Fish in Hydropower Affected Rivers

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2020) | Viewed by 16795

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chair of Hydraulic and Water Resources EngineeringTUM Department of Civil, Geo and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Germany.
Interests: waterpower; flood prevention; flow morphology; environmental hydraulics; hydrodynamic models
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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Interests: dam hydraulics; dam safety; reservoir sedimentation; impulse waves; hydropower and environment; sediment monitoring; hydro-abrasive wear of hydraulic structures and machinery; flood protection
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Institut Pprime, CNRS- Université de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, 11 Boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, TSA 51124, 86073 Poitiers, CEDEX 9, France
Interests: upstream and downstream fish migration; eco-hydraulics; environmental hydrodynamics; turbulent open-channel flows; fluid–structure interaction; cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transports; rheology; renewable energy
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Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Técnico, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: ecohydraulics; hydraulics of structures; dam safety; fish passes; Eflows
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydropower is a renewable energy source that has various advantages. Nevertheless, it can negatively affect individual fish and fish populations. While the awareness of these effects was limited in the past, society today cares much more about sustainable and eco-friendly hydropower production. Thus, research in this area has highly intensified in the last years, leading to a better understanding of and to new solutions for hydropower designs and mitigation measures.

Mortality of fish in hydropower turbines is very much in the public focus. However, there are probably greater challenges related to changes in hydrologic and morphodynamic conditions and, therefore, changes in fish habitat suitability or the obstruction of free upstream and downstream migration due to hydropower.

The current Special Issue addresses all mitigation measures at hydropower plants and in their catchments, from technical solutions or new designs to tools for better understanding of their effects and devices for improved monitoring or prediction.

Contributions are invited that refer to fish in hydropower-affected rivers. Original research papers and critical reviews will be considered. All scales of application are accepted.

Prof. Dr. Peter Rutschmann
Prof. Dr. Robert Boes
Prof. Dr. Laurent David
Prof. Dr. António Pinheiro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Fish migration
  • Fish habitat modeling
  • Fish population modeling
  • Environmental flows
  • Fish motion modeling
  • Fish friendly hydropower
  • Fish turbine mortality
  • Hydropeaking
  • Fish-friendly hydropower
  • Mitigation measures

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 3789 KiB  
Article
Habitat Use by Pseudochondrostoma duriense and Squalius carolitertii Downstream of a Small-Scale Hydropower Plant
by Isabel Boavida, Filipa Ambrósio, Maria João Costa, Ana Quaresma, Maria Manuela Portela, António Pinheiro and Francisco Godinho
Water 2020, 12(9), 2522; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092522 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Downstream of small-scale hydropower plants (SHPs), the intensity, frequency and persistence of hydropeaking events often cause an intolerable stress on fish of all life stages. Rapid increases in flow velocity result in fish avoiding unstable habitats and seeking refuge to reduce energy expenditure. [...] Read more.
Downstream of small-scale hydropower plants (SHPs), the intensity, frequency and persistence of hydropeaking events often cause an intolerable stress on fish of all life stages. Rapid increases in flow velocity result in fish avoiding unstable habitats and seeking refuge to reduce energy expenditure. To understand fish movements and the habitat use of native Iberian cyprinids in a high-gradient peaking river, 77 individuals were PIT tagged downstream of Bragado SHP in the North of Portugal. Tagged fish species included Pseudochondrostoma duriense and Squalius carolitertii. Fish positions were recorded manually on two different occasions: during hydropeaking events (HP) and without hydropeaking events (NHP). From the 77 tagged fish, we were able to record habitat use for 33 individuals (20 P. duriense and 13 S. carolitertii) in a total of 125 relocations. Fish species were distributed along the river reach with high density in the upstream area in the vicinity of the SHP tailrace, in particular during HP. Fish locations were associated with velocity for P. duriense and S. carolitertii. The latter tended to use faster flowing waters than P. duriense. Our findings on the habitat use in peaking rivers are a valuable tool to help in the selection and design of mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish in Hydropower Affected Rivers)
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12 pages, 1192 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Different Elements of Inclined Trash Racks to Head Losses Modeling
by Fatma Lemkecher, Ludovic Chatellier, Dominique Courret and Laurent David
Water 2020, 12(4), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040966 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3382
Abstract
Low bar spacing trash racks have been widely investigated in order to guide fish toward bypasses. In addition to this biological function, the formulae to predict head losses, for hydropower plants, are still being discussed. This paper investigates and models the global head [...] Read more.
Low bar spacing trash racks have been widely investigated in order to guide fish toward bypasses. In addition to this biological function, the formulae to predict head losses, for hydropower plants, are still being discussed. This paper investigates and models the global head losses generated by inclined trash racks with six different bar shapes and two different supports, in an open channel for six angles and two low bar spacings. The girders that supported the trash racks were U-shaped and different profile shapes. In addition to the previously studied rectangular and “hydrodynamic” bars, four new bar shapes, combining different leading and trailing edges, were investigated. Water depths were measured upstream and downstream of the rack for each configuration, and head loss coefficients were characterized and modeled. Three of these new bar shapes generated lower head losses than the hydrodynamic bar shape. The most efficient bar profile reduced the shape coefficient by 40% compared to the hydrodynamic profile and by 67% compared to the conventional rectangular profile. Concerning the supports, the use of a profiled girder to replace a conventional U-shaped girder also significantly reduced the head losses. The addition of the girder effect in a global formula increased its accuracy in predicting head losses of inclined trash racks upstream of hydropower plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish in Hydropower Affected Rivers)
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22 pages, 17240 KiB  
Article
Head Losses of Horizontal Bar Racks as Fish Guidance Structures
by Julian Meister, Helge Fuchs, Claudia Beck, Ismail Albayrak and Robert M. Boes
Water 2020, 12(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020475 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3781
Abstract
Horizontal bar racks have been used as trash racks at hydropower plants since the 1920s. With the installation of the first horizontal bar rack bypass system at a hydropower plant as a downstream fish passage facility in 2006, these racks rapidly gained importance [...] Read more.
Horizontal bar racks have been used as trash racks at hydropower plants since the 1920s. With the installation of the first horizontal bar rack bypass system at a hydropower plant as a downstream fish passage facility in 2006, these racks rapidly gained importance as fish protection measures. Since then, they have been installed at more than 100 small- to medium-sized hydropower plants in Europe. Despite the large number of installed racks, systematic investigations of the head losses and velocity fields were missing. On the basis of detailed hydraulic experimentation with a large number of rack parameters and including up-to-date foil-shaped bars, the layout of horizontal bar racks and their hydraulic performance were assessed in the current study. This paper reports the results of the rack head loss investigation, whereas the accompanying paper entitled Velocity Fields at Horizontal Bar Racks as Fish Guidance Structures focuses on the up- and downstream velocity fields. By applying foil-shaped bars instead of rectangular bars, the loss coefficient was reduced by more than 40%, depending on the rack configuration. Bottom and top overlays are used to increase the guidance efficiency for fish, sediments, and floating debris. However, the altered flow field results in increased head losses. A new set of equations is proposed to predict head losses for current horizontal bar racks, including overlays for various hydropower plant layouts. The predictions are compared to literature data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish in Hydropower Affected Rivers)
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15 pages, 1381 KiB  
Article
Cover or Velocity: What Triggers Iberian Barbel (Luciobarbus Bocagei) Refuge Selection under Experimental Hydropeaking Conditions?
by Miguel Moreira, Maria João Costa, Jorge Valbuena-Castro, António N. Pinheiro and Isabel Boavida
Water 2020, 12(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020317 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3037
Abstract
The rapid river flow variations due to hydropower production during peak demand periods, known as hydropeaking, causes several ecological impacts. In this study, we assessed the potential of an overhead cover and velocity-refuge structure in an indoor flume as an indirect hydropeaking mitigation [...] Read more.
The rapid river flow variations due to hydropower production during peak demand periods, known as hydropeaking, causes several ecological impacts. In this study, we assessed the potential of an overhead cover and velocity-refuge structure in an indoor flume as an indirect hydropeaking mitigation measure for the cyprinid species Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei). We designed a lab-scale LUNKERS-type structure using two different materials which were used separately: Wood (opaque) and acrylic (transparent), tested under hydropeaking and base-flow events. Physiological (glucose and lactate) and behavioral (structure use) responses were quantified. The structure use (inside and in the vicinity) and the individual and schooling behavior was assessed. Although there was no evidence that the hydropeaking event triggered a physiological response, the wood structure use was significantly higher than the acrylic one, where the metrics of use increased in the hydropeaking event. Differences between individual and group behavior were only higher for the entrances in the wood structure. The higher frequency of wood structure use under hydropeaking conditions suggests that the visual stimulus conferred by this shaded refuge enables fish to easily find it. The results suggest that the use of overhead and velocity-refuge structures may act as an effective hydropeaking flow-refuge mitigation measure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish in Hydropower Affected Rivers)
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22 pages, 35110 KiB  
Article
Velocity Fields at Horizontal Bar Racks as Fish Guidance Structures
by Julian Meister, Helge Fuchs, Claudia Beck, Ismail Albayrak and Robert M. Boes
Water 2020, 12(1), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010280 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3441
Abstract
Horizontal bar racks used as fish protection measures at hydropower plants have rapidly gained importance in recent years. Despite the large number of installed racks in Europe, systematic investigations of the hydraulic losses and velocity fields were missing. To fill these research gaps, [...] Read more.
Horizontal bar racks used as fish protection measures at hydropower plants have rapidly gained importance in recent years. Despite the large number of installed racks in Europe, systematic investigations of the hydraulic losses and velocity fields were missing. To fill these research gaps, the hydraulic performance of horizontal bar racks was systematically investigated in a laboratory flume for a large number of rack parameters and different hydropower plant layouts. The results of the head loss assessment are published in a paper entitled Head Losses of Horizontal Bar Racks as Fish Guidance Structures, whereas the present paper focuses on the velocity fields. The measurements show that the bar shape, the horizontal approach flow angle, and the clear bar spacing have only a minor effect on the velocity fields. In contrast, bottom and top overlays might enhance the fish guidance efficiency for bottom and surface oriented fish, while the asymmetric downstream velocity field can reduce turbine efficiencies. The hydropower plant layout strongly affects the approach flow field to horizontal bar racks. For block-type hydropower plants, the installation of a dividing pier or partial opening of the spillways improves the flow field for better fish guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish in Hydropower Affected Rivers)
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