protect downstream migrating fish in order to prevent a potentially harmful turbine passage. The Bar Rack FishProtector consists of a common bar rack equipped with electrodes mounted on the upstream side of the bars. The application of a low voltage current at the electrodes creates an electric field in the water which is actively avoided by fish. Thus, a hybrid barrier consisting of a mechanical barrier and a behavioral barrier is formed. An unscaled model of a Bar Rack FishProtector (bar spacing sb = 50 mm, bar thickness tb = 20 mm) was used in field experiments to investigate the retention rate in an experimental setup with only one possible migration route (downstream, rack passage) and an average flow velocity of 0.43 m/s. Ethohydraulic experiments were performed with three indicator species barbel (Barbus barbus), bream (Abramis brama) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) and additionally perch (Perca fluviatilis) in selected trials. The twelve trials included four reference trials without electric field present (Nday = 2, Nnight = 2) and eight trials with electric field (Nday = 6, Nnight = 2). The results show that the experimental retention rate could be increased significantly by the application of an electrical field during the night and during the day with an even more pronounced effect during the night. The differences between the functionality of the system during the day and at night as well as other influencing parameters are discussed. No significant influence of the applied voltage on the electrodes or significant influence of fish size could be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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Article
Combining Fish Passage and Sediment Bypassing: A Conceptual Solution for Increased Sustainability of Dams and Reservoirs
Water 2022, 14(12), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121977 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
Sedimentation is one of the main eco-morphological and technological challenges associated with reservoirs. Sedimentation not only reduces the functional capacity of a reservoir by filling it, but also changes downstream sediment dynamics and habitat availability for the aquatic biota. Additionally, dams hinder free [...] Read more.
Sedimentation is one of the main eco-morphological and technological challenges associated with reservoirs. Sedimentation not only reduces the functional capacity of a reservoir by filling it, but also changes downstream sediment dynamics and habitat availability for the aquatic biota. Additionally, dams hinder free bi-directional fish passage, emerging as a major threat to species of migratory fish. In the past decades, mitigation measures aimed at reducing such environmental and technological impacts have been developed. Sediment bypass tunnels (SBTs) have been shown to successfully help prevent reservoir sedimentation, whereas fish passages have been found to be potential solutions to facilitate bi-directional passage of fish. However, the construction of such structures, in particular of SBT, can be extremely costly. The development of design solutions that can function both for downstream sediment transport and up- and downstream fish passage should be considered as they can mitigate ecological deficiencies of reservoir operations while accounting for economic feasibility. Possibilities and challenges of combining SBT and fish passage were explored by bringing together a team of interdisciplinary specialists on hydraulics, sediment transport and continuity, bypassing, hydraulic structures, hydropower engineering, aquatic biology, and fish passage in a two-day workshop. Here, we present potential solutions identified during the workshop for integrating SBT and fish passage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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Review

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Review
Selective Removal of Fish from Reservoirs and Lakes: Interaction of Hydraulic and Ecological Factors
Water 2022, 14(10), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101615 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
Downstream migration (DSM) of fish through the different types of water intakes is not a random process, but rather a selective removal from the limnetic to the lotic parts of river–lake systems. Selectivity means that the assemblage of migrants does not exactly reflect [...] Read more.
Downstream migration (DSM) of fish through the different types of water intakes is not a random process, but rather a selective removal from the limnetic to the lotic parts of river–lake systems. Selectivity means that the assemblage of migrants does not exactly reflect the composition of the fish community in an upstream reservoir. Some fish are more prone to migrate compared to others, but this is not the only factor affecting DSM. We hypothesize that the interaction of a 3-D “hydraulic funnel” at the water intake with adjacent ecological zones results in the selective removal of fish. We tested our predictions by analyzing the data on DSM and spatial distribution in 13 reservoirs and lakes in Europe and Asia. Water intakes were surrounded by different habitats and located at different depths, from the surface layer to the depth of more than 50 m. Most vulnerable for entrainment by the outflow were the inhabitants of the pelagic zone. The share of fish emigrating from the littoral habitats was much lower compared to pelagic inhabitants. This suggests that littoral habitats saturated with landmarks and shelters hamper DSM more than the vertical physical gradients in the pelagic do. In conjunction with the factors operating on the scale of the whole reservoir, hydro-ecological barriers of different types associated with water intakes play an important role in the selective removal of fish from reservoirs and lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams 2.0)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1) Title: Rehabilitation of Vertical Slot Fish Pass with Brush Blocks (under processing)
Authors: Serhat Kucukali ,Bulent Verep, Ahmet Alp, Ismail Albayrak

2) Title: Fish injury during passage: a review
Authors: Stefan Felder, Reilly Cox
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