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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Submerged Vegetation Density on Turbulent Flow Characteristics in an Open Channel

by 1,2, 1,2,*, 1,2, 1,2 and 3
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2
College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3
Henan Water Conservancy Survey, Ltd., Zhengzhou 450008, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102154
Received: 4 August 2019 / Revised: 10 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
The vegetation density λ affects turbulent flow type in the submerged vegetated river. This laboratory study investigates different types of vegetated turbulent flow, especially the flow at 0.04 < λ < 0.1 and λ = 1.44 by setting the experimental λ within a large range. Vertical distributions of turbulent statistics (velocity, shear stress and skewness coefficients), turbulence kinetic generation rate and turbulence spectra in different λ conditions have been presented and compared. Results indicate that for flow at 0.04 < λ < 0.1, the profiles of turbulent statistics manifest characteristics that are similar to those of both the bed-shear flow and the free-shear flow, and the turbulence spectral curves are characterized with some slight humps within the low-frequency range. For λ = 1.44, the turbulent statistics above the vegetation top demonstrate the characteristics of boundary-shear flow. The spectral curves fluctuate intensely within the low-frequency range, and the spectra of low-frequency eddies above vegetation top are significantly larger than the values below. The change of turbulent flow type induced by an increase of λ would increase the maximum value of turbulence kinetic generation rate GS and change the point where GS is vertically maximum upwards to the vegetation top. View Full-Text
Keywords: open channel; submerged vegetation density; turbulent flow type; turbulent statistics; turbulence spectra open channel; submerged vegetation density; turbulent flow type; turbulent statistics; turbulence spectra
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, H.; Yan, J.; Yuan, S.; Liu, J.; Zheng, J. Effects of Submerged Vegetation Density on Turbulent Flow Characteristics in an Open Channel. Water 2019, 11, 2154. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102154

AMA Style

Zhao H, Yan J, Yuan S, Liu J, Zheng J. Effects of Submerged Vegetation Density on Turbulent Flow Characteristics in an Open Channel. Water. 2019; 11(10):2154. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102154

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Hanqing; Yan, Jing; Yuan, Saiyu; Liu, Jiefu; Zheng, Jinyu. 2019. "Effects of Submerged Vegetation Density on Turbulent Flow Characteristics in an Open Channel" Water 11, no. 10: 2154. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102154

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