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Special Issue "Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
PD Dr. Habil. Jörg Lewandowski

(1) Department Ecohydrology, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
(2) Geography Department, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: groundwater–surface water interactions, hyporheic zones, lacustrine groundwater discharge, ecohydrology, biogeochemistry, bioturbation, lake restoration, urban water interfaces
Guest Editor
Dr. Karin Meinikmann

Department Ecohydrology, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: lacustrine groundwater discharge, hydrological and geochemical processes at groundwater–surface water interfaces, nutrient dynamics and transport in catchments, quantification of mass loads to lakes with a focus on groundwater-borne phosphorus loads
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefan Krause

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Website | E-Mail
Interests: reactive transport processes across aquatic–terrestrial interfaces, nutrient and carbon cycling, fate and transport of emerging and legacy pollutants, distributed sensor networks, in-situ high-frequency sensor technologies, hyporheic zone processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent years have seen a paradigm shift in our understanding of the importance of the interactions between groundwater and surface water bodies: While for a long time surface waters and aquifers had been defined as discrete, separate entities, it is nowadays understood they are integral components of a surface-subsurface continuum. Although this paradigm shift triggered intense investigations of the water and mass transport processes across aquatic–terrestrial interfaces, and there is still a lack of mechanistic understanding and standardized methods with which to approach the processes involved. For example, it is well accepted that the reactive interface between surface water and the subsurface is of great importance for the quality and the quantity of exchange fluxes. However, experimental and validated model-based evidence of the magnitude of the involved processes, as well as of the underlying controls, is scarce. One of many reasons for this is that groundwater–surface water interactions integrate a large variety of scientific disciplines. Researchers from hydrology, biogeochemistry, microbiology, biology, physics, and chemistry work on the complex process interactions that require them to consider relevant aspects from other scientific fields. Additionally, interactions between surface and subsurface water take place in a range of different marine and freshwater systems, but the potential to transfer technologies and approaches, as well as the resulting knowledge and process understanding of other fields, has not been adequately exploited.

The aim of the present Special Issue is to integrate novel outcomes from interdisciplinary research on groundwater–surface water interactions, and to thus offer a platform with which to collectively present research outcomes on groundwater–surface water interactions without the restrictions of scope, scale, and scientific field. Experimental, modelling, or conceptual studies on river, lake, and marine ecosystems and their interactions with underlying aquifers are welcome. We are especially interested in topics of environmental and societal relevance such as eutrophication, retention of legacy, and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and microplastics, invasive species, urban water interfaces, and climate change impacts.

PD Dr. habil. Jörg Lewandowski
Dr. Karin Meinikmann
Prof. Dr. Stefan Krause
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aquifer–stream interface
  • hyporheic zone
  • benthic zone
  • lacustrine groundwater discharge
  • submarine groundwater discharge
  • riparian corridors

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Temperature Profiling and Seepage Meter Methods for Quantifying Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Coastal Lagoons: Impacts of Saltwater Intrusion and the Associated Thermal Regime
Water 2019, 11(8), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081648
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
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Abstract
Surface water-groundwater interactions were studied in a coastal lagoon performing 180 seepage meter measurements and using heat as a tracer in 30 locations along a lagoon inlet. The direct seepage meter measurements were compared with the results from analytical solutions for the 1D [...] Read more.
Surface water-groundwater interactions were studied in a coastal lagoon performing 180 seepage meter measurements and using heat as a tracer in 30 locations along a lagoon inlet. The direct seepage meter measurements were compared with the results from analytical solutions for the 1D heat transport equation in three different scenarios: (1) Homogeneous bulk thermal conductivity (Ke); (2) horizontal heterogeneity in Ke; and (3) horizontal and vertical heterogeneity in Ke. The proportion of fresh groundwater and saline recirculated lagoon water collected from the seepage experiment was used to infer the location of the saline wedge and its effect on both the seepage meter results and the thermal regime in the lagoon bed, conditioning the use of the thermal methods. The different scenarios provided the basis for a better understanding of the underlying processes in a coastal groundwater-discharging area, a key factor to apply the best-suited method to characterize such processes. The thermal methods were more reliable in areas with high fresh groundwater discharge than in areas with high recirculation of saline lagoon water. The seepage meter experiments highlighted the importance of geochemical water sampling to estimate the origin of the exchanged water through the lagoon bed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Field Experiments of Hyporheic Flow Affected by a Clay Lens
Water 2019, 11(8), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081613
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 1 August 2019 / Published: 3 August 2019
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Abstract
As a typical water exchange of surface water and groundwater, hyporheic flow widely exists in streambeds and is significantly affected by the characteristics of sediment and surface water. In this study, a low-permeability clay lens was chosen to investigate the influence of the [...] Read more.
As a typical water exchange of surface water and groundwater, hyporheic flow widely exists in streambeds and is significantly affected by the characteristics of sediment and surface water. In this study, a low-permeability clay lens was chosen to investigate the influence of the streambed heterogeneity on the hyporheic flow at a river section of the Xin’an River in Anhui Province, China. A 2D sand tank was constructed to simulate the natural streambed including a clay lens under different velocity of surface water velocity. Heat tracing was used in this study. In particular, six analytical solutions based on the amplitude ratio and phase shift of temperatures were applied to calculate the vertical hyporheic flux. The results of the six methods ranged from −102.4 to 137.5 m/day and showed significant spatial differences. In view of the robustness of the calculations and the rationality of the results, the amplitude ratio method was much better than the phase shift method. The existence of the clay lens had a significant influence on the hyporheic flow. Results shows that the vertical hyporheic flux in the model containing a clay lens was lower than that for the blank control, and the discrepancy of the hyporheic flow field on both sides of the lens was obvious. Several abnormal flow velocity zones appeared around the clay lens where the local hyporheic flow was suppressed or generally enhanced. The hyporheic flow fields at three test points had mild changes when the lens was placed in a shallow layer of the model, indicating that the surface water velocity only affect the hyporheic flow slightly. With the increasing depth of the clay lens, the patterns of the hyporheic flow fields at all test points were very close to those of the hyporheic flow field without a clay lens, indicating that the influence of surface water velocity on hyporheic flow appeared gradually. A probable maximum depth of the clay lens was 30 to 40 cm, which approached the bottom of the model and a clay lens buried lower than this maximum would not affect the hyporheic flow any more. Influenced by the clay lens, hyporheic flow was hindered or enhanced in different regions of streambed, which was also depended on the depth of lens and surface water velocity. Introducing a two-dimensional sand tank model in a field test is an attempt to simulate a natural streambed and may positively influence research on hyporheic flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Stream and Wetland Restoration Using UAS-Based Thermal Infrared Mapping
Water 2019, 11(8), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081568
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 29 July 2019
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Abstract
Large-scale wetland restoration often focuses on repairing the hydrologic connections degraded by anthropogenic modifications. Of these hydrologic connections, groundwater discharge is an important target, as these surface water ecosystem control points are important for thermal stability, among other ecosystem services. However, evaluating the [...] Read more.
Large-scale wetland restoration often focuses on repairing the hydrologic connections degraded by anthropogenic modifications. Of these hydrologic connections, groundwater discharge is an important target, as these surface water ecosystem control points are important for thermal stability, among other ecosystem services. However, evaluating the effectiveness of the restoration activities on establishing groundwater discharge connection is often difficult over large areas and inaccessible terrain. Unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS) are now routinely used for collecting aerial imagery and creating digital surface models (DSM). Lightweight thermal infrared (TIR) sensors provide another payload option for generation of sub-meter-resolution aerial TIR orthophotos. This technology allows for the rapid and safe survey of groundwater discharge areas. Aerial TIR water-surface data were collected in March 2019 at Tidmarsh Farms, a former commercial cranberry peatland located in coastal Massachusetts, USA (41°54′17″ N 70°34′17″ W), where stream and wetland restoration actions were completed in 2016. Here, we present a 0.4 km2 georeferenced, temperature-calibrated TIR orthophoto of the area. The image represents a mosaic of nearly 900 TIR images captured by UAS in a single morning with a total flight time of 36 min and is supported by a DSM derived from UAS-visible imagery. The survey was conducted in winter to maximize temperature contrast between relatively warm groundwater and colder ambient surface environment; lower-density groundwater rises above cool surface waters and thus can be imaged by a UAS. The resulting TIR orthomosaic shows fine detail of seepage distribution and downstream influence along the several restored channel forms, which was an objective of the ecological restoration design. The restored stream channel has increased connectivity to peatland groundwater discharge, reducing the ecosystem thermal stressors. Such aerial techniques can be used to guide ecological restoration design and assess post-restoration outcomes, especially in settings where ecosystem structure and function is governed by groundwater and surface water interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Integral Flow Modelling Approach for Surface Water-Groundwater Interactions along a Rippled Streambed
Water 2019, 11(7), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071517
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Exchange processes of surface and groundwater are important for the management of water quantity and quality as well as for the ecological functioning. In contrast to most numerical simulations using coupled models to investigate these processes, we present a novel integral formulation for [...] Read more.
Exchange processes of surface and groundwater are important for the management of water quantity and quality as well as for the ecological functioning. In contrast to most numerical simulations using coupled models to investigate these processes, we present a novel integral formulation for the sediment-water-interface. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model OpenFOAM was used to solve an extended version of the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations which is also applicable in non-Darcy-flow layers. Simulations were conducted to determine the influence of ripple morphologies and surface hydraulics on the flow processes within the hyporheic zone for a sandy and for a gravel sediment. In- and outflowing exchange fluxes along a ripple were determined for each case. The results indicate that larger grain size diameters, as well as ripple distances, increased hyporheic exchange fluxes significantly. For higher ripple dimensions, no clear relationship to hyporheic exchange was found. Larger ripple lengths decreased the hyporheic exchange fluxes due to less turbulence between the ripples. For all cases with sand, non-Darcy-flow was observed at an upper layer of the ripple, whereas for gravel non-Darcy-flow was recognized nearly down to the bottom boundary. Moreover, the sediment grain sizes influenced also the surface water flow significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Stream Discharge on Hyporheic Exchange
Water 2019, 11(7), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071436
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Streambed morphology, streamflow dynamics, and the heterogeneity of streambed sediments critically controls the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The present study investigated the impact of different flow regimes on hyporheic exchange in a boreal stream in northern Sweden using experimental and numerical [...] Read more.
Streambed morphology, streamflow dynamics, and the heterogeneity of streambed sediments critically controls the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The present study investigated the impact of different flow regimes on hyporheic exchange in a boreal stream in northern Sweden using experimental and numerical approaches. Low-, base-, and high-flow discharges were simulated by regulating the streamflow upstream in the study area, and temperature was used as the natural tracer to monitor the impact of the different flow discharges on hyporheic exchange fluxes in stretches of stream featuring gaining and losing conditions. A numerical model was developed using geomorphological and hydrological properties of the stream and was then used to perform a detailed analysis of the subsurface water flow. Additionally, the impact of heterogeneity in sediment permeability on hyporheic exchange fluxes was investigated. Both the experimental and modelling results show that temporally increasing flow resulted in a larger (deeper) extent of the hyporheic zone as well as longer hyporheic flow residence times. However, the result of the numerical analysis is strongly controlled by heterogeneity in sediment permeability. In particular, for homogeneous sediments, the fragmentation of upwelling length substantially varies with streamflow dynamics due to the contribution of deeper fluxes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Effects of Groundwater on Physical and Biotic Components of a Karst Stream
Water 2019, 11(6), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061299
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
Although most lotic ecosystems are groundwater dependent, our knowledge on the relatively long-term ecological effects of groundwater discharge on downstream reaches remains limited. We surveyed four connected reaches of a Chinese karst stream network for 72 consecutive months, with one reach, named Hong [...] Read more.
Although most lotic ecosystems are groundwater dependent, our knowledge on the relatively long-term ecological effects of groundwater discharge on downstream reaches remains limited. We surveyed four connected reaches of a Chinese karst stream network for 72 consecutive months, with one reach, named Hong Shi Zi (HSZ), evidently affected by groundwater. We tested whether, compared with other reaches, HSZ had (1) milder water temperature and flow regimes, and (2) weaker influences of water temperature and flow on benthic algal biomass represented by chlorophyll a (Chl. a) concentrations. We found that the maximum monthly mean water temperature in HSZ was 0.6 °C lower than of the adjacent upstream reach, and the minimum monthly mean water temperature was 1.0 °C higher than of the adjacent downstream reach. HSZ had the smallest coefficient of variation (CV) for water temperature but the largest CV for discharge. Water temperature and discharge displayed a significant 12-month periodicity in all reaches not directly groundwater influenced. Only water temperature displayed such periodicity in HSZ. Water temperature was an important predictor of temporal variation in Chl. a in all reaches, but its influence was weakest in HSZ. Our findings demonstrate that longer survey data can provide insight into groundwater–surface water interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of Temporal Variations in Base Flow Index Using Sporadic River Data: Application to the Bua Catchment, Malawi
Water 2019, 11(5), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050901
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated how sporadic river datasets could be used to quantify temporal variations in the base flow index (BFI). The BFI represents the baseflow component of river flow which is often used as a proxy indicator for groundwater discharge to a river. [...] Read more.
This study investigated how sporadic river datasets could be used to quantify temporal variations in the base flow index (BFI). The BFI represents the baseflow component of river flow which is often used as a proxy indicator for groundwater discharge to a river. The Bua catchment in Malawi was used as a case study, whereby the smoothed minima method was applied to river flow data from six gauges (ranging from 1953 to 2009) and the Mann-Kendall (MK) statistical test was used to identify trends in BFI. The results showed that baseflow plays an important role within the catchment. Average annual BFIs > 0.74 were found for gauges in the lower reaches of the catchment, in contrast to lower BFIs < 0.54 which were found for gauges in the higher reaches. Minimal difference between annual and wet season BFI was observed, however dry season BFI was >0.94 across all gauges indicating the importance of baseflow in maintaining any dry season flows. Long term trends were identified in the annual and wet season BFI, but no evidence of a trend was found in the dry season BFI. Sustainable management of the investigated catchment should, therefore, account for the temporal variations in baseflow, with special regard to water resources allocation within the region and consideration in future scheme appraisals aimed at developing water resources. Further, this demonstration of how to work with sporadic river data to investigate baseflow serves as an important example for other catchments faced with similar challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Determining the Discharge and Recharge Relationships between Lake and Groundwater in Lake Hulun Using Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes and Chloride Ions
Water 2019, 11(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020264
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 3 February 2019
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Abstract
This study examined the discharge and recharge relationships between lake and groundwater in Lake Hulun using a novel tracer method that tracks hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and chloride ions. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation falling in the Lake Hulun Basin were [...] Read more.
This study examined the discharge and recharge relationships between lake and groundwater in Lake Hulun using a novel tracer method that tracks hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and chloride ions. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation falling in the Lake Hulun Basin were compared with those in water samples from the lake and from the local river, well and spring water during both freezing and non-freezing periods in 2017. The results showed that the local meteoric water line equation in the Lake Hulun area is δD = 6.68 δ18O − 5.89‰ (R2 = 0.96) and the main source of water supply in the study area is precipitation. Long-term groundwater monitoring data revealed that the groundwater is effectively recharged by precipitation through the aeration zone. Exchanges between the various compounds during the strong evaporative fractionation process in groundwater are responsible for the gradual depletion of δ18O. The lake is recharged by groundwater during the non-freezing period, as shown in the map constructed to show the recharge and discharge relationships between the lake and groundwater. The steadily rising lake water levels in the summer mean that the water level before the freeze is high and consequently the water in the lake drains into the surrounding groundwater via faults along both sides of the lake during the frozen period. The groundwater is discharged into the lake in the west and into the Urson River in the east due to the Cuogang uplift. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Professor Kong and Dr. Ming Lei from China Agricultural University would like to prepare a research paper titled "Arable Land Use Change and the Impact on Groundwater Storage in the North China Plain".

Professor Erich T. Hester from Virginia Tech will contribute.

Dr. Brian Neff from the USGS plans to submit a contribution to the special issue.

Dr. Margaret Shanafield (from group of Professor Okke Batelaan) might contribute.

Professor Adam Ward from Indiana University plans to submit an invited contribution.

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