Special Issue "Hydrology, Water Resources Management and Protection of the Marine Environment–Selected Papers from the 15th International Conference on Environmental Science And Technology (CEST2017)"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 May 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Athanasios G. Loukas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Hydrology and Water Resources, Laboratory of Hydrology and Aquatic Systems Analysis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos, Greece
2. Hydrology and Water Resources, Laboratory of Hydraulic Works and Environmental Management, Department of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 21 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: floods and droughts; hydrodynamic flood routing modelling; impacts of climate change on hydrological processes; extremes and water resources; applications of GIS and remote sensing in hydrology and water resources management; natural environmental hazards and their impacts
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Demetris Francis Lekkas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Samos, Greece
Interests: water resources analysis and simulation; catchment hydrology; analysis and evaluation of hydrological systems; model identification and evaluation; development of tools for water quantity and quality management, time series analysis and extreme values estimation; droughts and climate change impacts assessment; integrated waste management; composting; circular economy; eco-effectiveness
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Ilias Pechlivanidis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
SMHI / Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute
Interests: hydrological forecasting; calibration; regionalization; uncertainty analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will include selected papers that were presented at the 15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology—CEST2017 (www.cest.gnest.org), which was held in Rhodes from 31 August to 2 September, 2017.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest trends in the fields of hydrology, hydrological forecasting and services, and water resousrces management, as well as to deal with topics regarding water pollution from microplastics and the protection of the marine environment. Subtopics to be covered are as follows:

  • Understanding, forecasting and predictions of water resources dynamics
  • Hydrological models and water resources management tools
  • Water security, human safety and development
  • Understanding of catchment functioning through new generation data, advancements in monitoring techniques and environmental modelling
  • Estimation and prediction of water systems under past, present and future conditions, and/or under ungauged conditions
  • Μodel hypothesis, uncertainty and diagnostic model evaluations
  • Putting scientific advancements into practice and highlighting the operational challenges
  • Hydrological education and cooperative experiments (exchange programs and virtual laboratories)
  • Hydrological forecasting and warning services
  • Environmental fate, bioaccumulation and quantification of microplastics
  • Impacts of microplastics on the marine environment
  • Coastal vulnerability due to climate change
  • Marine pollution with emphasis in oil spills, on a global, regional and local scale are expected to be addressed.
Prof. Dr. Athanasios Loukas
Dr. Demetris Francis Lekkas
Dr. Ilias Pechlivanidis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water resources dynamics
  • Hydrological models
  • Water resources management tools
  • Hydrological forecasting
  • Microplastics
  • Marine environment
  • Coastal vulnerability
  • Marine pollution

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Sea Water Contamination in the Vicinity of the Italian Minor Islands Caused by Microplastic Pollution
Water 2018, 10(8), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081108 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The abundance and distribution of microplastics (MP) were evaluated in six “clean” sites (Italian minor islands) and in two “polluted” areas (near the mouth of two major Italian rivers). Samples of MP, plankton and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were collected using a manta [...] Read more.
The abundance and distribution of microplastics (MP) were evaluated in six “clean” sites (Italian minor islands) and in two “polluted” areas (near the mouth of two major Italian rivers). Samples of MP, plankton and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were collected using a manta trawl (MA) and a plankton net (WP2), both lined with a 333 µm mesh net. MP have been confirmed to be ubiquitous since they were found at each site, showing an average density of 0.3 ± 0.04 items/m3 (values ranged from 0.641 to 0.119 ). When comparing the clean sites with the polluted ones, a significantly higher value of MP was found near the river mouths. The most common types of MP were synthetic filaments (50.24%), followed by fragments (30.39%), thin plastic films (16.98%) and spheres (2.39%). Infrared spectroscopy analysis highlighted that the most abundant polymers were polyethylene (PE-26%), polypropylene (PP-11%), polyethylene-terephthalate/polyester (PET/PEST-8%) and ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA-5%). Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides were detected in all the samples with a high variability among sites and depths. This study adds to the existing information on the distribution of contaminants across the Mediterranean Sea, and is useful to policy makers who wish to implement effective measures to reduce MP pollution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Selection of Coagulants for the Removal of Chosen PAH from Drinking Water
Water 2018, 10(7), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070886 - 03 Jul 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The aim of the research was to determine the efficiency of a coagulation process with powdered activated carbon for the removal from surface water of benzo(a)pyrene and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including the sum of four standardized in the Council Directive 98/83/EC [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to determine the efficiency of a coagulation process with powdered activated carbon for the removal from surface water of benzo(a)pyrene and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including the sum of four standardized in the Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption: benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. For the study, surface water was used, whose composition was modified with standard solution PAH MIX A. In the first stage, for water modified with standard PAH mixture, the coagulation process was conducted. As the coagulants Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, hydrolysed salts, and polyaluminum chlorides (PAX1910 and PAX19F) were used. In the second stage, the adsorption process was conducted. Powdered activated carbon was used (CWZ-22 and CWZ-30). In the third stage, the coagulation process and the adsorption process were combined. The best effects for the reduction concentrations of the sum of four normalized PAHs, as well as of benzo(a)pyrene, were obtained by applying coagulation carried out with PAX19F and aided by powdered activated carbon CWZ-30. The removal efficiency for these compounds was, respectively, 93.8% and 95.8%. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Rainfall Generation Using Markov Chain Models; Case Study: Central Aegean Sea
Water 2018, 10(7), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070856 - 27 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Generalized linear models (GLMs) are popular tools for simulating daily rainfall series. However, the application of GLMs in drought-prone areas is challenging, as there is inconsistency in rainfall data during long and irregular periods. The majority of studies include regions where rainfall is [...] Read more.
Generalized linear models (GLMs) are popular tools for simulating daily rainfall series. However, the application of GLMs in drought-prone areas is challenging, as there is inconsistency in rainfall data during long and irregular periods. The majority of studies include regions where rainfall is well distributed during the year indicating the capabilities of the GLM approach. In many cases, the summer period has been discarded from the analyses, as it affects predictive performance of the model. In this paper, a two-stage (occurrence and amounts) GLM is used to simulate daily rainfall in two Greek islands. Summer (June–August) smooth adjustments have been proposed to model the low probability of rainfall during summer, and consequently, to improve the simulations during autumn. Preliminary results suggest that the fitted models simulate adequate rainfall occurrence and amounts in Milos and Naxos islands, and can be used as input in future hydrological applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Shoreline Displacements and Coastal Morphodynamic Pattern of North Rhodes Island, Greece
Water 2018, 10(7), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070849 - 26 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Shoreline evolution and seabed morphology changes depend on coastal geomorphology as well as hydrodynamics of the nearshore region. Τhis study investigates the morphological evolution of the northernmost headland of Rhodes Island, Greece, using a method that combines historical shoreline evolution analysis and numerical [...] Read more.
Shoreline evolution and seabed morphology changes depend on coastal geomorphology as well as hydrodynamics of the nearshore region. Τhis study investigates the morphological evolution of the northernmost headland of Rhodes Island, Greece, using a method that combines historical shoreline evolution analysis and numerical modelling of coastal processes. The satellite and aerial imagery analysis under a GIS platform reveals that, since 1982, the overall surface area of the backshore has slightly increased, though in shorter period times, large variations have been identified. The part of the beach that is most prone to extreme changes is the spit-like formation at the tip of the headland. Wind-generated waves and induced currents are the main forcing factors that affect the shape and orientation of the spit-like beach. This spit-like morphology changes seasonally due to variations in the dominant wave regime. West sector waves cause sediment deposition at the eastern sector of the spit-like formation, whereas strong southeast wave events during the winter favor accretion at the west sector, inducing an asymmetrical shape. Thus, the analysis results indicate an annual balance in sediment transport. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trends in Precipitation and Temperatures in Eastern Slovakia (1962–2014)
Water 2018, 10(6), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060727 - 03 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
In this paper, the results of trend analysis applied to precipitation and temperature monthly data for the period from 1962 to 2014 is presented for the hydrological year (from November to October) in sixteen climatic stations in Eastern Slovakia. The topography of this [...] Read more.
In this paper, the results of trend analysis applied to precipitation and temperature monthly data for the period from 1962 to 2014 is presented for the hydrological year (from November to October) in sixteen climatic stations in Eastern Slovakia. The topography of this part of the country is very diverse and it affects the climate. The Mann-Kendall non-parametric test coupled with Sen’s slope was applied to identify the significant long-term climatic trends, as well as the magnitude of those trends. According to the present study, all climatic stations in Eastern Slovakia show a positive trend in temperature during the year and almost all of them show a significant positive annual trend in temperature. Seasonal and monthly trend analyses produced the same results. Trends in temperature are always positive during winter and spring. Trends in precipitation are also mostly positive during winter and spring, although some negative trends were also found during these seasons. The spatial distribution of precipitation and temperature trends was modelled in ArcGIS using geostatistical analysis. Abrupt positive trend shifts in annual precipitation and temperature time series were also investigated. An abrupt shift in precipitation at the highest climatic station, Lomnický peak, began around 1985 (+). Abrupt shifts in temperature began around 1970 (+) at the presented climatic stations. The extremity of the climate is confirmed by an analysis of the trends in wet and dry spells. Trends showed increasing tendencies in medium- and long-term wet spells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Analysis of Meteorological Parameters in Košice Climatic Station in Slovakia
Water 2018, 10(6), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060702 - 29 May 2018
Abstract
Evaporation and precipitation are often considered the most important processes in the water cycle. Recent studies have turned to chaotic analysis and short-term prediction for analyzing and forecasting the time series of such phenomena. However, even with chaos theory, the accurate forecasting of [...] Read more.
Evaporation and precipitation are often considered the most important processes in the water cycle. Recent studies have turned to chaotic analysis and short-term prediction for analyzing and forecasting the time series of such phenomena. However, even with chaos theory, the accurate forecasting of pan evaporation is not a straightforward business, as it involves a number of variables whose changes directly and/or indirectly affect the scale and amount of pan evaporation. In this study, the use of the false nearest neighbour method for the chaotic analysis of pan evaporation and related metrological parameters is discussed. A literature review is presented on chaos theory and its applications in modelling physical systems. Also, a review of the literature on multivariate analysis and the presence of chaos in meteorology are presented. A detailed procedure for finding the presence of chaos in a time series using false nearest neighbour (FNN) is discussed. The possible lag time to be considered in the FNN analysis is estimated using the autocorrelation function (ACF) and average mutual information (AMI) apart from the time-step of the measurement. Thus, FNN is studied with three different lag times of the time series. Six meteorological parameters: average temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, sunshine hours, dew point temperature, and pan evaporation are measured at the observation station Kosice in Slovakia for a period of 20 years. Thus, the available time series are analysed using ACF, AMI, and FNN methods, and the results obtained are analysed in the study. Nonlinear behaviour is seen in all of the observed parameters. Pan evaporation, average temperature, and dew point temperature are found to exhibit clear chaotic behaviour, while relative humidity, sunshine hours, and wind speed show stochastic behaviour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Screening tool for Obtaining Concentration Statistics of Pollution Generated by Rivers in Estuaries
Water 2018, 10(5), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050639 - 15 May 2018
Cited by 2Correction
Abstract
Rivers represent an essential pathway for waterborne transport, and therefore estuaries are critical coastal areas for a pollution hazard that might lead to eutrophication and general water quality deterioration. When addressing these problems, the decision makers and coastal managers often need additional skills [...] Read more.
Rivers represent an essential pathway for waterborne transport, and therefore estuaries are critical coastal areas for a pollution hazard that might lead to eutrophication and general water quality deterioration. When addressing these problems, the decision makers and coastal managers often need additional skills and specialists, so they engage consultants in developing models and providing potential solutions. Different stakeholders’ interests present a challenge in the implementation process of proposed solutions. Nevertheless, if the relevant institutions were presented with a screening tool, enabling them with a certain level of solution ownership, potentially more involvement would occur. There are numerous intertwined physical processes present in the estuary ecosystem, including river discharge, tidal forces, wind-induced stress and water density variations. This research utilizes an analytical model based on ensemble averaging and near-field approximation of the advective-diffusion equation for the case of continuous, steady, conservative solute transport in a stratified, river-dominated estuary. Such an approach significantly reduces the costs and time needed to obtain enough measured data required for common statistical analysis or the need for a more complex numerical model. The developed methodology is implemented into a simple software named CPoRT (Coastal Pollution Risk Tool) within a recently conducted research project funded by European Social Fund. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Analysis of the Hydraulic Performance of Filtering Cartridges in Drinking Water Networks
Water 2018, 10(5), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050629 - 11 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Liquid treatment processes have been assuming increasing importance in recent decades with the progressive industrialization to ensure public health security for drinking water or to prevent economic damage when safeguarding important production processes. Major investments have been devoted to the research, study, and [...] Read more.
Liquid treatment processes have been assuming increasing importance in recent decades with the progressive industrialization to ensure public health security for drinking water or to prevent economic damage when safeguarding important production processes. Major investments have been devoted to the research, study, and design of innovative products that are able to respond to the demands of the market, which currently offer several solutions, among which filtration treatment still represents a major one. This work focuses, in particular, on filtration of drinking water with filter cartridges, with the aim to test their hydraulic performance and, particularly, to evaluate the head losses that they produce when introduced into a hydraulic system. The local pressure drops, in fact, may compromise hydraulic plants already characterized by low pressures. What is more, this condition is increasingly likely in supplying networks due to the coexistence of several factors, such as water losses due to failures and inefficient maintenance, severe and prolonged droughts, and increased water demand related to social and economic development. In these systems, the insertion of filtration cartridges can make the pressure levels fall below the minimum limit recommended to ensure the smooth operation of domestic devices. More in detail, in the present study the behavior of seven different commercial filter cartridges was analyzed through a set of experiments conducted in a pilot circuit at the Laboratory of Environmental and Maritime Hydraulics (LIDAM), University of Salerno. These tests have been performed in different operating conditions, collecting pressure data through various pressure gauges. The analysis proved that for common values of operating flow rates in domestic plants the pressure drops in the filter can be of the order of some meters and provided some useful information for the choice of the proper cartridge in low-pressure distribution systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phytoplankton Composition and Water Quality of Kamil Abduş Lagoon (Tuzla Lake), Istanbul-Turkey
Water 2018, 10(5), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050603 - 05 May 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
In the present study, the water quality and pollution status of Kamil Abduş Lagoon (Tuzla Lake), which is located in Istanbul Metropolitan area, were investigated by determining the phytoplankton composition, some physicochemical parameters, and nutrient concentrations. Water samples were collected at 3 sampling [...] Read more.
In the present study, the water quality and pollution status of Kamil Abduş Lagoon (Tuzla Lake), which is located in Istanbul Metropolitan area, were investigated by determining the phytoplankton composition, some physicochemical parameters, and nutrient concentrations. Water samples were collected at 3 sampling sites between February 2016 and January 2017 on a monthly basis. A total of 32 taxa, belonging to Bacillariophyta (12), Charophyta (1), Chlorophyta (4), Cryptophyta (1), Cyanobacteria (5), Euglenozoa (5) and Miozoa (4) divisions were identified. Both freshwater and marine species were recorded in the study area. The presence of mesotrophic and eutrophic species of phytoplankton, high concentrations of chlorophyll-a and nutrients indicated that the trophic level of the lake is near to eutrophic. Water quality parameters studied in the current research were investigated to evaluate the input data significance using Artificial Neural Network analysis, specifically to ensure the limitation of regression analysis overfitting. Due to the fact that the lagoon is under threat by pollution it needs to be urgently protected. Therefore, detailed studies on phytoplankton including physicochemical parameters and nutrients have to be carried out in order to select appropriate management routes for improving the water quality in the lagoon. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Galešić, M., et al. New Screening Tool for Obtaining Concentration Statistics of Pollution Generated by Rivers in Estuaries. Water 2018, 10, 639
Water 2018, 10(10), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101361 - 29 Sep 2018
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [...] Full article
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