Special Issue "Techniques and Applications in Water Science and Engineering: Selected Papers from the Inaugural International Symposium on Water Modelling (iSymWater2019)"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jianguo Zhou
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Guest Editor
Department of Computing and Mathematics, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
Interests: mathematical model; numerical methods; lattice Boltzmann method; sediment transport; mass transport; computational hydrodynamics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Haifei Liu
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Co-Guest Editor
School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
Interests: water environment simulation; numerical methods; lattice Boltzmann hydraulics; hydroecological modelling
Prof. Dr. Alistair Borthwick
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Co-Guest Editor
School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Interests: environmental fluid mechanics; river basin hydraulics; coastal and offshore processes; sediment transport; water contamination
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Prof. Dr. Carlo Gualtieri
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Guest Editor
Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli 80125, Italy
Interests: environmental hydraulics; river hydrodynamics; ecohydraulics; computational methods in hydraulics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Inaugural International Symposium on Water Modelling (iSymWater2019), hosted by Beijing Normal University and Manchester Metropolitan University, successfully took place on 8–10 July 2019 in Beijing, China. The symposium attracted a total of 140 researchers, practitioners and scientific experts from many countries around the world, including Australia, China, Italy, Japan, the UK and the USA. During the conference, the delegates exchanged ideas on future research trends and planning strategies for sustainable water through theoretical and physical modelling approaches. The topics covered a wide range of research areas, including hydraulic modelling, hydroenvironment modelling, hydroecology modelling, water management simulation, physical experiments and software, for which a diversity of applications and tools exist. State-of-the-art technical solutions to problems and large-scale applications relevant to water were discussed at the Symposium. In order to achieve a worldwide impact, this Special Issue has been launched for publications of selected high quality research work from the Symposium, after peer-review of the manuscripts. The Special Issue will greatly accelerate knowledge exchange and transfer and promote future research involving water modelling aimed at solving challenging problems affecting the aquatic environment, leading to deeper understanding and a better quality of life in a changing world.

Dr. Jianguo Zhou
Prof. Dr. Haifei Liu
Prof. Dr. Alistair G. L. Borthwick
Prof. Dr. Carlo Gualtieri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water modelling
  • Physical modelling
  • Numerical modelling
  • Urban floods
  • Sediment transport
  • Water quality
  • GIS and water management

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dam Regulation on the Hydrological Alteration and Morphological Evolution of the Volta River Delta
Water 2020, 12(3), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030646 - 28 Feb 2020
Abstract
The Volta River in West Africa is one of the most regulated rivers influenced by dams in the world, and the regulation has resulted in substantial impacts on the hydrological alteration and morphological evolution of the Volta River Delta. However, comprehensive analyses of [...] Read more.
The Volta River in West Africa is one of the most regulated rivers influenced by dams in the world, and the regulation has resulted in substantial impacts on the hydrological alteration and morphological evolution of the Volta River Delta. However, comprehensive analyses of the relevant effects are still lacking to date. In this study, inter-annual variations of river discharge and sediment load for pre- and post-Akosombo Dam periods (1936 to 2018) were analyzed through simple regression and Mann–Kendall (MK) trend analysis whereas the intra-annual variations were dictated by the non-uniformity and regulated coefficients. The shoreline changes were further evaluated using Landsat remote sensing images (1972 to 2018) to explore the effects of hydrological alteration on the morphological evolution of the Volta River Delta. Hydrological analyses show that the inter- and intra-annual variations are much higher in the pre-dam period, suggesting the substantial regulation of the Akosombo Dam on the Volta River. The dam regulation has more significant effects on the sediment load delivered to the delta than the river discharge, which decreased by 92.32% and 23.23%, respectively. Morphological analyses show that the progradation-erosion of the Volta River Delta constantly fluctuates within a relatively small range (maximum 0.5%) after the 1970s. The relationship between the variations of the delta area and sediment load implicates that a quasi-equilibrium state may have been established at the Volta River Delta, given the current sediment load. Our findings provide references for the future regulation and restoration of the Volta River Delta. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CFD Investigations of Transient Cavitation Flows in Pipeline Based on Weakly-Compressible Model
Water 2020, 12(2), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020448 - 07 Feb 2020
Abstract
In hydraulic systems, transient flow often occurs and may results in cavitation in pipelines. In this paper, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method based on the Fluent software was used to investigate the cavitation flow in pipeline; the density-pressure model was incorporated into [...] Read more.
In hydraulic systems, transient flow often occurs and may results in cavitation in pipelines. In this paper, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method based on the Fluent software was used to investigate the cavitation flow in pipeline; the density-pressure model was incorporated into the continuity equation by using further development of UDF (user defined function), which reflects the variable wave speed of the transient cavitation flow, and the related algorithms were established based on weakly compressible fluid Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) techniques. Firstly, the numerical simulations of the transient non-cavitation and cavitation flows caused by the fast closing valve in the reservoir-pipe-valve system were carried out by using the grid slip technique. The simulation results can enrich the flow field information such as velocity, pressure and vapor volume fraction. Through the evolution process of the pressure field, the propagation characteristics of pressure waves can be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Through the evolution process of the velocity field, it can be seen that the velocity distribution in the wall area changes rapidly and has a high gradient, which mainly depends on the viscosity. However, the change of the velocity distribution in the core region is related to the velocity distribution of the history of the past time, which mainly depends on the diffusion. The formation, development and collapse of the cavity can be successfully captured, and it can be clearly and visually observed that the uneven distribution of vapor cavity in the direction of pipe length and pipe diameter, and the vapor cavity move slowly along the top of the pipe wall. Rarefaction wave’s propagation into pressure decreasing region and pressure increasing region can lead to different results of cavitation flow. The accuracy and reliability of the weakly compressible fluid RANS method were verified by comparing the calculated results with the experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Prediction of the Short-Term Trajectory of Microplastic Particles in Laizhou Bay
Water 2019, 11(11), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112251 - 27 Oct 2019
Abstract
Microplastic particles are easily captured by microorganisms and enter the food chain, which poses a threat to ecological health. These particles are abundant in coastal areas because of the influence of anthropic activities and the interaction between the sea and land. Although much [...] Read more.
Microplastic particles are easily captured by microorganisms and enter the food chain, which poses a threat to ecological health. These particles are abundant in coastal areas because of the influence of anthropic activities and the interaction between the sea and land. Although much research on microplastics has been done, predicting the transportation of microplastic particles in coastal zones is still a challenge. In this paper, the trajectories of microplastic particles released from four river mouths around Laizhou Bay are investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method coupled with the Lagrangian particle-tracking method, involving inter-particle and particle-wall collisions. The trajectories of particles released from four river mouths are recorded within 30 days. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Landscape Connectivity Approach for Determining Minimum Ecological Lake Level: Implications for Lake Restoration
Water 2019, 11(11), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112237 - 26 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We proposed a new approach to determine the minimum ecological lake level using a landscape connectivity approach. Using MIKE 21 and ArcGIS software, we simulated the water landscape and corresponding connectivity of Baiyangdian Lake on the North China Plain and analyzed the relationship [...] Read more.
We proposed a new approach to determine the minimum ecological lake level using a landscape connectivity approach. Using MIKE 21 and ArcGIS software, we simulated the water landscape and corresponding connectivity of Baiyangdian Lake on the North China Plain and analyzed the relationship between landscape connectivity and lake level. The minimum ecological lake level was defined as the breakpoint of the lake level-connectivity curve. Results suggested that the minimum ecological lake level of Baiyangdian Lake is 7.8–8.0 m, below which lake ecosystems become fragmented and potentially fragile. Alternatively, better connectivity at lower lake levels may be achieved by engineered modification of landscape patterns. Such approaches can mitigate the waste of water and economic resources due to excessive reliance on increasing water levels to meet minimum connectivity requirements. This approach provided a new perspective for lake ecosystem restoration of use in water-resource- and landscape management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Submerged Vegetation Density on Turbulent Flow Characteristics in an Open Channel
Water 2019, 11(10), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102154 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The vegetation density λ affects turbulent flow type in the submerged vegetated river. This laboratory study investigates different types of vegetated turbulent flow, especially the flow at 0.04 < λ < 0.1 and λ = 1.44 by setting the experimental λ within a [...] Read more.
The vegetation density λ affects turbulent flow type in the submerged vegetated river. This laboratory study investigates different types of vegetated turbulent flow, especially the flow at 0.04 < λ < 0.1 and λ = 1.44 by setting the experimental λ within a large range. Vertical distributions of turbulent statistics (velocity, shear stress and skewness coefficients), turbulence kinetic generation rate and turbulence spectra in different λ conditions have been presented and compared. Results indicate that for flow at 0.04 < λ < 0.1, the profiles of turbulent statistics manifest characteristics that are similar to those of both the bed-shear flow and the free-shear flow, and the turbulence spectral curves are characterized with some slight humps within the low-frequency range. For λ = 1.44, the turbulent statistics above the vegetation top demonstrate the characteristics of boundary-shear flow. The spectral curves fluctuate intensely within the low-frequency range, and the spectra of low-frequency eddies above vegetation top are significantly larger than the values below. The change of turbulent flow type induced by an increase of λ would increase the maximum value of turbulence kinetic generation rate GS and change the point where GS is vertically maximum upwards to the vegetation top. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Hydraulic Structures in 2D High-Resolution Urban Flood Modeling
Water 2019, 11(10), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102139 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Urban flooding as a result of inadequate drainage capacity, failure of flood defenses, etc. is usually featured with highly transient hydrodynamics. Reliable and efficient prediction and forecasting of these urban flash floods is still a great technical challenge. Meanwhile, in urban environments, the [...] Read more.
Urban flooding as a result of inadequate drainage capacity, failure of flood defenses, etc. is usually featured with highly transient hydrodynamics. Reliable and efficient prediction and forecasting of these urban flash floods is still a great technical challenge. Meanwhile, in urban environments, the flooding hydrodynamics and process may be influenced by flow regulation and flood protection hydraulic infrastructure systems, such as sluice gates, which should be effectively taken into account in an urban flood model. However, direct simulation of hydraulic structures is not a current practice in 2D urban flood modeling. This work aims to develop a robust numerical approach to directly simulate the effects of gate structures in a 2D high-resolution urban flood model. A new modeling component is developed and fully coupled to a finite volume Godunov-type shock-capturing shallow water model, to directly simulate the highly transient flood waves through hydraulic structures. Different coupling approaches, i.e., flux term coupling and source term coupling, are implemented and compared. A numerical experiment conducted for an analytical dam-break test indicates that the flux term coupling approach may lead to more accurate results, with the calculated RMSE against water level 28%–38% less than that produced by the source term coupling approach. The flux term coupling approach is therefore adopted to improve the current urban flood model, and it is further tested by reproducing the laboratory experiments of flood routing in a flume with partially open sluice gates, conducted in the hydraulic laboratory at the Zhejiang Institute of Hydraulics and Estuary, China. The numerical results are compared favorably with experimental measurements, with a maximum RMSE of 0.0851 for all the individual tests. The satisfactory results demonstrate that the flood model implemented with the flux coupling approach is able to accurately simulate the flow through hydraulic structures, with enhanced predictive capability for urban flood modeling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Explicit Solution for Critical Depth in Closed Conduits Flowing Partly Full
Water 2019, 11(10), 2124; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102124 - 13 Oct 2019
Abstract
Critical depth is an essential parameter for the design, operation, and maintenance of conduits. Circular, arched, and egg-shaped sections are often used in non-pressure conduits in hydraulic engineering, irrigation, and sewerage works. However, equations governing the critical depth in various sections are complicated [...] Read more.
Critical depth is an essential parameter for the design, operation, and maintenance of conduits. Circular, arched, and egg-shaped sections are often used in non-pressure conduits in hydraulic engineering, irrigation, and sewerage works. However, equations governing the critical depth in various sections are complicated implicit transcendental equations. The function model is established for the geometric features of multiple sections using the mathematical transform method and while considering non-dimensional parameters. Then, revised PSO algorithms are implemented in MATLAB, and the right solution’s formula for the critical depths in various non-pressure conduit sections is established through optimization. The error analysis results show that the established formula has broad applicability. The maximum relative errors of the formula for critical depths are less than 0.182%, 0.0629%, and 0.170% in circular, arched, and egg-shaped sections, respectively, which are more accurate than those of existing formulas; the form of the formula proposed in this work is also more compact than that of the existing formulas. The results of this research may be useful in design, operation, and maintenance in conduit engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of Sulfonamide Occurrence and Transport at the Near-Shore Area of Laizhou Bay
Water 2019, 11(10), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102065 - 02 Oct 2019
Abstract
Antibiotics are extensively applied in aquaculture for the treatment of microbial infections and to improve production. Among various antibiotics, sulfonamides (SA) are popular in fish farming, and SA residues in the aquatic environment have detrimental effects on both ecosystem and human health. Understanding [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are extensively applied in aquaculture for the treatment of microbial infections and to improve production. Among various antibiotics, sulfonamides (SA) are popular in fish farming, and SA residues in the aquatic environment have detrimental effects on both ecosystem and human health. Understanding the fate of SA in the aquatic environment is a basic necessity to provide an approach for solving the current problem. In this study, a two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model was introduced to investigate the transport and occurrence of SA in Laizhou Bay, a prosperous aquaculture area in China. The model is based on the shallow-water equations and advection-diffusion equation with the Bhatnagaar–Gross–Krook scheme. Experimental data are used to verify the model after numerical simulations and the results illustrate the accuracy of the proposed model. This model provides a potential universal method for the simulation of the fate of antibiotics in the aquatic environment. Full article
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