Special Issue "Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology and Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

PD Dr. Habil. Jörg Lewandowski
Website
Guest Editor
(1) Department Ecohydrology, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
(2) Geography Department, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Interests: groundwater–surface water interactions, hyporheic zones, lacustrine groundwater discharge, ecohydrology, biogeochemistry, bioturbation, lake restoration, urban water interfaces
Dr. Karin Meinikmann
Website
Guest Editor
Department Ecohydrology, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
Interests: lacustrine groundwater discharge, hydrological and geochemical processes at groundwater–surface water interfaces, nutrient dynamics and transport in catchments, quantification of mass loads to lakes with a focus on groundwater-borne phosphorus loads
Prof. Dr. Stefan Krause
Website
Guest Editor
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Interests: reactive transport processes across aquatic–terrestrial interfaces, nutrient and carbon cycling, fate and transport of emerging and legacy pollutants, distributed sensor networks, in-situ high-frequency sensor technologies, hyporheic zone processes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent years have seen a paradigm shift in our understanding of the importance of the interactions between groundwater and surface water bodies: While for a long time surface waters and aquifers had been defined as discrete, separate entities, it is nowadays understood they are integral components of a surface-subsurface continuum. Although this paradigm shift triggered intense investigations of the water and mass transport processes across aquatic–terrestrial interfaces, and there is still a lack of mechanistic understanding and standardized methods with which to approach the processes involved. For example, it is well accepted that the reactive interface between surface water and the subsurface is of great importance for the quality and the quantity of exchange fluxes. However, experimental and validated model-based evidence of the magnitude of the involved processes, as well as of the underlying controls, is scarce. One of many reasons for this is that groundwater–surface water interactions integrate a large variety of scientific disciplines. Researchers from hydrology, biogeochemistry, microbiology, biology, physics, and chemistry work on the complex process interactions that require them to consider relevant aspects from other scientific fields. Additionally, interactions between surface and subsurface water take place in a range of different marine and freshwater systems, but the potential to transfer technologies and approaches, as well as the resulting knowledge and process understanding of other fields, has not been adequately exploited.

The aim of the present Special Issue is to integrate novel outcomes from interdisciplinary research on groundwater–surface water interactions, and to thus offer a platform with which to collectively present research outcomes on groundwater–surface water interactions without the restrictions of scope, scale, and scientific field. Experimental, modelling, or conceptual studies on river, lake, and marine ecosystems and their interactions with underlying aquifers are welcome. We are especially interested in topics of environmental and societal relevance such as eutrophication, retention of legacy, and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and microplastics, invasive species, urban water interfaces, and climate change impacts.

PD Dr. habil. Jörg Lewandowski
Dr. Karin Meinikmann
Prof. Dr. Stefan Krause
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • aquifer–stream interface
  • hyporheic zone
  • benthic zone
  • lacustrine groundwater discharge
  • submarine groundwater discharge
  • riparian corridors

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Groundwater–Surface Water Interactions: Recent Advances and Interdisciplinary Challenges
Water 2020, 12(1), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010296 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 3Correction
Abstract
The interactions of groundwater with surface waters such as streams, lakes, wetlands, or oceans are relevant for a wide range of reasons—for example, drinking water resources may rely on hydrologic fluxes between groundwater and surface water. However, nutrients and pollutants can also be [...] Read more.
The interactions of groundwater with surface waters such as streams, lakes, wetlands, or oceans are relevant for a wide range of reasons—for example, drinking water resources may rely on hydrologic fluxes between groundwater and surface water. However, nutrients and pollutants can also be transported across the interface and experience transformation, enrichment, or retention along the flow paths and cause impacts on the interconnected receptor systems. To maintain drinking water resources and ecosystem health, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes controlling the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of groundwater–surface water interactions is crucial. This Special Issue provides an overview of current research advances and innovative approaches in the broad field of groundwater–surface water interactions. The 20 research articles and 1 communication of this Special Issue cover a wide range of thematic scopes, scales, and experimental and modelling methods across different disciplines (hydrology, aquatic ecology, biogeochemistry, environmental pollution) collaborating in research on groundwater–surface water interactions. The collection of research papers in this Special Issue also allows the identification of current knowledge gaps and reveals the challenges in establishing standardized measurement, observation, and assessment approaches. With regards to its relevance for environmental and water management and protection, the impact of groundwater–surface water interactions is still not fully understood and is often underestimated, which is not only due to a lack of awareness but also a lack of knowledge and experience regarding appropriate measurement and analysis approaches. This lack of knowledge exchange from research into management practice suggests that more efforts are needed to disseminate scientific results and methods to practitioners and policy makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Impact of Bed Form Celerity on Oxygen Dynamics in the Hyporheic Zone
Water 2020, 12(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010062 - 22 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Oxygen distribution and uptake in the hyporheic zone regulate various redox-sensitive reactions and influence habitat conditions. Despite the fact that fine-grain sediments in streams and rivers are commonly in motion, most studies on biogeochemistry have focused on stagnant sediments. In order to evaluate [...] Read more.
Oxygen distribution and uptake in the hyporheic zone regulate various redox-sensitive reactions and influence habitat conditions. Despite the fact that fine-grain sediments in streams and rivers are commonly in motion, most studies on biogeochemistry have focused on stagnant sediments. In order to evaluate the effect of bed form celerity on oxygen dynamics and uptake in sandy beds, we conducted experiments in a recirculating indoor flume. Oxygen distribution in the bed was measured under various celerities using 2D planar optodes. Bed morphodynamics were measured by a surface elevation sensor and time-lapse photography. Oxygenated zones in stationary beds had a conchoidal shape due to influx through the stoss side of the bed form, and upwelling anoxic water at the lee side. Increasing bed celerity resulted in the gradual disappearance of the upwelling anoxic zone and flattening of the interface between the oxic (moving fraction of the bed) and the anoxic zone (stationary fraction of the bed), as well as in a reduction of the volumetric oxygen uptake rates due shortened residence times in the hyporheic zone. These results suggest that including processes related to bed form migration are important for understanding the biogeochemistry of hyporheic zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Hydrologic Landscapes Perspective on Groundwater Connectivity of Depressional Wetlands
Water 2020, 12(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010050 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Research into processes governing the hydrologic connectivity of depressional wetlands has advanced rapidly in recent years. Nevertheless, a need persists for broadly applicable, non-site-specific guidance to facilitate further research. Here, we explicitly use the hydrologic landscapes theoretical framework to develop broadly applicable conceptual [...] Read more.
Research into processes governing the hydrologic connectivity of depressional wetlands has advanced rapidly in recent years. Nevertheless, a need persists for broadly applicable, non-site-specific guidance to facilitate further research. Here, we explicitly use the hydrologic landscapes theoretical framework to develop broadly applicable conceptual knowledge of depressional-wetland hydrologic connectivity. We used a numerical model to simulate the groundwater flow through five generic hydrologic landscapes. Next, we inserted depressional wetlands into the generic landscapes and repeated the modeling exercise. The results strongly characterize groundwater connectivity from uplands to lowlands as being predominantly indirect. Groundwater flowed from uplands and most of it was discharged to the surface at a concave-upward break in slope, possibly continuing as surface water to lowlands. Additionally, we found that groundwater connectivity of the depressional wetlands was primarily determined by the slope of the adjacent water table. However, we identified certain arrangements of landforms that caused the water table to fall sharply and not follow the surface contour. Finally, we synthesize our findings and provide guidance to practitioners and resource managers regarding the management significance of indirect groundwater discharge and the effect of depressional wetland groundwater connectivity on pond permanence and connectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Diffuse Groundwater Inflows into Stream Water (Part II: Quantifying Groundwater Inflows by Coupling FO-DTS and Vertical Flow Velocities)
Water 2019, 11(12), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122430 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Temperature has been used to characterize groundwater and stream water exchanges for years. One of the many methods used analyzes propagation of the atmosphere-influenced diurnal signal in sediment to infer vertical velocities. However, despite having good accuracy, the method is usually limited by [...] Read more.
Temperature has been used to characterize groundwater and stream water exchanges for years. One of the many methods used analyzes propagation of the atmosphere-influenced diurnal signal in sediment to infer vertical velocities. However, despite having good accuracy, the method is usually limited by its small spatial coverage. The appearance of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) provided new possibilities due to its high spatial and temporal resolution. Methods based on the heat-balance equation, however, cannot quantify diffuse groundwater inflows that do not modify stream temperature. Our research approach consists of coupling groundwater inflow mapping from a previous article (Part I) and deconvolution of thermal profiles in the sediment to obtain vertical velocities along the entire reach. Vertical flows were calculated along a 400 m long reach, and a period of 9 months (October 2016 to June 2017), by coupling a fiber optic cable buried in thalweg sediment and a few thermal lances at the water–sediment interface. When compared to predictions of hyporheic discharge by traditional methods (differential discharge between upstream and downstream of the monitored reach and the mass-balance method), those of our method agreed only for the low-flow period and the end of the high-flow period. Our method underestimated hyporheic discharge during high flow. We hypothesized that the differential discharge and mass-balance methods included lateral inflows that were not detected by the fiber optic cable buried in thalweg sediment. Increasing spatial coverage of the cable as well as automatic and continuous calculation over the reach may improve predictions during the high-flow period. Coupling groundwater inflow mapping and vertical hyporheic flow allows flow to be quantified continuously, which is of great interest for characterizing and modeling fine hyporheic processes over long periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Diffuse Groundwater Inflows into Streamwater (Part I: Spatial and Temporal Mapping Framework Based on Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing)
Water 2019, 11(11), 2389; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112389 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) has been used in hydrology for the past 10 years to characterize groundwater–streamwater exchanges, it has not been widely applied since the entire annual hydrological cycle has rarely been considered. Properly distinguishing between diffuse and intermittent [...] Read more.
Although fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) has been used in hydrology for the past 10 years to characterize groundwater–streamwater exchanges, it has not been widely applied since the entire annual hydrological cycle has rarely been considered. Properly distinguishing between diffuse and intermittent groundwater inflows requires longer periods (e.g., a few months, 1 year) since punctual changes can be lost over shorter periods. In this study, we collected a large amount of data over a one-year period using a 614 m long cable placed in a stream. We used a framework based on a set of hypotheses approach using thermal contrast between stream temperature and the atmosphere. For each subreach, thermal contrast was normalized using reference points assumed to lie outside of groundwater influence. The concepts and relations developed in this study provide a useful and simple methodology to analyze a large database of stream temperature at high spatial and temporal resolution over a one-year period using FO-DTS. Thus, the study highlighted the importance of streambed topography, since riffles and perched reaches had many fewer inflows than pools. Additionally, the spatial extent of groundwater inflows increased at some locations during high flow. The results were compared to the usual standard deviation of stream temperature calculated over an entire year. The two methods located the same inflows but differed in the mapping of their spatial extent. The temperatures obtained from FO-DTS open perspectives to understand spatial and temporal changes in interactions between groundwater and surface water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Streambed Flux Measurement Informed by Distributed Temperature Sensing Leads to a Significantly Different Characterization of Groundwater Discharge
Water 2019, 11(11), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112312 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Groundwater discharge though streambeds is often focused toward discrete zones, indicating that preliminary reconnaissance may be useful for capturing the full spectrum of groundwater discharge rates using point-scale quantitative methods. However, many direct-contact reconnaissance techniques can be time-consuming, and remote sensing (e.g., thermal [...] Read more.
Groundwater discharge though streambeds is often focused toward discrete zones, indicating that preliminary reconnaissance may be useful for capturing the full spectrum of groundwater discharge rates using point-scale quantitative methods. However, many direct-contact reconnaissance techniques can be time-consuming, and remote sensing (e.g., thermal infrared) typically does not penetrate the water column to locate submerged seepages. In this study, we tested whether dozens of groundwater discharge measurements made at “uninformed” (i.e., selected without knowledge on high-resolution temperature variations at the streambed) point locations along a reach would yield significantly different Darcy-based groundwater discharge rates when compared with “informed” measurements, focused at streambed thermal anomalies that were identified a priori using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS). A non-parametric U-test showed a significant difference between median discharge rates for uninformed (0.05 m·day−1; n = 30) and informed (0.17 m·day−1; n = 20) measurement locations. Mean values followed a similar pattern (0.12 versus 0.27 m·day−1), and frequency distributions for uninformed and informed measurements were also significantly different based on a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Results suggest that even using a quick “snapshot-in-time” field analysis of FO-DTS data can be useful in streambeds with groundwater discharge rates <0.2 m·day−1, a lower threshold than proposed in a previous study. Collectively, study results highlight that FO-DTS is a powerful technique for identifying higher-discharge zones in streambeds, but the pros and cons of informed and uninformed sampling depend in part on groundwater/surface water exchange study goals. For example, studies focused on measuring representative groundwater and solute fluxes may be biased if high-discharge locations are preferentially sampled. However, identification of high-discharge locations may complement more randomized sampling plans and lead to improvements in interpolating streambed fluxes and upscaling point measurements to the stream reach scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Is the Hyporheic Zone Relevant beyond the Scientific Community?
Water 2019, 11(11), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112230 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Rivers are important ecosystems under continuous anthropogenic stresses. The hyporheic zone is a ubiquitous, reactive interface between the main channel and its surrounding sediments along the river network. We elaborate on the main physical, biological, and biogeochemical drivers and processes within the hyporheic [...] Read more.
Rivers are important ecosystems under continuous anthropogenic stresses. The hyporheic zone is a ubiquitous, reactive interface between the main channel and its surrounding sediments along the river network. We elaborate on the main physical, biological, and biogeochemical drivers and processes within the hyporheic zone that have been studied by multiple scientific disciplines for almost half a century. These previous efforts have shown that the hyporheic zone is a modulator for most metabolic stream processes and serves as a refuge and habitat for a diverse range of aquatic organisms. It also exerts a major control on river water quality by increasing the contact time with reactive environments, which in turn results in retention and transformation of nutrients, trace organic compounds, fine suspended particles, and microplastics, among others. The paper showcases the critical importance of hyporheic zones, both from a scientific and an applied perspective, and their role in ecosystem services to answer the question of the manuscript title. It identifies major research gaps in our understanding of hyporheic processes. In conclusion, we highlight the potential of hyporheic restoration to efficiently manage and reactivate ecosystem functions and services in river corridors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dissolved Inorganic Geogenic Phosphorus Load to a Groundwater-Fed Lake: Implications of Terrestrial Phosphorus Cycling by Groundwater
Water 2019, 11(11), 2213; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112213 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The general perception has long been that lake eutrophication is driven by anthropogenic sources of phosphorus (P) and that P is immobile in the subsurface and in aquifers. Combined investigation of the current water and P budgets of a 70 ha lake (Nørresø, [...] Read more.
The general perception has long been that lake eutrophication is driven by anthropogenic sources of phosphorus (P) and that P is immobile in the subsurface and in aquifers. Combined investigation of the current water and P budgets of a 70 ha lake (Nørresø, Fyn, Denmark) in a clayey till-dominated landscape and of the lake’s Holocene trophic history demonstrates a potential significance of geogenic (natural) groundwater-borne P. Nørresø receives water from nine streams, a groundwater-fed spring located on a small island, and precipitation. The lake loses water by evaporation and via a single outlet. Monthly measurements of stream, spring, and outlet discharge, and of tracers in the form of temperature, δ18O and δ2H of water, and water chemistry were conducted. The tracers indicated that the lake receives groundwater from an underlying regional confined glaciofluvial sand aquifer via the spring and one of the streams. In addition, the lake receives a direct groundwater input (estimated as the water balance residual) via the lake bed, as supported by the artesian conditions of underlying strata observed in piezometers installed along the lake shore and in wells tapping the regional confined aquifer. The groundwater in the regional confined aquifer was anoxic, ferrous, and contained 4–5 µmol/L dissolved inorganic orthophosphate (DIP). Altogether, the data indicated that groundwater contributes from 64% of the water-borne external DIP loading to the lake, and up to 90% if the DIP concentration of the spring, as representative for the average DIP of the regional confined aquifer, is assigned to the estimated groundwater input. In support, paleolimnological data retrieved from sediment cores indicated that Nørresø was never P-poor, even before the introduction of agriculture at 6000 years before present. Accordingly, groundwater-borne geogenic phosphorus can have an important influence on the trophic state of recipient surface water ecosystems, and groundwater-borne P can be a potentially important component of the terrestrial P cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Solute Transport and Transformation in an Intermittent, Headwater Mountain Stream with Diurnal Discharge Fluctuations
Water 2019, 11(11), 2208; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112208 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Time-variable discharge is known to control both transport and transformation of solutes in the river corridor. Still, few studies consider the interactions of transport and transformation together. Here, we consider how diurnal discharge fluctuations in an intermittent, headwater stream control reach-scale solute transport [...] Read more.
Time-variable discharge is known to control both transport and transformation of solutes in the river corridor. Still, few studies consider the interactions of transport and transformation together. Here, we consider how diurnal discharge fluctuations in an intermittent, headwater stream control reach-scale solute transport and transformation as measured with conservative and reactive tracers during a period of no precipitation. One common conceptual model is that extended contact times with hyporheic zones during low discharge conditions allows for increased transformation of reactive solutes. Instead, we found tracer timescales within the reach were related to discharge, described by a single discharge-variable StorAge Selection function. We found that Resazurin to Resorufin (Raz-to-Rru) transformation is static in time, and apparent differences in reactive tracer were due to interactions with different ages of storage, not with time-variable reactivity. Overall we found reactivity was highest in youngest storage locations, with minimal Raz-to-Rru conversion in waters older than about 20 h of storage in our study reach. Therefore, not all storage in the study reach has the same potential biogeochemical function and increasing residence time of solute storage does not necessarily increase reaction potential of that solute, contrary to prevailing expectations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Water Stable Isotopes for Identifying Groundwater Recharge Sources of the Unconfined Alluvial Zagreb Aquifer (Croatia)
Water 2019, 11(10), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102177 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to understand the interactions between precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in the Zagreb aquifer system using water stable isotopes. The Zagreb aquifer is of the unconfined type and strongly hydraulically connected to the Sava River. As [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to understand the interactions between precipitation, surface water, and groundwater in the Zagreb aquifer system using water stable isotopes. The Zagreb aquifer is of the unconfined type and strongly hydraulically connected to the Sava River. As the groundwater is the main source of drinking water for one million inhabitants, it is essential to investigate each detail of the recharge processes of the aquifer to ensure adequate protection of the groundwater. Measuring the content of water stable isotopes in surface waters and groundwater enabled the creation of two- and three-component mixing models based on the isotopic mass balance for the purpose of the quantification of each recharge component. The mixing models gave ambiguous results. Observation wells equally distant from the Sava River did not have the same recharge component ratio. This indicated that there were more factors (in addition to the distance from the river) that were affecting groundwater recharge, and the properties of the unsaturated zone and surface cover data were therefore also taken into consideration. The thickness of the unsaturated zone and the characteristics of different soil types were identified as important factors in the recharge of the Zagreb aquifer. The areas with high thickness of the unsaturated zone and well-permeable soil had a very similar recharge component ratio to the areas with small thickness of the unsaturated zone but low-permeable soil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Management of Stream–Riparian Zones on Subsurface–Surface Flow Components
Water 2019, 11(9), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091905 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A managed riparian lowland in a glacial landscape (Holtum catchment, Denmark) was studied to quantify the relative importance of subsurface and surface flow to the recipient stream. The hydrogeological characterization combined geoelectrical methods, lithological logs, and piezometric heads with monthly flow measurements of [...] Read more.
A managed riparian lowland in a glacial landscape (Holtum catchment, Denmark) was studied to quantify the relative importance of subsurface and surface flow to the recipient stream. The hydrogeological characterization combined geoelectrical methods, lithological logs, and piezometric heads with monthly flow measurements of springs, a ditch, and a drain, to determine seasonality and thereby infer flow paths. In addition, groundwater discharge through the streambed was estimated using temperature and water-stable isotopes as tracers. The lowland received large groundwater inputs with minimal seasonal variations from adjacent upland aquifers. This resulted in significant amounts of groundwater-fed surface flow to the stream, via man-made preferential flow paths comprising ditches, drainage systems, and a pond, and via two natural springs. Roughly, two thirds of the stream gain was due to surface flow to the stream, mainly via anthropogenic alterations. In contrast, direct groundwater discharge through the streambed accounted for only 4% of the stream flow gain, although bank seepage (not measured) to the straightened and deepened stream potentially accounted for an additional 17%. Comparison to analogous natural flow systems in the catchment substantiate the impact of anthropogenic alterations of riparian lowlands for the subsurface and surface flow components to their streams. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Stable Isotopes of Water to Study Coupled Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Nutrient Delivery
Water 2019, 11(9), 1842; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091842 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)—including terrestrial freshwater, density-driven flow at the saltwater–freshwater interface, and benthic exchange—can deliver nutrients to coastal areas, generating a negative effect in the quality of marine water bodies. It is recognized that water stable isotopes (18O and 2 [...] Read more.
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)—including terrestrial freshwater, density-driven flow at the saltwater–freshwater interface, and benthic exchange—can deliver nutrients to coastal areas, generating a negative effect in the quality of marine water bodies. It is recognized that water stable isotopes (18O and 2H) can be helpful tracers to identify different flow paths and origins of water. Here, we show that they can be also applied when assessing sources of nutrients to coastal areas. A field site near a lagoon (Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark) has been monitored at a metric scale to test if stable isotopes of water can be used to achieve a better understanding of the hydrochemical processes taking place in coastal aquifers, where there is a transition from freshwater to saltwater. Results show that 18O and 2H differentiate the coastal aquifer into three zones: Freshwater, shallow, and deep saline zones, which corresponded well with zones having distinct concentrations of inorganic phosphorous. The explanation is associated with three mechanisms: (1) Differences in sediment composition, (2) chemical reactions triggered by mixing of different type of fluxes, and (3) biochemical and diffusive processes in the lagoon bed. The different behaviors of nutrients in Ringkøbing Fjord need to be considered in water quality management. PO4 underneath the lagoon exceeds the groundwater concentration inland, thus demonstrating an intra-lagoon origin, while NO3, higher inland due to anthropogenic activity, is denitrified in the study area before reaching the lagoon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Groundwater-Borne Geogenic Phosphorus for the Internal P Release in Shallow Lakes
Water 2019, 11(9), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091783 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study explores the under-investigated issue of groundwater-borne geogenic phosphorus (P) as the potential driving factor behind accumulation of P in lake sediment. The annual internally released P load from the sediment of the shallow, hypereutrophic and groundwater-fed lake, Nørresø, Denmark, was quantified [...] Read more.
This study explores the under-investigated issue of groundwater-borne geogenic phosphorus (P) as the potential driving factor behind accumulation of P in lake sediment. The annual internally released P load from the sediment of the shallow, hypereutrophic and groundwater-fed lake, Nørresø, Denmark, was quantified based on total P (TP) depth profiles. By comparing this load with previously determined external P loadings entering the lake throughout the year 2016–2017, it was evident that internal P release was the immediate controller of the trophic state of the lake. Nevertheless, by extrapolating back through the Holocene, assuming a groundwater P load corresponding to the one found at present time, the total groundwater P input to the lake was found to be in the same order of magnitude as the total deposit P in the lake sediment. This suggests that groundwater-transported P was the original source of the now internally cycled P. For many lakes, internal P cycling is the immediate controller of their trophic state. Yet, this does not take away the importance of the external and possibly geogenic origin of the P accumulating in lake sediments, and subsequently being released to the water column. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Approach for Studying the Hydrology of the Ljubljansko Polje Aquifer in Slovenia and Its Simulation
Water 2019, 11(9), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091753 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Groundwater and surface water are strongly connected. Therefore, understanding their interactions is important when studying the water balance of a complex aquatic system. This paper aims to present an integrated approach to study such processes, including a better understanding of the hydrological system [...] Read more.
Groundwater and surface water are strongly connected. Therefore, understanding their interactions is important when studying the water balance of a complex aquatic system. This paper aims to present an integrated approach to study such processes, including a better understanding of the hydrological system behavior in the Ljubljansko polje (Slovenia). The study is based on multivariate statistical analyses of data collected over a long period, including the isotopic composition of groundwater, river water, and precipitation. The hydrology in the study domain was also simulated using a comprehensive modelling framework. Since boundary conditions are essential for simulating groundwater flow in a sensitive aquifer, a modelling system of rivers and channels (MIKE 11) and water flow and balance simulation model (WaSiM) were used to model river dynamics and the percolation of local precipitation, respectively. The results were then used as boundary conditions imposed on a transient state groundwater flow model performed in finite element subsurface flow simulation system (FEFLOW 6.2). Both the locations of recharge areas in the study domain and the calculated fluxes between the Sava River and the aquifer are graphically presented. The study revealed that a combination of the MIKE 11-FEFLOW-WaSiM tools offers a good solution for performing parallel simulations of groundwater and surface water dynamics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Temperature Profiling and Seepage Meter Methods for Quantifying Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Coastal Lagoons: Impacts of Saltwater Intrusion and the Associated Thermal Regime
Water 2019, 11(8), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081648 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Surface water-groundwater interactions were studied in a coastal lagoon performing 180 seepage meter measurements and using heat as a tracer in 30 locations along a lagoon inlet. The direct seepage meter measurements were compared with the results from analytical solutions for the 1D [...] Read more.
Surface water-groundwater interactions were studied in a coastal lagoon performing 180 seepage meter measurements and using heat as a tracer in 30 locations along a lagoon inlet. The direct seepage meter measurements were compared with the results from analytical solutions for the 1D heat transport equation in three different scenarios: (1) Homogeneous bulk thermal conductivity (Ke); (2) horizontal heterogeneity in Ke; and (3) horizontal and vertical heterogeneity in Ke. The proportion of fresh groundwater and saline recirculated lagoon water collected from the seepage experiment was used to infer the location of the saline wedge and its effect on both the seepage meter results and the thermal regime in the lagoon bed, conditioning the use of the thermal methods. The different scenarios provided the basis for a better understanding of the underlying processes in a coastal groundwater-discharging area, a key factor to apply the best-suited method to characterize such processes. The thermal methods were more reliable in areas with high fresh groundwater discharge than in areas with high recirculation of saline lagoon water. The seepage meter experiments highlighted the importance of geochemical water sampling to estimate the origin of the exchanged water through the lagoon bed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Field Experiments of Hyporheic Flow Affected by a Clay Lens
Water 2019, 11(8), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081613 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
As a typical water exchange of surface water and groundwater, hyporheic flow widely exists in streambeds and is significantly affected by the characteristics of sediment and surface water. In this study, a low-permeability clay lens was chosen to investigate the influence of the [...] Read more.
As a typical water exchange of surface water and groundwater, hyporheic flow widely exists in streambeds and is significantly affected by the characteristics of sediment and surface water. In this study, a low-permeability clay lens was chosen to investigate the influence of the streambed heterogeneity on the hyporheic flow at a river section of the Xin’an River in Anhui Province, China. A 2D sand tank was constructed to simulate the natural streambed including a clay lens under different velocity of surface water velocity. Heat tracing was used in this study. In particular, six analytical solutions based on the amplitude ratio and phase shift of temperatures were applied to calculate the vertical hyporheic flux. The results of the six methods ranged from −102.4 to 137.5 m/day and showed significant spatial differences. In view of the robustness of the calculations and the rationality of the results, the amplitude ratio method was much better than the phase shift method. The existence of the clay lens had a significant influence on the hyporheic flow. Results shows that the vertical hyporheic flux in the model containing a clay lens was lower than that for the blank control, and the discrepancy of the hyporheic flow field on both sides of the lens was obvious. Several abnormal flow velocity zones appeared around the clay lens where the local hyporheic flow was suppressed or generally enhanced. The hyporheic flow fields at three test points had mild changes when the lens was placed in a shallow layer of the model, indicating that the surface water velocity only affect the hyporheic flow slightly. With the increasing depth of the clay lens, the patterns of the hyporheic flow fields at all test points were very close to those of the hyporheic flow field without a clay lens, indicating that the influence of surface water velocity on hyporheic flow appeared gradually. A probable maximum depth of the clay lens was 30 to 40 cm, which approached the bottom of the model and a clay lens buried lower than this maximum would not affect the hyporheic flow any more. Influenced by the clay lens, hyporheic flow was hindered or enhanced in different regions of streambed, which was also depended on the depth of lens and surface water velocity. Introducing a two-dimensional sand tank model in a field test is an attempt to simulate a natural streambed and may positively influence research on hyporheic flow. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Stream and Wetland Restoration Using UAS-Based Thermal Infrared Mapping
Water 2019, 11(8), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081568 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Large-scale wetland restoration often focuses on repairing the hydrologic connections degraded by anthropogenic modifications. Of these hydrologic connections, groundwater discharge is an important target, as these surface water ecosystem control points are important for thermal stability, among other ecosystem services. However, evaluating the [...] Read more.
Large-scale wetland restoration often focuses on repairing the hydrologic connections degraded by anthropogenic modifications. Of these hydrologic connections, groundwater discharge is an important target, as these surface water ecosystem control points are important for thermal stability, among other ecosystem services. However, evaluating the effectiveness of the restoration activities on establishing groundwater discharge connection is often difficult over large areas and inaccessible terrain. Unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS) are now routinely used for collecting aerial imagery and creating digital surface models (DSM). Lightweight thermal infrared (TIR) sensors provide another payload option for generation of sub-meter-resolution aerial TIR orthophotos. This technology allows for the rapid and safe survey of groundwater discharge areas. Aerial TIR water-surface data were collected in March 2019 at Tidmarsh Farms, a former commercial cranberry peatland located in coastal Massachusetts, USA (41°54′17″ N 70°34′17″ W), where stream and wetland restoration actions were completed in 2016. Here, we present a 0.4 km2 georeferenced, temperature-calibrated TIR orthophoto of the area. The image represents a mosaic of nearly 900 TIR images captured by UAS in a single morning with a total flight time of 36 min and is supported by a DSM derived from UAS-visible imagery. The survey was conducted in winter to maximize temperature contrast between relatively warm groundwater and colder ambient surface environment; lower-density groundwater rises above cool surface waters and thus can be imaged by a UAS. The resulting TIR orthomosaic shows fine detail of seepage distribution and downstream influence along the several restored channel forms, which was an objective of the ecological restoration design. The restored stream channel has increased connectivity to peatland groundwater discharge, reducing the ecosystem thermal stressors. Such aerial techniques can be used to guide ecological restoration design and assess post-restoration outcomes, especially in settings where ecosystem structure and function is governed by groundwater and surface water interaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integral Flow Modelling Approach for Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions along a Rippled Streambed
Water 2019, 11(7), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071517 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Exchange processes of surface and groundwater are important for the management of water quantity and quality as well as for the ecological functioning. In contrast to most numerical simulations using coupled models to investigate these processes, we present a novel integral formulation for [...] Read more.
Exchange processes of surface and groundwater are important for the management of water quantity and quality as well as for the ecological functioning. In contrast to most numerical simulations using coupled models to investigate these processes, we present a novel integral formulation for the sediment-water-interface. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model OpenFOAM was used to solve an extended version of the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations which is also applicable in non-Darcy-flow layers. Simulations were conducted to determine the influence of ripple morphologies and surface hydraulics on the flow processes within the hyporheic zone for a sandy and for a gravel sediment. In- and outflowing exchange fluxes along a ripple were determined for each case. The results indicate that larger grain size diameters, as well as ripple distances, increased hyporheic exchange fluxes significantly. For higher ripple dimensions, no clear relationship to hyporheic exchange was found. Larger ripple lengths decreased the hyporheic exchange fluxes due to less turbulence between the ripples. For all cases with sand, non-Darcy-flow was observed at an upper layer of the ripple, whereas for gravel non-Darcy-flow was recognized nearly down to the bottom boundary. Moreover, the sediment grain sizes influenced also the surface water flow significantly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Stream Discharge on Hyporheic Exchange
Water 2019, 11(7), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071436 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Streambed morphology, streamflow dynamics, and the heterogeneity of streambed sediments critically controls the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The present study investigated the impact of different flow regimes on hyporheic exchange in a boreal stream in northern Sweden using experimental and numerical [...] Read more.
Streambed morphology, streamflow dynamics, and the heterogeneity of streambed sediments critically controls the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The present study investigated the impact of different flow regimes on hyporheic exchange in a boreal stream in northern Sweden using experimental and numerical approaches. Low-, base-, and high-flow discharges were simulated by regulating the streamflow upstream in the study area, and temperature was used as the natural tracer to monitor the impact of the different flow discharges on hyporheic exchange fluxes in stretches of stream featuring gaining and losing conditions. A numerical model was developed using geomorphological and hydrological properties of the stream and was then used to perform a detailed analysis of the subsurface water flow. Additionally, the impact of heterogeneity in sediment permeability on hyporheic exchange fluxes was investigated. Both the experimental and modelling results show that temporally increasing flow resulted in a larger (deeper) extent of the hyporheic zone as well as longer hyporheic flow residence times. However, the result of the numerical analysis is strongly controlled by heterogeneity in sediment permeability. In particular, for homogeneous sediments, the fragmentation of upwelling length substantially varies with streamflow dynamics due to the contribution of deeper fluxes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Effects of Groundwater on Physical and Biotic Components of a Karst Stream
Water 2019, 11(6), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061299 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although most lotic ecosystems are groundwater dependent, our knowledge on the relatively long-term ecological effects of groundwater discharge on downstream reaches remains limited. We surveyed four connected reaches of a Chinese karst stream network for 72 consecutive months, with one reach, named Hong [...] Read more.
Although most lotic ecosystems are groundwater dependent, our knowledge on the relatively long-term ecological effects of groundwater discharge on downstream reaches remains limited. We surveyed four connected reaches of a Chinese karst stream network for 72 consecutive months, with one reach, named Hong Shi Zi (HSZ), evidently affected by groundwater. We tested whether, compared with other reaches, HSZ had (1) milder water temperature and flow regimes, and (2) weaker influences of water temperature and flow on benthic algal biomass represented by chlorophyll a (Chl. a) concentrations. We found that the maximum monthly mean water temperature in HSZ was 0.6 °C lower than of the adjacent upstream reach, and the minimum monthly mean water temperature was 1.0 °C higher than of the adjacent downstream reach. HSZ had the smallest coefficient of variation (CV) for water temperature but the largest CV for discharge. Water temperature and discharge displayed a significant 12-month periodicity in all reaches not directly groundwater influenced. Only water temperature displayed such periodicity in HSZ. Water temperature was an important predictor of temporal variation in Chl. a in all reaches, but its influence was weakest in HSZ. Our findings demonstrate that longer survey data can provide insight into groundwater–surface water interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of Temporal Variations in Base Flow Index Using Sporadic River Data: Application to the Bua Catchment, Malawi
Water 2019, 11(5), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050901 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study investigated how sporadic river datasets could be used to quantify temporal variations in the base flow index (BFI). The BFI represents the baseflow component of river flow which is often used as a proxy indicator for groundwater discharge to a river. [...] Read more.
This study investigated how sporadic river datasets could be used to quantify temporal variations in the base flow index (BFI). The BFI represents the baseflow component of river flow which is often used as a proxy indicator for groundwater discharge to a river. The Bua catchment in Malawi was used as a case study, whereby the smoothed minima method was applied to river flow data from six gauges (ranging from 1953 to 2009) and the Mann-Kendall (MK) statistical test was used to identify trends in BFI. The results showed that baseflow plays an important role within the catchment. Average annual BFIs > 0.74 were found for gauges in the lower reaches of the catchment, in contrast to lower BFIs < 0.54 which were found for gauges in the higher reaches. Minimal difference between annual and wet season BFI was observed, however dry season BFI was >0.94 across all gauges indicating the importance of baseflow in maintaining any dry season flows. Long term trends were identified in the annual and wet season BFI, but no evidence of a trend was found in the dry season BFI. Sustainable management of the investigated catchment should, therefore, account for the temporal variations in baseflow, with special regard to water resources allocation within the region and consideration in future scheme appraisals aimed at developing water resources. Further, this demonstration of how to work with sporadic river data to investigate baseflow serves as an important example for other catchments faced with similar challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determining the Discharge and Recharge Relationships between Lake and Groundwater in Lake Hulun Using Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes and Chloride Ions
Water 2019, 11(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020264 - 03 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study examined the discharge and recharge relationships between lake and groundwater in Lake Hulun using a novel tracer method that tracks hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and chloride ions. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation falling in the Lake Hulun Basin were [...] Read more.
This study examined the discharge and recharge relationships between lake and groundwater in Lake Hulun using a novel tracer method that tracks hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and chloride ions. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation falling in the Lake Hulun Basin were compared with those in water samples from the lake and from the local river, well and spring water during both freezing and non-freezing periods in 2017. The results showed that the local meteoric water line equation in the Lake Hulun area is δD = 6.68 δ18O − 5.89‰ (R2 = 0.96) and the main source of water supply in the study area is precipitation. Long-term groundwater monitoring data revealed that the groundwater is effectively recharged by precipitation through the aeration zone. Exchanges between the various compounds during the strong evaporative fractionation process in groundwater are responsible for the gradual depletion of δ18O. The lake is recharged by groundwater during the non-freezing period, as shown in the map constructed to show the recharge and discharge relationships between the lake and groundwater. The steadily rising lake water levels in the summer mean that the water level before the freeze is high and consequently the water in the lake drains into the surrounding groundwater via faults along both sides of the lake during the frozen period. The groundwater is discharged into the lake in the west and into the Urson River in the east due to the Cuogang uplift. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Lewandowski, J., et al. Groundwater–Surface Water Interactions: Recent Advances and Interdisciplinary Challenges. Water 2020, 12, 296
Water 2020, 12(4), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040988 - 31 Mar 2020
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
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