Water Science Research in China University of Geosciences University: Commemorating the University’s 70th Anniversary

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 December 2023) | Viewed by 16732

Special Issue Editors

School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, China
Interests: water related disasters investigation; engineering geology; computational modeling; remote sensing; deep learning

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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, China
Interests: landslides; rock weathering; cultural heritage; engineering geology; building information modeling

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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, China
Interests: ocean engineering; environmental engineering; engineering geology; mathematical modelling; earthquake seismology

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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, China
Interests: landslides; geographic information system; numerical simulation; engineering geology; slope stability; geological hazards

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Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, China
Interests: field geology; tectonics; active tectonics; regional geology; basin analysis; sedimentary basins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On November 7, 2022, China University of Geosciences (Beijing) celebrates its 70th anniversary. On this occasion, a special issue of Water Science Research in China University of Geosciences University is organised to commemorate the University’s 70th Anniversary. This special issue aims to collect high-quality and complete research articles or reviews on water science research. All the researchers, especially professors and students of China University of Geosciences (Beijing), are strongly welcome to contribute. All received articles will be published at the first time and displayed on the website of the special issue.

Potential topics in this special issue include but are not limited to the following:

  • Water related disasters (such as floods, debris flows, and landslides)
  • Artificial intelligence in water science research
  • Wastewater treatment and reuse
  • Water resource utilization
  • Hydrological modeling
  • Water pollution
  • Water system
  • New technologies in water science research
  • Climate change and water resource

Dr. Gang Mei
Dr. Zhongjian Zhang
Dr. Guoxiang Yang
Dr. Mingdong Zang
Dr. Feiyong Wang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • water resources
  • water management
  • wastewater treatment and reuse
  • water pollution
  • artificial intelligence
  • numerical modelling

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 6064 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Deformation Prediction of Accumulation Landslides in the Middle Qinling-Bashan Mountains Area
by Juan Ma, Qiang Yang, Mingzhi Zhang, Yao Chen, Wenyi Zhao, Chengyu Ouyang and Dongping Ming
Water 2024, 16(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16030464 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 936
Abstract
Accurately predicting landslide deformation based on monitoring data is key to successful early warning of landslide disasters. Landslide displacement–time curves offer an intuitive reflection of the landslide motion process and deformation predictions often reference the Saito curve for correlational analysis with cumulative deformation [...] Read more.
Accurately predicting landslide deformation based on monitoring data is key to successful early warning of landslide disasters. Landslide displacement–time curves offer an intuitive reflection of the landslide motion process and deformation predictions often reference the Saito curve for correlational analysis with cumulative deformation curves. Many scholars have applied machine learning techniques to individual landslide deformation predictions with considerable success. However, most landslide monitoring data lack a full lifecycle, making it challenging to predict unexperienced evolutionary stages. Cross-learning between similar landslide datasets provides a potential solution to issues of data scarcity and accurate prediction. First, this paper proposes a landslide classification and displacement machine learning method, along with predictive performance evaluation metrics. Further, it details a study of 13 landslides with evident deformation signs in the middle Qinling–Bashan Mountains area, conducting refined landslide classification. Based on a data-driven approach, this study conducts an analysis of the importance of characteristics influencing landslide deformation and establishes predictive models for similar-type landslide deformation, mixed-type landslide deformation, and individual landslide deformation using machine learning algorithms. The models trained on the dataset are used to predict the deformation of the West of Yinpo Yard landslide at different periods, with the predictive performance evaluated using two indices. The results indicate that the models trained on similar-type landslide data and those based on individual landslide data yielded comparable predictive performances, substantially addressing challenges such as insufficient early-stage monitoring data and low prediction accuracy. Full article
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16 pages, 13961 KiB  
Article
Avalanche Susceptibility Mapping by Investigating Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Snow Cover Based on Remote Sensing Imagery along the Pemo Highway—A Critical Transportation Road in Tibet, China
by Ning Xi and Gang Mei
Water 2023, 15(15), 2743; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152743 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
The Pemo Highway is a critical transportation road to Medog County in the Tibet Plateau (TP). Since its completion in 2021, the Pemo Highway has been prone to frequent avalanches due to heavy rainfall and snowfall. Despite the lack of monitoring stations along [...] Read more.
The Pemo Highway is a critical transportation road to Medog County in the Tibet Plateau (TP). Since its completion in 2021, the Pemo Highway has been prone to frequent avalanches due to heavy rainfall and snowfall. Despite the lack of monitoring stations along the highway and limited research conducted in this area, remote sensing imagery provides valuable data for investigating avalanche hazards along the highway. In this paper, we first investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of snow cover along the Pemo Highway over the past two years based on the GEE platform. Second, we integrated snow, topography, meteorology, and vegetation factors to assess avalanche susceptibility in January, February, and March 2023 along the highway using the AHP method. The results reveal that the exit of the Duoshungla Tunnel is particularly susceptible to avalanches during the winter months, specifically from January to March, with a significant risk observed in March. Approximately 3.7 km in the direction of the tunnel exit to Lager is prone to avalanche hazards during this period. The recent “1.17 avalanche” event along the Pemo Highway validates the accuracy of our analysis. The findings of this paper provide timely guidance for implementing effective avalanche prevention measures on the Pemo Highway. Full article
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20 pages, 67654 KiB  
Article
Water Erosion and Extension of Ground Fissures in Weihe Basin Based on DEM-CFD Coupled Modeling
by Fujiang Wang, Feiyong Wang, Xulong Gong, Yan Zhang and Guoqing Li
Water 2023, 15(13), 2321; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132321 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
The Weihe Basin is one of the regions with the highest concentrations of ground fissure development and the most serious disasters in China. Hidden ground fissures are formed in the shallow soil layer due to preexisting fissures generated by tectonism, hidden ground fissures [...] Read more.
The Weihe Basin is one of the regions with the highest concentrations of ground fissure development and the most serious disasters in China. Hidden ground fissures are formed in the shallow soil layer due to preexisting fissures generated by tectonism, hidden ground fissures suddenly exposed to the surface after heavy rainfall. Because the details of the water erosion process cannot be replicated by geological survey methods, the erosion and extension mechanism has not fully developed and the discontinuous medium numerical simulation method is well suited for simulating large deformations and facilitates a microscopic perspective in elucidating the underlying causal mechanisms. This paper deploys the discrete element method (DEM)–computational fluid dynamics (CFD) fluid–solid coupled method modeling the growth process of hidden fissures containing different soil types (sand and clay) under heavy rainfall, revealing a mechanism for the development of hidden fissures into surface fissures. The findings include: (1) the emergence process of hidden fissures into surface fissures under heavy rainfall can be summarized into four stages: subsurface erosion into hidden holes, traction into arches, collapse into sinkholes, and horizontal extension; (2) the emergence process of clay is slower than that of sand due to the constraint of cohesion; (3) the shape of the bottom seepage point affects the fissure emergence process, which is an important factor in the macroscopic performance of the exposed surface fissures. The intuitive and reproducible DEM-CFD coupled modeling used in this paper possesses important reference value for the study and prevention of water erosion ground fissures. Full article
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14 pages, 5363 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Water-Eroded Ground Fissures in the Weihe Basin of China
by Guoqing Li, Feiyong Wang, Xulong Gong, Yan Zhang and Fujiang Wang
Water 2023, 15(12), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122198 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
The Weihe Basin is a crucial part of the Fenwei Graben System and is a typical example of an extensional fault basin. Over time, the region has been developed around 212 ground fissures, with the majority of them being associated with heavy rainfall. [...] Read more.
The Weihe Basin is a crucial part of the Fenwei Graben System and is a typical example of an extensional fault basin. Over time, the region has been developed around 212 ground fissures, with the majority of them being associated with heavy rainfall. These water-eroded ground fissures have caused serious damage to farmland, houses, and roads, with the Liangjiacun ground fissures, Meiyuancun ground fissures, and Dizhentai ground fissures being the most known. To understand the developmental characteristics and formation mechanisms of water-eroded ground fissures in the Weihe Basin, we utilized a variety of methods, including ground surveys, mapping, trenching, drilling, and geophysical exploration. These three ground fissures are distributed along corresponding fault zones, with their orientations being closely linked to local topographic changes. Additionally, the trenching profiles showed that all three typical ground fissure zones have distinct hidden holes above the paleosol. The formation of these ground fissures is closely associated with tectonic activity and heavy rainfall, with soil ruptures resulting from tectonic activity becoming the dominant channels for surface water infiltration. Furthermore, the erosion caused by heavy rainfall accelerates the rupture and expansion of ground fissures in the shallow subsurface. This paper is a valuable resource for disaster prevention and mitigation strategies aimed at mitigating the damage caused by ground fissures in the Weihe Basin. Full article
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20 pages, 5082 KiB  
Article
Identifying the Groundwater Sources of Huangtupo Landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of China
by Shen Cao, Wei Xiang, Jinge Wang, Deshan Cui and Qingbing Liu
Water 2023, 15(9), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091741 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Groundwater plays a crucial role in triggering and reactivating deep-seated landslides. However, classical hydrogeological investigations have limitations in their applicability to deep-seated landslides due to anisotropic and heterogeneous media. The Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir area has garnered significant attention due [...] Read more.
Groundwater plays a crucial role in triggering and reactivating deep-seated landslides. However, classical hydrogeological investigations have limitations in their applicability to deep-seated landslides due to anisotropic and heterogeneous media. The Huangtupo landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir area has garnered significant attention due to its high hazard potential. Of particular interest is the NO.1 Riverside Sliding Mass (HTP-1), which has shown notable deformation and has become the primary focus of landslide research. The study aims to investigate the sources of water in the HTP-1 landslide through hydrochemical analysis. This was achieved by monitoring the major ion content in the groundwater within the landslide for one year. Furthermore, stable isotope investigations were conducted on the groundwater in and around the landslide area, and an analysis of the mineral composition of the landslide soil was also performed. The results indicate that the groundwater in the landslide area (LGW) is a mixture of karst groundwater (KGW) from the adjacent upslope and local precipitation (LP). The karst groundwater is a major contributor to the recharge of the landslide groundwater system, causing a high component of groundwater that can easily exceed the critical level that causes landside failure during heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, prior to the relocation of residents from the Huangtupo landslide, the landslide groundwater was also impacted by human sewage, which not only affected the chemical composition of groundwater, but also had potential implications for slope stability. These findings provide a more scientific basis for the design and implementation of interception and drainage measures for the Huangtupo landslide and other large-scale landslides with similar geological conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Full article
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18 pages, 6384 KiB  
Article
An Empirical Model for Aeolian Sandy Soil Wetting Front Estimation with Subsurface Drip Irrigation
by Wei Qiao, Zhihua Luo, Daming Lin, Zhongjian Zhang and Songjiang Wang
Water 2023, 15(7), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071336 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
In subsurface irrigation systems in desert areas, the wetting front transport pattern allows the determination of irrigation flow and timing. In this study, an indoor subsurface irrigation experiment on aeolian sandy soil is designed, and the vertical and horizontal wetting front movement distances [...] Read more.
In subsurface irrigation systems in desert areas, the wetting front transport pattern allows the determination of irrigation flow and timing. In this study, an indoor subsurface irrigation experiment on aeolian sandy soil is designed, and the vertical and horizontal wetting front movement distances under different irrigation flows are obtained. The dimensional analysis method was used to perform a dimensional analysis on the experimental data. An empirical setting front distance estimation model, which only considers three parameters, saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks, irrigation flow Q, and total irrigation volume V, was proposed. The model’s accuracy was statistically evaluated with the observed data and verified by a numerical simulation using HYDRUS-2D/3D. The mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the proposed model in the horizontal and downward directions were 0.80 and 0.95 cm, respectively, with a percentage bias (PBIAS) of −3.47 ≤ ±10 and a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.98, which is close to 1. Thus, this model can contribute to the selection of the appropriate depth and spacing of subsurface laterals. Full article
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27 pages, 57091 KiB  
Article
Simulation of the Compaction Behavior and the Water Permeability Evolution of Broken Rock Masses of Different Shapes in a Goaf
by Yuxi Guo, Yan Qin, Ping Chen and Nengxiong Xu
Water 2023, 15(6), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061190 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
The rock mass in the caving zone of a goaf is relatively broken and considered a porous medium. Additionally, it has the characteristics of irregular size and shape and sharp edges, and it is easy to break. In the process of caving zone [...] Read more.
The rock mass in the caving zone of a goaf is relatively broken and considered a porous medium. Additionally, it has the characteristics of irregular size and shape and sharp edges, and it is easy to break. In the process of caving zone compaction, the shape characteristic of a broken rock mass is one of the most important factors affecting the evolution of the compaction characteristics and the water permeability of the caving zone. Through discrete element numerical simulation and theoretical research, the influence of the shape characteristic on compaction characteristics and the water permeability of a broken rock mass is analyzed. The research results are as follows: (1) The number of edges on a caved broken rock mass is negatively correlated with the strain limit of compaction, the initial void ratio and the final breaking ratio. It is positively correlated with the deformation modulus and the residual dilatancy coefficient. (2) The smaller the amount of edges on the broken rock mass, the more obviously the rotation movement occurs during compaction. (3) The smaller the number of edges on the broken rock mass, the faster the decline in the rate of the water permeability, and the lower the water permeability at the final stable stage. (4) With an increasing number of broken rock mass edges, the total strain energy and the dissipative strain energy of caved broken rock masses show a decreasing trend, while the elastic strain energy shows a growing trend. Full article
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19 pages, 21976 KiB  
Article
Slurry Leakage Channel Detection and Slurry Transport Process Simulation for Overburden Bed Separation Grouting Project: A Case Study from the Wuyang Coal Mine, Northern China
by Tianhao Kou, Shuaixin Wen, Wenping Mu, Nengxiong Xu, Zexin Gao, Zhongxiang Lin, Yankui Hao, Weitao Yan and Honglei Liu
Water 2023, 15(5), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050996 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
The 8006 working face at the Wuyang Coal Mine adopts grout injection into bed separation technology for surface subsidence control. Surface grout leakage occurred during the grout injection into the bed separation process of this working face. Grout leakage has adverse effects on [...] Read more.
The 8006 working face at the Wuyang Coal Mine adopts grout injection into bed separation technology for surface subsidence control. Surface grout leakage occurred during the grout injection into the bed separation process of this working face. Grout leakage has adverse effects on the grouting filling effect, grouting cost and the environment. To determine the grout leakage channels and the slurry transport process, and to provide a theoretical basis for slurry leakage prevention and control, this paper first used 3D seismic exploration technology to identify the fault distribution characteristics of the study area, and then used COMSOL Multiphysics to carry out the numerical simulation of the grout transport process. The conclusions are as follows. Fifteen normal faults were identified in the vicinity of the 8006 working face. Among all the faults, the F1, F11, F18, F19 and F27 faults penetrate the surface and are the main channels for the grout to run to the surface. Based on the distribution characteristics of the faults and the spatial location relationship among the bed separation, faults and grout leakage points, the theoretical analysis of the leakage causes of each grout leakage point was carried out, and the main leakage channels of the grout injection into bed separation were proposed to be the bed separation and faults. The results of the numerical simulation of grout transport show that, as the permeability of the bed separation space and fault is much better than that of the surrounding rock, during the grout injection process the grout diffuses through the bed separation and fault in turn, and finally to the surface, where leakage occurs. The simulation results confirm that the main leakage channels for the grout are bed separation and faults. Full article
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22 pages, 14673 KiB  
Article
Water Inrush Mechanism and Treatment Measures in Huali Highway Banyanzi Tunnel—A Case Study
by Yuanzhi He, Hanxun Wang, Jin Zhou, Haifeng Su, Li Luo and Bin Zhang
Water 2023, 15(3), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030551 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
In the process of tunnel construction, the water inrush disaster is one of the main engineering geological disasters. In karst strata, different types of water-bearing structures or karst water bodies develop and occur in the soluble rock layer, and tunnel excavation easily forms [...] Read more.
In the process of tunnel construction, the water inrush disaster is one of the main engineering geological disasters. In karst strata, different types of water-bearing structures or karst water bodies develop and occur in the soluble rock layer, and tunnel excavation easily forms new drainage channels, resulting in water inrush in the tunnel. Based on the project of the Huali Highway Banyanzi Tunnel, this paper studies the water inrush characteristics, water inrush mechanism, and treatment measures of the karst tunnel. According to the basic data, combined with field investigation, data monitoring, geological radar detection, tracer test, and numerical simulation, the characteristics and hydrogeological conditions of the tunnel water surge were investigated and analyzed. In addition, the mechanism of tunnel water surge was further summarized. Moreover, the tunnel water-gushing management measures are optimized and verified based on the tunnel water spraying mechanism. Full article
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22 pages, 6839 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of the Coupling Effect of Jackup Offshore Platforms, Towers, and Seabed Foundations under Waves of Large Wave Height
by Hailin Ye, Feng Zu, Chuwei Jiang, Wenjing Bai and Yaojiang Fan
Water 2023, 15(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010024 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1501
Abstract
A large number of jackup offshore platforms with towers are widely applied in ocean engineering. The dynamic response of the platforms to waves of large wave height is critical, as such waves may cause platform accidents, property damage, and casualties. Therefore, it is [...] Read more.
A large number of jackup offshore platforms with towers are widely applied in ocean engineering. The dynamic response of the platforms to waves of large wave height is critical, as such waves may cause platform accidents, property damage, and casualties. Therefore, it is important to investigate the coupling effect of jackup offshore platform, towers and seabed foundations under waves of large wave height. In this study, the coupling effect of offshore platforms, tower structures, and seabed foundations under the impact of waves of large wave height was studied via a physical flume model test. The experimental results show that the impact of waves of large wave height on the platforms is significant when the wave is blocked by the platform surface as the water body gathers under the platform surface, causing a pile group effect that results in the onshore piles being subjected to larger pressures than the front ones. The combined action of wave impact and pile leg squeezing force leads to an increase in the pore pressure of the foundation bed near the pile leg, and the soil near the pile leg becomes soft, revealing the mechanism of instability of the offshore platform’s pile foundation under waves of large wave height. The acceleration of the longitudinal movement of the platform increases under waves of large wave height, and the vortex-induced vibration of the platform includes the vibration along the direction of the wave and perpendicular to it. A coupled vibration effect between the tower structure and the platform occurs under waves of large wave height, reducing the vibration of the platform itself. Furthermore, damping members are installed on the tower structure, greatly reducing the natural vibration period and the motion response of the tower structure. This study provides significant enlightenment for the design of offshore platforms with towers to protect against waves of large wave height. Full article
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