Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume II

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 5974

Special Issue Editors

College of Water Conserwancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Interests: hydraulic structures; concrete dams; dams and dikes; dam safety; structural health monitoring; reliability analysis; risk analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
Interests: hydraulic structures; rockfill dams; dam safety; geotechnical engineering; seismic; reliability analysis; stochastic dynamic analysis; probability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Division of Water Conservation and Hydropower Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China
Interests: hydraulic structures; arch dams; dams and dikes; dam safety; numerical method; seismic analysis; reservoir reinforcement; nondestructive testing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many dams and geotechnical engineering structures are built for hydraulic engineering purposes. Therefore, the safety of dams and geotechnical engineering structures is particularly important  when it comes to the normal engineering operation. This Special Issue focuses on the safety evaluation of dams and geotechnical engineering structures in the hydraulics and hydrodynamics field. We would like to invite you to submit your research paper to this Special Issue. Suitable topics include but are not limited to the following:

(1) Static and dynamic analysis;

(2) Reliability analysis;

(3) Risk analysis;

(4) Seismic analysis;

(5) Safety precautions;

(6) Safety monitoring;

(7) Safety operation;

(8) Safety evaluation methods.

All aspects related to the safety of dams and geotechnical engineering structures in the hydraulics and hydrodynamics field are included.

Dr. Yantao Zhu
Dr. Rui Pang
Dr. Binghan Xue
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dam
  • geotechnical engineering
  • safety
  • hydraulics and hydrodynamics field
  • seismic
  • reliability analysis
  • numerical simulation

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 2822 KiB  
Article
A Dam Safety State Prediction and Analysis Method Based on EMD-SSA-LSTM
by Xin Yang, Yan Xiang, Yakun Wang and Guangze Shen
Water 2024, 16(3), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16030395 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 766
Abstract
The safety monitoring information of the dam is an indicator reflecting the operational status of the dam. It is a crucial source for analyzing and assessing the safety state of reservoir dams, possessing strong real-time capabilities to detect anomalies in the dam at [...] Read more.
The safety monitoring information of the dam is an indicator reflecting the operational status of the dam. It is a crucial source for analyzing and assessing the safety state of reservoir dams, possessing strong real-time capabilities to detect anomalies in the dam at the earliest possible time. When using neural networks for predicting and warning dam safety monitoring data, there are issues such as redundant model parameters, difficulty in tuning, and long computation times. This study addresses real-time dam safety warning issues by first employing the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to decompose the effective time-dependent factors and construct a dam in a service state analysis model; it also establishes a multi-dimensional time series analysis equation for dam seepage monitoring. Simultaneously, by combining the Sparrow Optimization Algorithm to optimize the LSTM neural network computation process, it reduces the complexity of model parameter selection. The method is compared to other approaches such as RNN, GRU, BP neural networks, and multivariate linear regression, demonstrating high practicality. It can serve as a valuable reference for reservoir dam state prediction and engineering operation management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume II)
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20 pages, 12540 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Strategy Improved Sooty Tern Optimization Algorithm for Concrete Dam Parameter Inversion
by Lin Ma, Fuheng Ma, Wenhan Cao, Benxing Lou, Xiang Luo, Qiang Li and Xiaoniao Hao
Water 2024, 16(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010119 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 771
Abstract
A original strategy for optimizing the inversion of concrete dam parameters based on the multi-strategy improved Sooty Tern Optimization algorithm (MSSTOA) is proposed to address the issues of low efficiency, low accuracy, and poor optimizing performance. First, computational strategies to improve the traditional [...] Read more.
A original strategy for optimizing the inversion of concrete dam parameters based on the multi-strategy improved Sooty Tern Optimization algorithm (MSSTOA) is proposed to address the issues of low efficiency, low accuracy, and poor optimizing performance. First, computational strategies to improve the traditional Sooty tern algorithm, such as chaos mapping to improve the initial position of the population, a new nonlinear convergence factor, the LIMIT threshold method, and Gaussian perturbation to update the optimal individual position, are adopted to enhance its algorithmic optimization seeking ability. Then, the measured and finite element data are combined to create the optimization inversion fitness function. Based on the MSSTOA, the intelligent optimization inversion model is constructed, the inversion efficiency is improved by parallel strategy, and the optimal parameter inversion is searched. The inversion strategy is validated through test functions, hypothetical arithmetic examples, and concrete dam engineering examples and compared with the inversion results of the traditional STOA and other optimization algorithms. The results show that the MSSTOA is feasible and practical, the test function optimization results and computational time are better than the STOA and other algorithms, the example inversion of the elastic modulus is more accurate than the traditional STOA calculation, and the results of the MSSSTOA inversion are reasonable in the engineering example. Compared with other algorithms, the local extremes are skipped, and the time consumption is reduced by at least 48%. The finite element hydrostatic components calculated from the inversion results are well-fitted to the statistical model with minor errors. The intelligent inversion strategy has good application in concrete dam inverse analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume II)
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24 pages, 14903 KiB  
Article
Fragility Analysis for Water-Retaining Structures Resting on Spatially Random Soil
by Sung-Eun Cho
Water 2023, 15(23), 4165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234165 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 810
Abstract
The maintenance of water-retaining structures involves evaluating their performance against current and future operating water levels. Fragility curves are commonly used for this purpose, as they indicate the conditional probability of failure for various load conditions and accurately characterize a structure’s performance. Monte [...] Read more.
The maintenance of water-retaining structures involves evaluating their performance against current and future operating water levels. Fragility curves are commonly used for this purpose, as they indicate the conditional probability of failure for various load conditions and accurately characterize a structure’s performance. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be used to determine the fragility curve of water-retaining structures by calculating the probability of failure as the water level changes. However, performing repetitive MCS involves extensive calculations, thus making it inefficient for practical applications. Therefore, it is essential to develop efficient methods that require a minimum number of MCS runs to estimate the fragility curve. This study proposed two methods to estimate the fragility curves of water-retaining structures, thereby allowing for the assessment of failure probabilities related to important quantities such as the steady-state seepage rate, exit gradient, and uplift force, which make them suitable for practical applications. The fragility curves obtained using the proposed methods are valuable for risk assessment, design, and decision-making purposes, as they offer information to evaluate the performance of the water-retaining structure under various water level conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume II)
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16 pages, 2966 KiB  
Article
Prediction Model of Residual Soil Shear Strength under Dry–Wet Cycles and Its Uncertainty
by Jiefa Ding, Shijun Wang, Haoran Huang, Fengqian Pan, Yunxing Wu, Yanchang Gu and Yan Zhang
Water 2023, 15(22), 3931; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223931 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
Granite residual soil is widely distributed in Southeast Fujian. Large-scale engineering construction leads to the exposure of residual soil slopes to the natural environment. Affected by seasonal climate factors, the soil of slopes experiences a dry–wet cycle for a long time. The repeated [...] Read more.
Granite residual soil is widely distributed in Southeast Fujian. Large-scale engineering construction leads to the exposure of residual soil slopes to the natural environment. Affected by seasonal climate factors, the soil of slopes experiences a dry–wet cycle for a long time. The repeated changes in water content seriously affect the shear strength of soil, and then affect the stability of the slope. In order to explore the influence of the dry–wet cycle on the shear strength of granite residual soil in Fujian, an indoor dry–wet cycle simulation test was carried out for shallow granite residual soil on a slope in Fuzhou, and the relationship between water content, dry–wet cycle times, and the shear strength index, including the cohesion and internal friction angle of the granite residual soil, was discussed. The results show that when the number of dry–wet cycles is constant, the cohesion and internal friction angle of the granite residual soil decrease with an increase in water content. The relationship between the cohesion, internal friction angle, and water content can be described using a power function. Meanwhile, the fitting parameters of the power function are also a function of the number of wet and dry cycles. The prediction formulas of the cohesion and internal friction angle considering the number of dry–wet cycles and water content are established, and then the prediction formula of shear strength is obtained. The ratio of the predicted value of shear strength to the test value shall be within ±15%. An error transfer analysis based on the point estimation method shows that the overall uncertainty of the predicted value of shear strength caused by the combined uncertainty of the predicted value of cohesion and the internal friction angle and the single-variable uncertainty of the predicted value of shear strength caused only by the uncertainty of the predicted value of either the cohesion or internal friction angle increases first and then decreases with an increase in the number of dry–wet cycles. All increase with an increasing water content. The maximum standard deviation of the proposed shear strength prediction model of granite residual soil is less than 9%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume II)
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15 pages, 5236 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Reinforcement Application of Newly Permeable Polymers in Dam Engineering with Fine Sand Layers
by Heng Liu, Zixian Shi, Zhenyu Li and Yuke Wang
Water 2023, 15(21), 3761; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213761 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 758
Abstract
The grinding reinforcement of fine sand layers is a difficult problem in dam engineering construction. As a new type of grouting material, permeable polymer with excellent impermeability and high strength is widely used in dam engineering. In this paper, a series of compressive [...] Read more.
The grinding reinforcement of fine sand layers is a difficult problem in dam engineering construction. As a new type of grouting material, permeable polymer with excellent impermeability and high strength is widely used in dam engineering. In this paper, a series of compressive tests were designed considering different grouting pressures, curing days, moisture content, and porosity of fine sand. The influence of grouting parameters and sand layer conditions on the strength of fine sand layers reinforced by permeable polymers was analyzed. SEM and XDR tests were conducted to analyze the microscopic characteristics of the grouting stone. The functional calculation model of the strength and the influencing factors was established to explore the main factors influencing grouting stones. The compressive strength of grouted stones increases rapidly from the 7th to the 14th day, reaching about 96% of the maximum strength. The degree of influence of different factors is grouting pressure > moisture content > porosity. The compressive strength of the grouted stones increases with the increase of grouting pressure and the number of curing days. The compressive strength decreases with the sand layer’s increasing moisture content and porosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume II)
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11 pages, 6284 KiB  
Article
Research on Stability of Dam Substation on Inclined Soft Soil Foundation Reinforced by Pile Foundation
by Jisheng Lin, Shaowen Yu, Yunhua Luo, Teng Xu, Yuequ Lin, Weiwen Zheng, Wanxun Li and Yuke Wang
Water 2023, 15(20), 3527; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203527 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 797
Abstract
For the construction of dam substations in coastal or mountainous areas, inclined soft soil foundations are very common. The unique engineering characteristics of inclined soft soil foundations can bring great difficulties to the construction of dam substations. In this paper, a pile foundation [...] Read more.
For the construction of dam substations in coastal or mountainous areas, inclined soft soil foundations are very common. The unique engineering characteristics of inclined soft soil foundations can bring great difficulties to the construction of dam substations. In this paper, a pile foundation reinforcement dam slope model on an inclined soft soil foundation is established; the influence of different pile spacings, the pile length, and the soft soil foundation angle on the slope safety factor is studied; and the failure mechanism and stability of pile-supported dam slope foundation are analyzed. The research results indicate that pile foundation reinforcement can reduce the deformation of the dam slope foundation and improve stability. The pile layout has an important impact on stability, but a change in the pile spacing has little effect on the settlement surface at the bottom of the dam slope. The pile length has a significant impact on the safety of the slope within a certain range. The main stress area of the pile is 0–2 m above the pile, and its main deformation is the lateral deformation of the upper part of the pile. The research results of this article can provide parameter support and theoretical guidance for the construction of dam substations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume II)
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25 pages, 16841 KiB  
Article
Direct Probability Integral Method for Seismic Performance Assessment of Earth Dam Subjected to Stochastic Mainshock–Aftershock Sequences
by Weijie Huang, Yuanmin Yang, Rui Pang and Mingyuan Jing
Water 2023, 15(19), 3485; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15193485 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Studying the impact of mainshock–aftershock sequences on dam reliability is crucial for effective disaster prevention measures. With this purpose in mind, a new method for stochastic dynamic response analyses and reliability assessments of dams during seismic sequences has been proposed. Firstly, a simulation [...] Read more.
Studying the impact of mainshock–aftershock sequences on dam reliability is crucial for effective disaster prevention measures. With this purpose in mind, a new method for stochastic dynamic response analyses and reliability assessments of dams during seismic sequences has been proposed. Firstly, a simulation method of stochastic seismic sequences is described, considering the dependence between mainshock and aftershock based on Copula function. Then, a novel practical framework for stochastic dynamic analysis is established, combined with the improved point selection strategy and the direct probability integration method (DPIM). The DPIM is employed on a nonlinear system with one degree of freedom and compared with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The findings reveal that the method boasts exceptional precision and efficiency. Finally, the seismic performance of a practical dam was evaluated based on the above method, which not only accurately estimates the response probability distribution and dynamic reliability of the dam, but also greatly reduces the required calculations. Furthermore, the impact of aftershocks on dam seismic performance is initially evaluated through a probability approach in this research. It is found that seismic sequences will significantly increase the probability of earth dam failure compared with sequences of only mainshocks. In addition, the influence of aftershocks on reliability will further increase when the limit state is more stringent. Specifically, the novel analysis method proposed in this paper provides more abundant and objective evaluation indices, providing a dynamic reliability assessment for dams that is more effective than traditional evaluation methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety Evaluation of Dam and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume II)
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