Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Soil and Water".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 July 2024 | Viewed by 10638

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
Interests: soil erosion; soil and water conservation; soil hydrology; underground leakage; rainfall runoff; nutrient loss; karst hydrology; rock soil interface; rocky desertification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin, China
Interests: soil erosion; soil and water conservation; soil hydrology; soil anti-scourability; rainfall runoff; preferential flow; natural geography; open-pit coal mine dump; land reclamation; ecological restoration

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Water Resources & Environmental Engineering, East China University of Technology, Nanchang, China
Interests: hydrogeochemistry; hydrogeology; groundwater quality and pollution; health risk assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although considerable efforts have been made worldwide, soil erosion by water is still a major threat for many countries, greatly affecting soil quality and health and thus the productivity of land, biodiversity of ecosystems, and others, influencing human survival and development. Water erosion is the wearing away of soil by rainfall and water flow. Understanding the occurrence of soil erosion and the mechanism behind it will more effectively help us to protect soil from erosion.

This Special Issue will mainly address new findings and generate a better understanding of the processes, mechanisms of soil erosion induced by rainfall and water flow, and interrelationships between soil erosion and rainfall and water flow. Of course, this includes rainfall interception, raindrop splashing capacity, rainwater and runoff infiltrations, preferential flow, runoff path, hydrological connectivity, etc., and raindrop splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion, and underground leakage, etc., caused by them.

We welcome original studies based on field measurements and monitoring, laboratory control experiments, and numerical simulation. We also welcome the latest comprehensive reviews.

If your findings are novel or unique and your method is new, please submit your paper to our Special Issue, to which we are inviting high-quality papers

Dr. Xudong Peng
Dr. Gang Lv
Dr. Adimalla Narsimha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • runoff generation
  • rainwater infiltration
  • preferential flow
  • hydrological connections
  • raindrop splash erosion
  • sheet erosion
  • rill erosion
  • underground leakage

Published Papers (8 papers)

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20 pages, 10163 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution and Relationship between Slope Micro-Topography Changes and Soil Aggregate Stability under Rainfall Conditions
by Shangxuan Zhang, Long Li, Zhizhuo Zhu and Peng Zhang
Water 2024, 16(5), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050648 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Natural rainfall affects the stability of soil aggregates by the kinetic energy of the rain changing the morphological characteristics of slope micro-topographic factors. Although the relationship between the stability of soil aggregates and micro-topography is not very significant at the slope scale, there [...] Read more.
Natural rainfall affects the stability of soil aggregates by the kinetic energy of the rain changing the morphological characteristics of slope micro-topographic factors. Although the relationship between the stability of soil aggregates and micro-topography is not very significant at the slope scale, there are also rules to be found. This study aims to explore the relationship between slope micro-topography and aggregate stability, and to observe the spatial distribution of aggregate stability after water erosion. In this study, a digital elevation model of slope micro-topography was established by using a three-dimensional laser scanner to observe the slope erosion changes after rainfall events and clarify the spatial changes of soil aggregate stability and its relationship with slope micro-topography by combining geostatistics and generalized additive model (GAM). The results showed that the area of serious water erosion in the lower part of the slope accounted for 38.67% of the slope, and the micro-topography index of the slope changed obviously after rainfall, with the slope increasing by 3.1%, the surface roughness increasing by 5.34%, the surface cutting degree increasing by 26.67%, and the plane curvature decreasing by 61.7%. In addition, the GAM model was used to fit the multivariate variables. The results revealed that the slope and surface roughness were the key factors affecting the stability of water-stable aggregate. The slope and surface roughness were negatively correlated with the stability of water-stable aggregates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0)
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18 pages, 5430 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation Study on the Distribution Characteristics of Precipitation Seepage Field in Water-Rich Ultra-Thick Sand and Gravel Layer
by Da Li, Shukai Cheng, Ningyi Liu, Zhongxin Liu and Yinghao Sun
Water 2023, 15(21), 3720; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213720 - 25 Oct 2023
Viewed by 942
Abstract
The distribution characteristics of a seepage field generated by precipitation affects the deformation damage of the geological body and engineering geological stability, especially a seepage field with a water-rich ultra-thick sand and gravel layer. In order to study the seepage field distribution characteristics [...] Read more.
The distribution characteristics of a seepage field generated by precipitation affects the deformation damage of the geological body and engineering geological stability, especially a seepage field with a water-rich ultra-thick sand and gravel layer. In order to study the seepage field distribution characteristics of a water-rich ultra-thick sand and gravel layer, taking Luoyang Metro Line 1 as the engineering background, combined with the actual monitoring data of on-site precipitation, numerical simulation was used to study the seepage characteristics of the pit project precipitation with a suspended water-stop curtain. Through the study, the distribution characteristics of the seepage field under different precipitation depths and aquifer thicknesses were obtained, and the changes in pore water pressure characteristics, flow velocity and water inflow, depending on the precipitation depth and aquifer thickness, were analyzed. The research results show that, when comparing the calculated and measured results of the water level drop in the foundation pit, the average value of the error of the water level drop value in the pit and the descending well is 11.7%, which indicates that the calculation model meets the needs for its use in calculation and analysis. Under the conditions of a suspended water-stop curtain and precipitation, for the pore water pressure characteristics, the variation amplitude of the pore water pressure inside the pit increases with the precipitation depth and aquifer thickness. For the maximum flow velocity, all characteristics are present at the bottom of the suspended water-stop curtain, near the inside of the pit. The maximum flow velocity increases linearly with the precipitation depth and there is a threshold when the aquifer thickness is five times the precipitation depth. For water inflow, it increases with the increase in the precipitation depth and aquifer thickness, but, with a continuous increase in the aquifer thickness, the magnitude of water inflow growth decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0)
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13 pages, 2573 KiB  
Article
Degradation of DDT by a Novel Bacterium, Arthrobacter globiformis DC-1: Efficacy, Mechanism and Comparative Advantage
by Xiaoxu Wang, Belay Tafa Oba, Hui Wang, Qing Luo, Jiaxin Liu, Lanxin Tang, Miao Yang, Hao Wu and Lina Sun
Water 2023, 15(15), 2723; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152723 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
A novel bacterium, Arthrobacter globiformis DC-1, capable of degrading DDT as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from DDT-contaminated agricultural soil. The bacterium can degrade up to 76.3% of the DDT at a concentration of 10 mg/L in the mineral salt [...] Read more.
A novel bacterium, Arthrobacter globiformis DC-1, capable of degrading DDT as its sole carbon and energy source, was isolated from DDT-contaminated agricultural soil. The bacterium can degrade up to 76.3% of the DDT at a concentration of 10 mg/L in the mineral salt medium (MSM) within 1 day of incubation. The effects of various environmental conditions, such as the concentration of DDT, temperature, pH and additional carbon sources, on its growth and biodegrading capacity of DDT were investigated in the MSM. The A. globiformis DC-1 strain could efficiently grow and degrade DDT at a wide range of concentrations, with the maximum growth and degradation rate at 10 mg/LDDT, followed by inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (20 and 30 mg/LDDT). Mesophilic temperatures (25–30 °C) and a pH of 7–7.5 were the most suitable conditions for the growth and biodegradation. The presence of carbon sources significantly increased the growth of the DC-1 strain; however, degradation was inhibited in the present of glucose, sucrose and fructose, and peptone was determined to be the most appropriate carbon source for A. globiformis DC-1. The optimal DDT degradation (84.2%) was observed at 10 mg/LDDT, peptone as carbon source in pH 7.5 at 30 °C with 1 day of incubation. This strain could also degrade DDE, DDD and DDT simultaneously as the sole carbon and energy source, with degradation rates reaching 70.61%, 64.43% and 60.24% in 10 days, respectively. The biodegradation pathway by A. globiformis DC-1 revealed that DDT was converted to DDD and DDE via dechlorination and dehydrochlorination, respectively; subsequently, both DDD and DDE transformed to DDMU through further dechlorination, and finally, after ring opening, DDMU was mineralized to carbon dioxide. No intermediate metabolites accumulation was observed during the GC/MS analysis, demonstrating that the A. globiformis DC-1 strain can be used for the bioremediation of DDT residues in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0)
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18 pages, 7425 KiB  
Article
Measured Rainfall Infiltration and the Infiltration Interface Effect on Double-Layer Loess Slope
by Weishi Bai, Rongjian Li, Junyi Pan, Rongjin Li, Lei Wang and Zhengwu Yang
Water 2023, 15(14), 2505; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142505 - 8 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1173
Abstract
It is of great theoretical and engineering significance to carry out field rainfall tests and research on double-layer soil slopes in loess areas. Based on the developed rainfall simulation system with slow-moving injection, field rainfall tests were carried out on a natural double-layer [...] Read more.
It is of great theoretical and engineering significance to carry out field rainfall tests and research on double-layer soil slopes in loess areas. Based on the developed rainfall simulation system with slow-moving injection, field rainfall tests were carried out on a natural double-layer loess slope. The characteristics of volumetric water content were monitored, and the rainfall infiltration characteristics and infiltration effect at the interface of the soil layer were analyzed by numerical simulation. The results showed the fastest infiltration at the top platform of the slope, followed by that at the upper surface of the slope, and the slowest infiltration at the lower surface of the slope during rainfall. Under various rainfall intensities, the erosion of the upper silty loess slope was greater than that of the lower clay loess slope, and the erosion patterns were quite different at the end of rainfall. During the infiltration process in the double-layer loess slope, a stagnant transition area was formed near the interface of the soil layer. The equipotential line of water content in the stagnant transition area of the upper region was roughly parallel to the slope surface, and the equipotential line in the lower region was roughly parallel to the interface of the soil layer. With an increase in rainfall intensity, the upper transition area at the interface of the soil layer continued to extend from the slope surface inward, showing the interface infiltration effect that became increasingly significant with the intensification of rainfall. The infiltration effect at the soil layer interface could provide an evaluation basis for rainfall infiltration analyses of multi-layer soil slopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0)
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16 pages, 3041 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Asymmetric Characteristic of Extreme Rainfall Erosivity in 8 Provinces of Southern China during 1961–2020
by Dayun Zhu, Zhen Cao, Yingshan Zhao, Huanhuan Chang, Qian Yang and Hua Xiao
Water 2023, 15(13), 2408; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132408 - 29 Jun 2023
Viewed by 950
Abstract
The roles of rainfall with various intensities in hydraulic erosion processes are obviously different. In-depth knowledge about the spatiotemporal variation in extreme rainfall erosivity is critical for soil erosion risk assessment and formulation of response measures. In the period of 1961–2020, more than [...] Read more.
The roles of rainfall with various intensities in hydraulic erosion processes are obviously different. In-depth knowledge about the spatiotemporal variation in extreme rainfall erosivity is critical for soil erosion risk assessment and formulation of response measures. In the period of 1961–2020, more than 390,000 erosive rainfall data from 212 meteorological stations were collected to explore the erosion characteristics of different intensities of rainfall erosivity across southern China. The asymmetric characteristic of extreme rainfall erosion was analyzed and expressed by an asymmetric change index (ACI) defined in this study. Correlation analysis was applied to study the impact of global extreme climate events on the ACI. The results showed that different patterns of precipitation had evident asymmetric characteristics in rainfall erosivity, and fewer high-intensity precipitation events contributed to much higher total rainfall erosivity, particularly for rainstorms (≥100 mm). The ACI of the rainfall erosivity exhibited evident spatial heterogeneity; insignificant increasing trends were found in the ACIs for heavy rainfall, torrential, and rainstorm erosivities over the past 60 years. The change rate of ACI varied greatly on both monthly and interdecadal scales, and the ACI of rainstorms showed the maximum linear increasing trend on the long-time scale. There were significantly high correlations between the ACI and erosive rainfall days and the ACI and erosive rainfall (p < 0.01), and the correlation coefficients were relatively higher from May to October, where the precipitation was concentrated. Additionally, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and tropical cyclones clearly influenced the spatiotemporal distribution of the ACI and rainfall erosivity but were limited to specific periods and regions. These results could provide a reference for extreme soil erosion event monitoring and control in southern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0)
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15 pages, 1478 KiB  
Article
Modified Numerical Method for Improving the Calculation of Rill Detachment Rate
by Yuhan Huang, Mingquan Zhao, Dan Wan, Tingwu Lei, Fahu Li and Wei Wang
Water 2023, 15(10), 1875; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101875 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1392
Abstract
A rational calculation of the rill detachment rate (RDR) and an accurate simulation of the rill detachment process are important for determining the model parameters of hillslope erosion. Here, we found a difference between RDRs calculated using different methods that cannot be ignored. [...] Read more.
A rational calculation of the rill detachment rate (RDR) and an accurate simulation of the rill detachment process are important for determining the model parameters of hillslope erosion. Here, we found a difference between RDRs calculated using different methods that cannot be ignored. This study proposes a modified numerical method based on the dataset of the measured sediment concentrations along the rill length over a saturated loess soil slope to improve the calculation of RDR. For the saturated loess soil slope, the modified numerical RDR reduced the relative error from 58.3% to 4.6%, thereby demonstrating the efficiency of the modified numerical method. Furthermore, datasets of previous studies on different soil types and rill width verified the accuracy and applicability of the modified numerical method. A measurement strategy with more sampling points set at the forepart of the rill is proposed to enhance the calculation accuracy of RDR in accordance with the absolute error distribution between numerical and modified numerical RDRs. This study contributes to the literature by correcting previous data, improving data for subsequent measurements, and supplying a basis for the accurate estimation of RDR for rill erosion modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0)
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14 pages, 30021 KiB  
Article
Effects of Rainfall and Plant Characteristics on the Spatiotemporal Variation of Soil Moisture in a Black Locust Plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia) on the Chinese Loess Plateau
by Wenbin Ding, Fei Wang and Kai Jin
Water 2023, 15(10), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101870 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Soil moisture is a key factor controlling vegetation construction and ecological restoration in arid and semiarid areas. Understanding its spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors is essential for effective vegetation water management. In this study, we analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of black locust plants [...] Read more.
Soil moisture is a key factor controlling vegetation construction and ecological restoration in arid and semiarid areas. Understanding its spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors is essential for effective vegetation water management. In this study, we analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of black locust plants using field investigations and statistical analyses and determined the effects of the rainfall and plant characteristics on the soil moisture content (SMC) in a typical watershed in the Loess Plateau, China. The results show that the SMC increases with increasing distance from the tree trunk in the horizontal direction. The vertical profile of the SMC includes layers characterized by rapid decrease, decreased fluctuation, and slow increase. Temporal SMC changes exhibit higher variabilities in the surface layer than in deeper soil layers. Rainfall characteristics notably affect soil moisture. The influence of the rainfall amount is stronger than that of the rainfall duration and intensity. The diameter at breast height, tree height, and canopy width positively affects the soil moisture, whereas the leaf area index and canopy openness negatively affect it. The results of this study provide insights into soil moisture change mechanisms and theoretical references for sustainable plant water use management in arid and semiarid areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0)
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13 pages, 3259 KiB  
Essay
Temporal and Spatial Changes in Soil Organic Carbon in a Semi-Arid Area of Aohan County, Chifeng City, China
by Long Li, Xiaoyu Dong, Yan Sheng, Peng Zhang, Shangxuan Zhang and Zhizhuo Zhu
Water 2023, 15(18), 3253; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183253 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in arid zones, while land-use change could lead to changes in the balance of SOC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of land-use change on the temporal and spatial variability [...] Read more.
Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in arid zones, while land-use change could lead to changes in the balance of SOC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of land-use change on the temporal and spatial variability in SOC at the county scale. A semi-arid zone (Aohan County, Northeast China) covering a surface of 3800 km2 was selected for this study. SOC data for 65 and 182 soil samples from 1985 and 2021, respectively, were collected for major land-use types (forestland, farmland, grassland, and sandy land) across Aohan County to a depth of 20 cm. The impacts of different land-use types and land-use changes on SOC were evaluated. The results showed that land-use change enhanced the spatial variability in SOC over the last 36 years. The mean SOC in 2021 (7.49 g kg−1) was significantly higher than that in 1985 (6.91 g kg−1). Converting sandy land into grassland and farmland into forest or grassland would lead to significant accumulation of SOC, while the depletion of SOC occurred after grassland afforestation. The balance between aboveground biomass inputs and SOC decomposition was the determining reason that affected the accumulation of SOC. Vegetation restoration due to land-use change could alter both soil texture and the C/N ratio and could have positive effects on ecosystem recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall and Water Flow-Induced Soil Erosion-Volume 2.0)
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