Special Issue "Impacts of Anthropogenic Activities on Watersheds in a Changing Climate"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

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Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Fernando António Leal Pacheco
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Guest Editor
DG-CQVR-UTAD – Department of Geology, Chemistry Research Centre, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5001–801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: groundwater management; groundwater contamination risk; water–rock interactions; groundwater flow modeling; groundwater–surface water interactions; rainwater harvesting; land degradation and surface water quality; spatial decision support systems in water public supply planning
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In developed and developing countries, watersheds have been and are still subject to multiple anthropogenic pressures, at progressively accelerated paces. Meanwhile, the climate has changed and continues to change. Steadily increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in some regions are expressions of this change.The coupled influence of climate change and anthropogenic pressures, including land use changes, continue to produce a significant impact on watersheds, because both circumstances induce an amplification of hydrologic events, namely, floods, droughts, a decline in aquifer recharge, and the deterioration of water quality and ecosystems. The impact includes water erosion, a decline in soil fertility, a shortage of groundwater resources, and a disturbance of ecosystem functions, among others.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to allow authors the publication of rectrospective or prospective studies focused on the coupling of climate change and environmental impact assessments at the catchment scale. Studies on the direct influence of climate change on water resources are also welcome, as well as studies on the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities in multiple-use watersheds.

Prof. Luís Filipe Sanches Fernandes
Prof. Fernando António Leal Pacheco
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • watershed
  • climate change
  • anthropogenic pressures
  • water resources
  • environmental impact
  • ecosystems
  • hydrologic extreme event

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Watersheds, Anthropogenic Activities and the Role of Adaptation to Environmental Impacts
Water 2020, 12(12), 3451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123451 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 522
Abstract
Runoff has shaped the Earth into watersheds, and humans have appropriated many of them [...] Full article

Research

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Article
The Assessment of Hydrological Availability and the Payment for Ecosystem Services: A Pilot Study in a Brazilian Headwater Catchment
Water 2020, 12(10), 2726; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102726 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The assessment of water availability in river basins is at the top of the water security agenda. Historically, the assessment of stream flow discharge in Brazilian watersheds was relevant for dam dimensioning, flood control projects and irrigation systems. Nowadays, it plays an important [...] Read more.
The assessment of water availability in river basins is at the top of the water security agenda. Historically, the assessment of stream flow discharge in Brazilian watersheds was relevant for dam dimensioning, flood control projects and irrigation systems. Nowadays, it plays an important role in the creation of sustainable management plans at the catchment scale aimed to help in establishing legal policies on water resources management and water security laws, namely, those related to the payment for environmental services related to clean water production. Headwater catchments are preferential targets of these policies and laws for their water quality. The general objective of this study was to evaluate water availability in first-order sub-basins of a Brazilian headwater catchment. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the stream flow discharge of first-order headwater sub-basins and rank them accordingly; (2) to analyze the feasibility of payment for environmental services related to water production in these sub-basins. The discharge flow measurements were conducted during five years (2012 to 2016), in headwaters in a watershed on the São Domingos River at the Turvo/Grande Watershed, represented as the 4th-largest hydrographic unit for water resources management—UGRHI-15 in São Paulo State, Brazil. A doppler velocity technology was used to remotely measure open-channel flow and to collect the data. The discharge values were obtained on periodic measurements, at the beginning of each month. The results were subject to descriptive statistics that analyzed the temporal and spatial data related to sub-basins morphometric characteristics. The discharge flows showed space–time variations in magnitude between studied headwater sub-basins on water availability, assessed based on average net discharges. The set of ecological processes supported by forests are fundamental in controlling and recharging aquifers and preserving the volume of water in headwater in each sub-basin. The upstream inflows influence downstream sub-basins. To avoid scarcity, the headwater rivers located in the upstream sub-basins must not consider basin area as a single and homogeneous unit, because that may be the source of water conflicts. Understanding this relationship in response to conservationist practices installed uphill influenced by anthropic actions is crucial for water security assessment. The headwaters should be considered a great potential for ecosystem services, with respect to the “provider-receiver” principle, in the context of payments for environmental services (PES). Full article
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Article
Changes in the Water Temperature of Rivers Impacted by the Urban Heat Island: Case Study of Suceava City
Water 2020, 12(5), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051343 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Cities alter the thermal regime of urban rivers in very variable ways which are not yet deciphered for the territory of Romania. The urban heat island of Suceava city was measured in 2019 and its impact on Suceava River was assessed using hourly [...] Read more.
Cities alter the thermal regime of urban rivers in very variable ways which are not yet deciphered for the territory of Romania. The urban heat island of Suceava city was measured in 2019 and its impact on Suceava River was assessed using hourly and daily values from a network of 12 water and air monitoring stations. In 2019, Suceava River water temperature was 11.54 °C upstream of Suceava city (Mihoveni) and 11.97 °C downstream (Tişăuţi)—a 3.7% increase in the water temperature downstream. After the stream water passes through the city, the diurnal thermal profile of Suceava River water temperature shows steeper slopes and earlier moments of the maximum and minimum temperatures than upstream because of the urban heat island. In an average day, an increase of water temperature with a maximum of 0.99 °C occurred downstream, partly explained by the 2.46 °C corresponding difference between the urban floodplain and the surrounding area. The stream water diurnal cycle has been shifted towards a variation specific to that of the local air temperature. The heat exchange between Suceava River and Suceava city is bidirectional. The stream water diurnal thermal cycle is statistically more significant downstream due to the heat transfer from the city into the river. This transfer occurs partly through urban tributaries which are 1.94 °C warmer than Suceava River upstream of Suceava city. The wavelet coherence analyses and ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) prove that there are significant (0.95 confidence level) causal relationships between the changes in Suceava River water temperature downstream and the fluctuations of the urban air temperature. The complex bidirectional heat transfer and the changes in the diurnal thermal profiles are important to be analysed in other urban systems in order to decipher in more detail the observed causal relationships. Full article
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Article
Tracking Lake and Reservoir Changes in the Nenjiang Watershed, Northeast China: Patterns, Trends, and Drivers
Water 2020, 12(4), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041108 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
In terms of evident climate change and human activities, investigating changes in lakes and reservoirs is critical for sustainable protection of water resources and ecosystem management over the Nenjiang watershed (NJW), an eco-sensitive semi-arid region and the third-largest inland waterbody cluster in China. [...] Read more.
In terms of evident climate change and human activities, investigating changes in lakes and reservoirs is critical for sustainable protection of water resources and ecosystem management over the Nenjiang watershed (NJW), an eco-sensitive semi-arid region and the third-largest inland waterbody cluster in China. In this study, we established a multi-temporal dataset documenting lake and reservoir (area ≥ 1 km2) changes in this region using an object-oriented image classification method and Landsat series images from 1980 to 2015. Using the structural equation model (SEM), we analyzed the diverse impacts of climatic and anthropogenic variables on lake changes. Results indicated that lakes experienced significant changes with fluctuations over the past 35 years including obvious declines in the total area (by 42%) and number (by 51%) from 1980 to 2010 and a slight increase in the total lake area and number from 2010 to 2015. More than 235 lakes in the size class of 1–10 km2 decreased to small lakes (area < 1 km2), while 59 lakes covering 243.75 km2 disappeared. Total reservoir area and number had continuous increases during the investigated 35 years, with an areal expansion of 54.9% from 919 km2 to 1422 km2, and a number increase by 65.3% from 78 to 129. The SEM revealed that the lake area in the NJW had a significant correlation with the mean annual precipitation (MAP), suggesting that the MAP decline clarified most of the lake shrinkage in the NJW. Furthermore, agricultural consumption of water had potential impacts on lake changes, suggested by the significant relationship between cropland area and lake area. Full article
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Article
An Improved Model for the Evaluation of Groundwater Recharge Based on the Concept of Conservative Use Potential: A Study in the River Pandeiros Watershed, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Water 2020, 12(4), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041001 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Water resources have been increasingly impacted due to the growth of water demand associated with environmental degradation. In this context, the mapping of groundwater recharge potential has become attractive to water managers as it can be used to direct public policies and conserve [...] Read more.
Water resources have been increasingly impacted due to the growth of water demand associated with environmental degradation. In this context, the mapping of groundwater recharge potential has become attractive to water managers as it can be used to direct public policies and conserve this natural asset. The present study modifies (improves) a spatially explicit model to determine groundwater recharge potential at the catchment scale, testing it in the Pandeiros River basin located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model is generally based on the water balance approach and the input variables were compiled from institutional sources and processed in a Geographic Information System. The novelty brought by the aforementioned modification relates to the coupling of physical variables (conventional way) and land management practices (introduced here) in the estimation of a percolation factor. The role of land management practices for percolation was assessed by the so-called Conservative Use Potential (PUC) method, which classifies the areas of a river basin in terms of their potential for sustainable use. The results were validated by an independent method, namely the recession curve method based on the interpretation of hydrographs. In general, the groundwater recharge potential is favored in flat to gently undulating areas and forested regions, as well as where the landscape is characterized by well-structured soils, good drainage conditions and large hydraulic conductivity. The map of groundwater recharge potential produced in this study can be used by planners and decision makers in the Pandeiros River basin as a tool to achieve sustainable use of groundwater resources and the protection of recharge areas. Full article
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Article
A Methodology for the Fast Comparison of Streamwater Diurnal Cycles at Two Monitoring Points
Water 2019, 11(12), 2524; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122524 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
There are numerous streamwater parameters that exhibit a diurnal cycle. However, the shape of this cycle has a huge variation from one parameter to another and from one monitoring point to another on the same river. Important variations also occur at the same [...] Read more.
There are numerous streamwater parameters that exhibit a diurnal cycle. However, the shape of this cycle has a huge variation from one parameter to another and from one monitoring point to another on the same river. Important variations also occur at the same point during some events, such as high waters. Water level, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, oxidation reduction potential, and pH of the Suceava River were monitored for 365 days (2018–2019, hourly sampling frequency) in order to assess the upstream-downstream changes in the diurnal cycle of these parameters, some of these changes being caused by the impact of Suceava city, which is located between the selected monitoring points. The multiresolution analysis of the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform and the wavelet coherence analysis were combined in a flexible methodology that helped in comparing the upstream and downstream shapes of the diurnal cycle. The methodology allowed for a fast comparison of diurnal profiles during periods of high waters or baseflow. Notable changes were observed in the moments of diurnal maxima and minima. Full article
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Article
The Role of Landscape Configuration, Season, and Distance from Contaminant Sources on the Degradation of Stream Water Quality in Urban Catchments
Water 2019, 11(10), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102025 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Water resources are threatened by many pollution sources. The harmful effects of pollution can be evaluated through biological indicators capable of tracing problems in life forms caused by the contaminants discharged into the streams. In the present study, the effects on stream water [...] Read more.
Water resources are threatened by many pollution sources. The harmful effects of pollution can be evaluated through biological indicators capable of tracing problems in life forms caused by the contaminants discharged into the streams. In the present study, the effects on stream water quality of landscape configuration, season, and distance from contaminant emissions of diffuse and point sources were accessed through the evaluation of a Portuguese macroinvertebrate index (IPtIN) in 12 observation points distributed within the studied area (Ave River Basin, Portugal). Partial least-squares path models (PLS-PMs) were used to set up cause–effect relationships between this index, various metrics adapted to forest, agriculture, and artificial areas, and the aforementioned emissions, considering 13 distances from the contaminant sources ranging from 100 m to 56 km. The PLS-PM models were applied to summer and winter data to explore seasonality effects. The results of PLS-PM exposed significant scale and seasonal effects. The harmful effects of artificial areas were visible for distances larger than 10 km. The impact of agriculture was also distance related, but in summer this influence was more evident. The forested areas could hold onto contamination mainly in the winter periods. The impact of diffuse contaminant emissions was stronger during summer, when accessed on a short distance. The impact of effluent discharges was small, compared to the influence of landscape metrics, and had a limited statistical significance. Overall, the PLS-PM results evidenced significant cause–effect relationships between land use metrics and stream water quality at 10 km or larger scales, regardless of the season. This result is valid for the studied catchment, but transposition to other similar catchments needs to be carefully verified given the limited, though available, number of observation points. Full article
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Article
The Long-Term Effects of Land Use and Climate Changes on the Hydro-Morphology of the Reno River Catchment (Northern Italy)
Water 2019, 11(9), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091831 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Anthropogenic activities, and in particular land use/land cover (LULC) changes, have a considerable effect on rivers’ flow rates and their morphologies. A representative example of those changes and resulting impacts on the fluvial environment is the Reno Mountain Basin (RMB), located in Northern [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activities, and in particular land use/land cover (LULC) changes, have a considerable effect on rivers’ flow rates and their morphologies. A representative example of those changes and resulting impacts on the fluvial environment is the Reno Mountain Basin (RMB), located in Northern Italy. Characterized by forest exploitation and agricultural production until World War II, today the RMB consists predominantly of meadows, forests and uncultivated land, as a result of agricultural land abandonment. This study focuses on the changes of the Reno river’s morphology since the 1950s, with an objective of analyzing the factors that caused and influenced those changes. The factors considered were LULC changes, the Reno river flow rate and suspended sediment yield, and local climate data (precipitation and temperature). It was concluded that LUCL changes caused some important modifications in the riparian corridor, riverbed size, and river flow rate. A 40–80% reduction in the river bed area was observed, vegetation developed in the riparian buffer strips, and the river channel changed from braided to a single channel. The main causes identified are reductions in the river flow rate and suspended sediment yield (−36% and −38%, respectively), while climate change did not have a significant effect. Full article
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Article
A Regression Model of Stream Water Quality Based on Interactions between Landscape Composition and Riparian Buffer Width in Small Catchments
Water 2019, 11(9), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091757 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Riparian vegetation represents a protective barrier between human activities installed in catchments and capable of generating and exporting large amounts of contaminants, and stream water that is expected to keep quality overtime. This study explored the combined effect of landscape composition and buffer [...] Read more.
Riparian vegetation represents a protective barrier between human activities installed in catchments and capable of generating and exporting large amounts of contaminants, and stream water that is expected to keep quality overtime. This study explored the combined effect of landscape composition and buffer strip width (L) on stream water quality. The landscape composition was assessed by the forest (F) to agriculture (A) ratio (F/A), and the water quality by an index (IWQ) expressed as a function of physico-chemical parameters. The combined effect (F/A × L) was quantified by a multiple regression model with an interaction term. The study was carried out in eight catchments of Uberaba River Basin Environmental Protection Area, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and characterized by very different F/A and L values. The results related to improved water quality (larger IWQ values) with increasing values of F/A and L, which were not surprising given the abundant similar reports widespread in the scientific literature. But the effect of F/A × L on IWQ was enlightening. The interaction between F/A and L reduced the range of L values required to sustain IWQ at a fair level by some 40%, which is remarkable. The interaction was related to the spatial distribution of infiltration capacity within the studied catchments. The high F/A catchments should comprise a larger number of infiltration patches, allowing a dominance of subsurface flow widespread within the soil layer, a condition that improves the probability of soil water to cross and interact with a buffer strip before reaching the stream. Conversely, the low F/A catchments are prone to the generation of an overland flow network, because the absence of permanent vegetation substantially reduces the number of infiltration patches. The overland flow network channelizes runoff and conveys the surface water into specific confluence points within the stream, reducing or even hampering an interaction with a buffer strip. Notwithstanding the interaction, the calculated L ranges (45–175 m) are much larger than the maximum width imposed by the Brazilian Forest Code (30 m), a result that deserves reflection. Full article
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Article
Hydrologic Impacts of Land Use Changes in the Sabor River Basin: A Historical View and Future Perspectives
Water 2019, 11(7), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071464 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
The study area used for this study was the Sabor river basin (located in the Northeast of Portugal), which is composed mostly for agroforestry. The objectives were to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of hydrological services that occurred due to land use changes between [...] Read more.
The study area used for this study was the Sabor river basin (located in the Northeast of Portugal), which is composed mostly for agroforestry. The objectives were to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of hydrological services that occurred due to land use changes between 1990 and 2008 and to consider two scenarios for the year 2045. The scenarios were, firstly, afforestation projection, proposed by the Regional Plan for Forest Management, and secondly, wildfires that will affect 32% of the basin area. In this work, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate the provision of hydrological services, namely water quantity, being calibrated for daily discharge. The calibration and validation showed a good agreement for discharge with coefficients of determination of 0.63 and 0.8 respectively. The land use changes and the afforestation scenario showed decreases in water yield, surface flow, and groundwater flow and increases in evapotranspiration and lateral flow. The wildfire scenario, contrary to the afforestation scenario, showed an increase in surface flow and a decrease in lateral flow. The Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes in 2000 and 2006 showed average decreases in the water yield of 91 and 52 mm·year−1, respectively. The decrease in water yield was greater in the afforestation scenario than in the wildfires scenario mainly in winter months. In the afforestation scenario, the large decrease varied between 28 hm3·year−1 in October and 62 hm3·year−1 in January, while in the wildfires scenario, the decrease was somewhat smaller, varying between 15 hm3·year−1 in October and 49 hm3·year−1 in January. Full article
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Article
Effects of Human Activities on Hydrological Components in the Yiluo River Basin in Middle Yellow River
Water 2019, 11(4), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040689 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1563 | Correction
Abstract
Land use and land cover change (LUCC) and water resource utilization behavior and policy (WRUBAP) affect the hydrological cycle in different ways. Their effects on streamflow and hydrological balance components were analyzed in the Yiluo River Basin using the delta method and the [...] Read more.
Land use and land cover change (LUCC) and water resource utilization behavior and policy (WRUBAP) affect the hydrological cycle in different ways. Their effects on streamflow and hydrological balance components were analyzed in the Yiluo River Basin using the delta method and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The multivariable (runoff and actual evapotranspiration) calibration and validation method was used to reduce model uncertainty. LUCC impact on hydrological balance components (1976–2015) was evaluated through comparison of simulated paired land use scenarios. WRUBAP impact on runoff was assessed by comparing natural (simulated) and observed runoff. It showed that urban area reduction led to decreased groundwater, but increased surface runoff and increased water area led to increased evaporation. LUCC impact on annual runoff was found limited; for instance, the difference under the paired scenarios was <1 mm. Observed runoff was 34.7–144.1% greater than natural runoff during November–June because of WRUBAP. The effect of WRUBAP on wet season runoff regulation was limited before the completion of the Guxian Reservoir, whereas WRUBAP caused a reduction in natural runoff of 21.6–35.0% during the wet season (July–October) after its completion. The results suggest that WRUBAP has greater influence than LUCC on runoff in the Yiluo River Basin. Based on existing drought mitigation measures, interbasin water transfer measures and deep groundwater exploitation could reduce the potential for drought attributable to predicted future climate extremes. In addition to reservoir regulation, conversion of farmland to forestry in the upstream watershed could also reduce flood risk. Full article
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Article
The Buffer Capacity of Riparian Vegetation to Control Water Quality in Anthropogenic Catchments from a Legally Protected Area: A Critical View over the Brazilian New Forest Code
Water 2019, 11(3), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030549 - 16 Mar 2019
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
The riparian buffer width on watersheds has been modified over the last decades. The human settlements heavily used and have significantly altered those areas, for farming, urbanization, recreation and other functions. In order to protect freshwater ecosystems, riparian areas have recently assumed world [...] Read more.
The riparian buffer width on watersheds has been modified over the last decades. The human settlements heavily used and have significantly altered those areas, for farming, urbanization, recreation and other functions. In order to protect freshwater ecosystems, riparian areas have recently assumed world recognition and considered valuable areas for the conservation of nature and biodiversity, protected by forest laws and policies as permanent preservation areas. The objective of this work was to compare parameters from riparian areas related to a natural watercourse less than 10 m wide, for specific purposes in Law No. 4761/65, now revoked and replaced by Law No. 12651/12, known as the New Forest Code. The effects of 15, 30 and 50 m wide riparian forest in water and soil of three headwater catchments used for sugar cane production were analyzed. The catchments are located in the Environmental Protection Area of Uberaba River Basin (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), legally protected for conservation of water resources and native vegetation. A field survey was carried out in the catchments for verification of land uses, while periodical campaigns were conducted for monthly water sampling and seasonal soil sampling within the studied riparian buffers. The physico-chemical parameters of water were handled by ANOVA (Tukey’s mean test) for recognition of differences among catchments, while thematic maps were elaborated in a geographic information system for illustration purposes. The results suggested that the 10, 30 or even 50 m wide riparian buffers are not able to fulfill the environmental function of preserving water resources, and therefore are incapable to ensure the well-being of human populations. Therefore, the limits imposed by the actual Brazilian Forest Code should be enlarged substantially. Full article
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Article
Flood Vulnerability, Environmental Land Use Conflicts, and Conservation of Soil and Water: A Study in the Batatais SP Municipality, Brazil
Water 2018, 10(10), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101357 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
In many regions across the planet, flood events are now more frequent and intense because of climate change and improper land use, resulting in risks to the population. However, the procedures to accurately determine the areas at risk in regions influenced by inadequate [...] Read more.
In many regions across the planet, flood events are now more frequent and intense because of climate change and improper land use, resulting in risks to the population. However, the procedures to accurately determine the areas at risk in regions influenced by inadequate land uses are still inefficient. In rural watersheds, inadequate uses occur when actual uses deviate from land capability, and are termed environmental land use conflicts. To overcome the difficulty to evaluate flood vulnerability under these settings, in this study a method was developed to delineate flood vulnerability areas in a land use conflict landscape: the Batatais municipality, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The method and its implementation resorted to remote sensed data, geographic information systems and geo-processing. Satellite images and their processing provided data for environmental factors such as altitude, land use, slope, and soil class in the study area. The importance of each factor for flood vulnerability was evaluated through the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). According to the results, vast areas of medium to high flood vulnerability are located in agricultural lands affected by environmental land use conflicts. In these areas, amplified flood intensities, soil erosion, crop productivity loss and stream water deterioration are expected. The coverage of Batatais SP municipality by these vulnerable areas is so extensive (60%) that preventive and recovery measures were proposed in the context of a land consolidation–water management plan aiming flood control and soil and water conservation. Full article
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Correction
Correction: Wang, X., et al. Effects of Human Activities on Hydrological Components in the Yiluo River Basin in Middle Yellow River. Water, 2019, 11, 689
Water 2019, 11(8), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081609 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
In the published article [1], the authors noticed some errors in Equation (1), and wish to make the following correction to their paper [1]: Equation (1) should be corrected to S W t = S W 0 + i = 1 t ( R d a y Q s u r f E T W s e e p Q g w ) [...] Full article
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