Studies on Water Resource and Environmental Policies

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 August 2024 | Viewed by 5439

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
Interests: water resource system analysis; water conservancy economy; water–energy–food nexus; dual-carbon technology; resilience; environmental planning and evaluation

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Guest Editor
School of Science, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, China
Interests: water resource uncertainty; modeling; water resource spatial equilibrium; resilience regulation; water–energy–food nexus; dual-carbon technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a global consensus that a shortage of water resources restricts the sustainable development of economy and society. The consequent degradation of water environments and the destruction of water ecosystems have created unprecedented challenges for human living environments. Today, many factors, such as the uneven distribution of water resources, the low utilization efficiency of water resources, insufficient awareness around saving water, and insufficient resilience of water resource systems, have caused serious environmental problems. The sustainable use of water resources and environmental restoration have become the most important issues that every country must solve.

With the development of economy and society, water resources are being implemented into various sectors. A multi-dimensional complex network structure has been formed that involves water resources, land use, energy development, food security, carbon emissions, and the ecological environment. From the point of view of systems science, it is necessary to maintain the coordination and competition balance among subsystems. From the perspective of sociology, it is necessary to ensure the sustainable development and utilization of water resources in order to create maximum social efficiency and ensure social security. From the perspective of environmental science, it is necessary to formulate practical and effective environmental policies to promote the high-quality development of the whole society. Water resources involve every aspect of economic and social development; thus, water resource system analysis is closely related to environmental health and social sustainable development.

Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further studies from the perspective of complex system analyses and to evaluate water resources to provide support for the formulation and implementation of environmental policies, as well as to promote the high-quality development of economic society. In this context, researchers are invited to contribute to this Special Issue entitled, “Studies on Water Resource and Environmental Policies”.

Original field and experimental research papers, review papers and case studies are invited for submission.

Prof. Dr. Hongrui Wang
Dr. Yafeng Yang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water resource utilization efficiency
  • complex network analysis for water resources
  • water–energy–food nexus
  • water–land–energy–carbon
  • water resource spatial equilibrium
  • resilience
  • water environmental assessment
  • environmental policy
  • high-quality development
  • modeling

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 8041 KiB  
Article
Synchronized Structure and Teleconnection Patterns of Meteorological Drought Events over the Yangtze River Basin, China
by Lei Liu, Chao Gao, Zhanliang Zhu, Xiongpeng Tang, Dongjie Zhang and Silong Zhang
Water 2023, 15(21), 3707; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213707 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Investigating the synchronized structure and teleconnection patterns of meteorological drought events (MDEs) contributes to elucidating drought’s evolution. In this study, the CN05.1 gridded meteorological dataset from 1961 to 2021 was utilized to calculate the 3-month standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI-3) for each grid [...] Read more.
Investigating the synchronized structure and teleconnection patterns of meteorological drought events (MDEs) contributes to elucidating drought’s evolution. In this study, the CN05.1 gridded meteorological dataset from 1961 to 2021 was utilized to calculate the 3-month standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI-3) for each grid in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB). Based on these SPEI-3 series, the grid-based MDEs were then extracted. Subsequently, event synchronization and complex networks were employed to construct the MDE synchronized network over the YRB. This network was used to identify the MDEs’ topological structure, synchronized subregions, and representative grids. Finally, the MDE characteristics and MDE teleconnection patterns of individual subregions were investigated. The results of the MDE topological structure show that the northeastern portion of the YRB tends to experience widespread MDEs, while specific areas in the upper reaches are prone to localized MDEs. Synchronous MDEs mainly propagate along the central pathway and the eastern pathway, which display relatively low MDE spatial coherence. The YRB is partitioned into eight MDE synchronized subregions, each exhibiting distinct characteristics in terms of the frequency, duration, total severity, and peak of MDEs, as well as MDE temporal frequency distributions. Among all teleconnection factors, El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) exerts a strong influence on MDEs in all subregions, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) shows a significant association with MDEs in all subregions except for Subregion 3 in the southeast, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) displays a significant influence on MDEs in the southern subregions of the YRB, and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) has a more pronounced influence on MDEs in the northern subregions. This study provides valuable insights on drought’s evolution within the YRB and offers guidance to policymakers for advanced preventive measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Water Resource and Environmental Policies)
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15 pages, 3139 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Land—Use Composition and Landscape Pattern on Water Quality at Different Spatial Scales in the Dan River Basin, Qin Ling Mountains
by Yuanyuan Zhang, Yan Zhao, Huiwen Zhang, Jing Cao, Jingshu Chen, Cuicui Su and Yiping Chen
Water 2023, 15(18), 3276; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183276 - 16 Sep 2023
Viewed by 795
Abstract
To study the impact of land—use structure and landscape pattern on water quality at different spatial scales in the Dan River Basin (Qin Ling Mountains, China), water samples from 21 sites along the Dan River were collected in 2022 during the dry and [...] Read more.
To study the impact of land—use structure and landscape pattern on water quality at different spatial scales in the Dan River Basin (Qin Ling Mountains, China), water samples from 21 sites along the Dan River were collected in 2022 during the dry and wet seasons, and nine water quality indices were tested. Land—use composition and landscape pattern indices at riverine reach, riparian, and sub—basin were obtained, and correlation analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to determine the relationship with water quality. The results are as follows. (1) Water quality in the Dan River is better in the wet season than in the dry season; the main pollutants are total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). (2) The impact of land—use composition and landscape pattern on water quality has a scale effect; riverine reach can best explain the water quality. (3) Agricultural land and forest have the greatest impacts on water quality; agricultural land and construction land aggravate the deterioration of water quality, while forest, grassland, and water area have positive effects on water quality. The largest patch index (LPI) and contagion index (CONTAG) were positively correlated with pollutants, while Patch richness density (PRD), Patch shape (PD), Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI), and landscape shape index (LSI) were negatively correlated with pollutants, indicating that with an increase in the impact of human activities on landscapes, the degree of fragmentation decreases patch richness, landscape shape tends to be simplified, and water pollution is eventually aggravated. Land planners should focus on optimizing the land—use structure and landscape pattern to increase the diversity of the landscape. Therefore, strict environmental regulations must be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Water Resource and Environmental Policies)
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18 pages, 3351 KiB  
Article
Interprovincial Virtual Water-Energy Flow and Its Network Structure Resilience in Yangtze River Economic Belt
by Yafeng Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhou, Ru Zhang, Jijun Xu and Hongrui Wang
Water 2023, 15(17), 3069; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15173069 - 27 Aug 2023
Viewed by 813
Abstract
Water and energy are essential resources that flow between different regions in economic activities, forming a complex network that profoundly impacts sustainable development. Revealing network structural resilience allows for the identification of weak links, thus enhancing the capacity for sustainable development. This study [...] Read more.
Water and energy are essential resources that flow between different regions in economic activities, forming a complex network that profoundly impacts sustainable development. Revealing network structural resilience allows for the identification of weak links, thus enhancing the capacity for sustainable development. This study employs a resilience-based method to examine changes in virtual water-energy transfers, combining input–output tables and total resource consumption coefficients (TRCC) to investigate the structural resilience of the virtual water-energy network. Case studies were conducted in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YEB) in 2012 and 2017. The results show that the virtual water flow rate decreased by 28.66%, while that of virtual energy increased by 4.88% in YEB. The virtual energy network’s structural resilience is better than that of the virtual water network and shows significant improvement in later periods. The virtual water network structure has a clear hierarchical structure, while the virtual energy network structure is relatively flat. The transmission and connectivity of the two networks do not differ significantly, but the virtual energy network’s transmission is superior to that of the virtual water network. There is a significant improvement in the virtual energy network’s agglomeration in the later stages, while there is no significant change in the virtual water contact network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Water Resource and Environmental Policies)
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17 pages, 4827 KiB  
Article
Construction and Application of a Water Resources Spatial Equilibrium Model: A Case Study in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
by Ziyang Zhao, Yihui Cai and Yafeng Yang
Water 2023, 15(16), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162984 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
The Yangtze River Economic Belt, as crucial component of China’s “T-shaped” strategy for territorial development and economic layout, has been challenged by the unbalanced spatial distribution of water resources, which has seriously affected high-quality development in harmony with the social economy and ecological [...] Read more.
The Yangtze River Economic Belt, as crucial component of China’s “T-shaped” strategy for territorial development and economic layout, has been challenged by the unbalanced spatial distribution of water resources, which has seriously affected high-quality development in harmony with the social economy and ecological environmental protection. In this study, we aim to enhance the conceptual definition of water resource spatial equilibrium. Additionally, we propose a water resource spatial equilibrium evaluation model based on a variable set and partial connection number. This model effectively addresses the limitations of traditional methods by incorporating fuzzy indices and dynamic information, which have previously been overlooked. The spatiotemporal characteristics and future evolutionary trend of water resource spatial equilibrium were analyzed in 11 provinces and 110 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 1999 to 2018. The results showed that the conceptual definition of water resource spatial equilibrium involves the water resource endowment, water resource development, water resource utilization, water resource supply and demand, water resource matching, and water resource protection. The water resource spatial equilibrium in the 11 provinces gradually improved following a temporal trend; in terms of the spatial trend, the south was better than the north and the west was better than the east. These provinces were sorted as follows: Yunnan > Sichuan > Zhejiang > Jiangxi > Hunan Province > Guizhou > Hubei > Chongqing > Anhui > Jiangsu > Shanghai. The evolutionary trend increased except in Yunnan. The water resource spatial equilibrium of the 110 cities showed that the spatial trends of the three major urban agglomerations were much better than in the other regions, and the temporal trend steadily improved. The 11 provinces and 110 cities could be divided into three and five categories, respectively, according to their spatiotemporal trends. City-scale research on water resource spatial equilibrium can effectively identify and optimize the control area compared with using a provincial scale. When the control targets were set to 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, the proportion of the administrative area based on the city scale decreased by 1.20%, 4.99%, 10.52%, and 19.05%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Water Resource and Environmental Policies)
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15 pages, 3180 KiB  
Article
Study on an Equilibrium Water Price System Based on Cooperative Game Technology
by Shiwu Wang, Lei Fu, Hongxi Peng, Junmin Wang, Yian Hua and Zihan Gui
Water 2023, 15(13), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132354 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
In this study, the theory of equilibrium water prices is constructed and practiced based on previous research on cooperative game technology and the water price system. The equilibrium water price utilized in this study emphasized solving the unbalanced and unsustainable water supply system, [...] Read more.
In this study, the theory of equilibrium water prices is constructed and practiced based on previous research on cooperative game technology and the water price system. The equilibrium water price utilized in this study emphasized solving the unbalanced and unsustainable water supply system, including the reclaimed water resources and the current water price used in numerous Chinese cities. Safety, affordability, and sustainability become the key factors of the equilibrium water price system, which is operated and analyzed in a typical city in southeastern China. The cooperative game model of equilibrium water price is solved by game technology, considering various factors such as the price strategy, the water supply quantity, and the local water demand. The practical application shows that the theoretical system can effectively solve the problem of water price formation mechanisms after the unified allocation of different types of water resources. It not only enhances the enthusiasm and initiative of the public in the utilization of reclaimed water, but also plays an important role in the rational utilization of multiple water resources for different purposes by introducing a reasonable water price ratio and local water resource allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies on Water Resource and Environmental Policies)
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