Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 July 2024 | Viewed by 16727

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Guest Editor
Institute for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: environment science; water quality; geochemistry; water sediments; heavy metal
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Guest Editor
Centre of Excellence in Environmental Chemistry and Engineering – ICTM, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, Belgrade 11158, Serbia
Interests: environmental chemistry; heavy metals; waters; sediments; soils; pollution risk assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Access to drinking water is one of the largest problems of modern times, and water pollution is a growing problem worldwide. Increased concentrations of different toxic substances, especially heavy metals, affect biodiversity and are hazardous to human health. Sediment may act as a sink for a huge number of toxic substances and should therefore be investigated in addition to water, as it contains a record of the previous pollution. Geochemical investigations of aquatic sediments in freshwater and marine environments present excellent insights into the state of pollution of investigated water bodies and their ecosystems. The chemical composition of sediment is informative, both in investigations of mineral resources of a particular region for mining purposes and in tracing contamination from different sources (sewage, industry, agriculture, abandoned and active mines, landfills, harbors, oil drilling, etc.).

Pollution affects all sources of drinking water—ground, spring, river, and lake. The interaction of water and sediment is of special importance, as sediment can also release heavy metals and act as a source of pollution. Application and development of existing and new analytical methods are also very important aspects.

The purpose of this Special Issue, the third related to this theme, is to publish original, high-quality research papers, as well as review articles, addressing recent advances in water and aquatic sediment research, new methods and developments in monitoring, as well as legislative development.

Dr. Stanislav Frančišković-Bilinski
Dr. Sanja Sakan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • water and sediment quality
  • geochemical composition
  • heavy metals
  • pollution
  • drinking water
  • analytical methods
  • monitoring
  • legislative development

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 7662 KiB  
Article
A Framework to Evaluate Groundwater Quality and the Relationship between Rock Weathering and Groundwater Hydrogeochemistry in the Tropical Zone: A Case Study of Coastal Aquifer Arroyo Grande, in the Caribbean Region of Colombia
by Carlos Arroyo-Figueroa, Dayana Carolina Chalá, Guillermo Gutiérrez-Ribon and Edgar Quiñones-Bolaños
Water 2024, 16(12), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16121650 - 9 Jun 2024
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Hydrochemical analysis is crucial for understanding soil and water composition dynamics in coastal aquifers. This study presents a novel framework for the comprehensive assessment of groundwater quality, integrating multivariate analysis and hydrochemical techniques. It comprises seven stages aimed at characterizing physicochemical properties, identifying [...] Read more.
Hydrochemical analysis is crucial for understanding soil and water composition dynamics in coastal aquifers. This study presents a novel framework for the comprehensive assessment of groundwater quality, integrating multivariate analysis and hydrochemical techniques. It comprises seven stages aimed at characterizing physicochemical properties, identifying water constituents, elucidating dominant mechanisms in water composition, evaluating ion exchange processes, analyzing spatial distribution of components, identifying impacting processes, and assessing drinking water quality. The framework was applied to the coastal unconfined Arroyo Grande aquifer in Cartagena, Colombia. Fifteen points were sampled, assessing physicochemical parameters such as total hardness, alkalinity, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, anions, cations, among others. Findings reveal the presence of dominant anions including bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate, with relevant variations observed between the dry and wet season, with manganese and iron surpassing WHO drinking water standards. The prevalence of these constituents has been attributed to mineral dissolution, ion exchange, salinization due to seawater intrusion, and anthropogenic contamination. Over 50% of samples in both seasons fail to meet freshwater drinking standards due to elevated dissolved mineral concentrations in groundwater. These findings provide insights for sustainable management and mitigation strategies, and the systematic approach enables researchers to identify key factors influencing water composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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20 pages, 8873 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Assessment of Heavy Metal Distribution in Bug River Sediments, Poland: The Impacts of Urbanization and Agricultural Practices
by Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz, Piotr Ofman, Mirosław Skorbiłowicz, Marcin Sidoruk and Urszula Tarasiuk
Water 2024, 16(11), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16111573 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Heavy metals play a crucial role in the environment due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation ability, which can lead to severe ecological and health risks. This study aimed to investigate the impact of urbanization and agricultural practices on the heavy metal content [...] Read more.
Heavy metals play a crucial role in the environment due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation ability, which can lead to severe ecological and health risks. This study aimed to investigate the impact of urbanization and agricultural practices on the heavy metal content in the sediments of the Bug River catchment. To this end, 96 surface sediment samples were collected from various points in the Bug River catchment, including from urban, agricultural, and forested areas. The samples for laboratory analysis were collected in July 2018, 2019, and 2020 in the Polish part of the Bug River watershed. Heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Cd) concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and pollution load index (PLI) were used to assess the degree of sediment contamination. The results indicate higher concentrations of heavy metals in urban sediments, where cadmium concentrations reached up to 2.5 mg/kg, compared to agricultural and forested areas, where concentrations were significantly lower. The average Igeo value for cadmium was 0.24 in agricultural areas and 0.15 in urban areas, suggesting the predominance of anthropogenic influences over natural sources. The highest PLI values were found in urban areas, reaching a maximum of 0.33, indicating higher pollution levels. Statistical analysis revealed that urban emissions and agricultural activities significantly influenced the presence of these metals in the Bug River sediments. This study’s conclusions emphasize that effective river water quality management requires continuous monitoring and an understanding of anthropogenic and natural pollution sources. The results contribute to a better understanding the interactions between human activities and water quality, crucial for planning protection and remediation strategies. Additionally, this study provides critical insights into optimizing pollution management strategies and developing remediation methods, serving local and regional policymakers in planning protective actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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15 pages, 3531 KiB  
Article
Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater of Community Tube Wells, Source Distribution, Associated Health Risk Exposure, and Suitability Analysis for Drinking from Arid Zone
by Zahid Ullah, Abdur Rashid, Javed Nawab, Aziz-Ur-Rahim Bacha, Junaid Ghani, Javed Iqbal, Zhiling Zhu, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei and Mikhlid H. Almutairi
Water 2023, 15(21), 3740; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213740 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Fluoride (F) pollution in potable groundwater (GW) is a serious environmental concern in Pakistan with substantial human health hazard reports. The research on F pollution in GW resources in Sindh Province is still incomplete. To explore the realistic conditions, the [...] Read more.
Fluoride (F) pollution in potable groundwater (GW) is a serious environmental concern in Pakistan with substantial human health hazard reports. The research on F pollution in GW resources in Sindh Province is still incomplete. To explore the realistic conditions, the present research aimed to investigate the GW quality of community tube wells concerning F contamination in Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan. A total of 53 samples were collected and examined for F, along with other physicochemical parameters. The F values observed varied from 0.2–4.2 mg/L, with a mean value of 1.63 mg/L. Among the 53 samples, 46% had F levels that were higher than the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended limit (1.5 mg/L). The water type of the studied region was Ca-HCO3 type, which can be attributed to fresh recharged water. The interaction of rock–water contact controls the hydrochemistry of GW. The GW resources of the research zone were highly saturated with fluorite minerals. Human health risk calculation outcomes exposed that 21 samples showed high HQ values for children and 7 samples showed high values for adults in the research zone. Children are at high risk in the study area from drinking F-contaminated GW. WQI results showed that 31 samples were not suitable for drinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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32 pages, 6156 KiB  
Article
Water–Rock Interactions across Volcanic Aquifers of the Lece Andesite Complex (Southern Serbia): Geochemistry and Environmental Impact
by Maja Poznanović Spahić, Goran Marinković, Darko Spahić, Sanja Sakan, Ivana Jovanić, Marina Magazinović and Nataša Obradović
Water 2023, 15(20), 3653; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203653 - 18 Oct 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1408
Abstract
The study of aquifers of the Lece andesite complex (LAC) and its surroundings yielded a new procedural stepwise analysis that allowed the assessment of the origin of elements, particularly in areas affected by both anthropogenic and natural influences. The methodology uses the mineralogical [...] Read more.
The study of aquifers of the Lece andesite complex (LAC) and its surroundings yielded a new procedural stepwise analysis that allowed the assessment of the origin of elements, particularly in areas affected by both anthropogenic and natural influences. The methodology uses the mineralogical composition of the rocks, including the elements available in rocks and groundwater. This study analyzes the element ratios B/Cl, Na+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Mg2+, HCO3/Cl, and Na+/Na+ + Cl; the correlations are coupled with a statistical analysis. In addition to reevaluating the already published water content, we provide an important new dataset. The results show that the main source of the water contamination with the elements B, F, U, As, Cu, Fe, Zn, Co, and Ni is the processes occurring at the contact between the groundwaters and non-altered/altered (propylitized) andesite rocks. This is also observed in the waters extracted from crystalline schists. The results may help develop an efficient use and assessment of the qualitative water potential of the LAC reservoirs. Similarly, the results highlight the applicability of the groundwaters, facilitating their regional research and use, further encouraging new initiatives for the preservation and protection of human and animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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16 pages, 8183 KiB  
Article
Uranium in Lake Sediments of Humid Zone: A Case Study in the Southeast Fennoscandia (Karelia, Russia)
by Zakhar Slukovskii
Water 2023, 15(7), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071360 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
The article presents data on the analysis of U accumulation in recent sediments of lakes in the territory of the Southeast Fennoscandia. The research was carried out in the study area of the Republic of Karelia. It has been established that the content [...] Read more.
The article presents data on the analysis of U accumulation in recent sediments of lakes in the territory of the Southeast Fennoscandia. The research was carried out in the study area of the Republic of Karelia. It has been established that the content of U in sediments varies from 0.1 to 42.3 mg/kg (median is 0.91 mg/kg). In general, the studied sediments of the region had low concentrations of U in comparison with the average content of this element in the upper part of the Earth’s crust. In some areas associated with deposits or ore occurrences of U, an increased content of U in lake sediments was revealed. The highest U accumulation level was found in the lake sediments, which are under the influence of the North Onega ore-geochemical region, where V deposits and ore occurrences that contain U, Fe, Mo and Cu are widespread. In the sediments of some studied lakes, Th anomalies were found, which often accompany U in ore geological formations. The analysis of uranium fractions in the sediments of some lakes in Karelia revealed the key role of the mineral (insoluble) phase in the accumulation of U, up to 64–68% of the total U content. The share of the organic fraction in the accumulation of U in the studied sediments of the lakes is small and ranges from 7 to 15% with respect to the total concentration of the metal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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13 pages, 3776 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Low-Concentration Ammonia Nitrogen from Water on Alkali-Modified Coal Fly Ash: Characterization and Mechanism
by Yuyan Zhao, Hanwen Luan, Binghan Yang, Zhenghe Li, Meitong Song, Bing Li and Xiaodan Tang
Water 2023, 15(5), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050956 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
The huge annual output of coal fly ash is harmful to the environment, but it is widely used because of its good adsorption potential. In this study, using coal fly ash as a raw material and sodium hydroxide as an activator, a novel [...] Read more.
The huge annual output of coal fly ash is harmful to the environment, but it is widely used because of its good adsorption potential. In this study, using coal fly ash as a raw material and sodium hydroxide as an activator, a novel adsorbent was synthesized at 300 °C and used to adsorb low concentrations of ammonia nitrogen from water. In this study, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a surface area and porosity analyzer were used to analyze the adsorbent’s physicochemical properties. The results showed that after alkali modification, the activity of the adsorbent had greatly enhanced. The impacts of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, adsorption time, and initial concentration of ammonia nitrogen on the adsorption capacity and removal efficiency were evaluated through a series of adsorption experiments. Moreover, the adsorption data were better fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption process was mainly chemical adsorption and monolayer uniform adsorption. As a result, the new adsorbent is inexpensive and effective, and it could be used to remove low-concentration ammonia nitrogen from water with a maximum removal efficiency of approximately 89%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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17 pages, 11662 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd from Water on Coal Fly Ash-Red Mud Modified Composite Material: Characterization and Mechanism
by Yuyan Zhao, Hanwen Luan, Binghan Yang, Zhenghe Li, Meitong Song, Bing Li and Xiaodan Tang
Water 2023, 15(4), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15040767 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
The rational utilization of solid waste has always been a worldwide concern. In this study, coal fly ash (CFA) and red mud (RM) were used in combination to synthesize efficient heavy metal adsorbents. A new way of resource recycling was provided with the [...] Read more.
The rational utilization of solid waste has always been a worldwide concern. In this study, coal fly ash (CFA) and red mud (RM) were used in combination to synthesize efficient heavy metal adsorbents. A new way of resource recycling was provided with the collaborative reuse of CFA and RM. To obtain the modified composite materials, CFA and RM were mixed and melted in three ratios. After modification, these materials were then utilized to adsorb Pb, Cu, and Cd in water in both single and ternary systems. The physicochemical properties of CFA, RM, and three modified composite materials were measured by X-ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, surface area analyzer, and porosity analyzer. In the single and ternary systems, the effects of the modified composite material dosage, solution pH, initial concentration of heavy metals, and adsorption time were discussed, and the results were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic. It was discovered that the modified composite materials had a greater specific surface area (63.83 m2/g) than CFA and RM alone, as well as superior adsorption capacity and magnetic characteristics. The adsorption capacities of C1R4 for Pb, Cu, and Cd were 149.81 mg/g, 135.96 mg/g, and 127.82 mg/g in the single system, while those of Cu and Cd decreased slightly in the ternary system, and the preferential adsorption order of the modified composite materials for heavy metal ions was Pb > Cu > Cd. Among the three modified composite materials, C1R4 had the best adsorption capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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23 pages, 6807 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Removal of Cyanide and Heavy Metals Using Photoelectrocoagulation
by Ahmad Shahedi, Ahmad Khodadadi Darban, Ahmad Jamshidi-Zanjani, Fariborz Taghipour and Mehdi Homaee
Water 2023, 15(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030581 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
One of the new methods used to remove the contaminants from effluent is the electrocoagulation method, which is sometimes combined with other methods to increase the removal efficiency of contaminants. To simultaneously remove nickel, cyanide, zinc, and copper, the combined method of photo-electrocoagulation [...] Read more.
One of the new methods used to remove the contaminants from effluent is the electrocoagulation method, which is sometimes combined with other methods to increase the removal efficiency of contaminants. To simultaneously remove nickel, cyanide, zinc, and copper, the combined method of photo-electrocoagulation was used along with an oxidizing agent, namely hydrogen peroxide (Hp). In addition, the effects of factors affecting the removal efficiency were studied, including pH, electrode arrangement, and current intensity. An electric current of 300 mA at a pH of 10 for 60 min, Fe-SS electrodes with a distance between them of 5 cm, and hydrogen peroxide at a rate of 4 mg/L were the ideal conditions needed to accomplish the photo-electrocoagulation-oxidation process. According to these study findings, when the combined method of photocatalyst-electrocoagulation-oxidation (Hp) was used, the highest removal efficiencies of nickel, cyanide, zinc, and copper were 85, 96, 94, and 98%, respectively. The results showed that using the combined photo-electrocoagulation-oxidation method increased the efficiency of simultaneous removal of pollutants by 10% compared to conventional electrocoagulation method. The reason for the increase in removal efficiency is the production of hydroxyl radicals simultaneously with the formation of coagulants produced by electrocoagulation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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12 pages, 6373 KiB  
Article
Source Identification and Ecological Risk of Potentially Harmful Trace Elements in Lacustrine Sediments from the Middle and Lower Reaches of Huaihe River
by Min Xu, Rong Wang, Weiwei Sun, Dianchang Wang and Xinghua Wu
Water 2023, 15(3), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030544 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Sediment pollution caused by potentially harmful trace elements (PHTEs) has attracted a great deal of attention, due to the persistent risks it poses to human beings and ecosystems. However, the pollution status and source identification of PHTEs from the middle and lower reaches [...] Read more.
Sediment pollution caused by potentially harmful trace elements (PHTEs) has attracted a great deal of attention, due to the persistent risks it poses to human beings and ecosystems. However, the pollution status and source identification of PHTEs from the middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River remains unclear. In this study, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, lead and isotopic ratios in the lacustrine sediments of this river are investigated to determine the source of, and ecological risk posed by, these PHTEs. The results show that the concentrations of chromium, copper, nickel and zinc are generally close to the background values in the lacustrine sediments, and are assessed as representing a low degree of contamination. By contrast, significantly higher concentrations of arsenic and cadmium are commonly measured in the upper sediments, which are mainly derived from the agricultural application of fertilizers, pesticides and wastewater. Meanwhile, possible atmospheric lead deposition is identified by the isotopic analysis. Among these PHTEs, adverse biological effects of arsenic, chromium, and nickel may occur in lakes according to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, but cadmium is selected as a PHTE for priority control according to potential ecological risk index. Our study highlights that developing regional sediment quality guidelines and soil restoration in the catchment are crucial for the freshwater ecosystem in the middle and lower reaches of Huaihe River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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28 pages, 5061 KiB  
Article
A Paleolimnological Perspective on Arctic Mountain Lake Pollution
by Vladimir Dauvalter, Zakhar Slukovskii, Dmitry Denisov and Alina Guzeva
Water 2022, 14(24), 4044; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14244044 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
The chemical composition of sediments from the Arctic mountain Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr, situated in the western part of the Russian Arctic zone, was studied. The lake has been under intense anthropogenic load for more than 90 years since the development of the richest [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of sediments from the Arctic mountain Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr, situated in the western part of the Russian Arctic zone, was studied. The lake has been under intense anthropogenic load for more than 90 years since the development of the richest apatite–nepheline deposits in the world started. A 27 cm thick sediment core was sampled in the central part of the lake at the maximum depth of 37.4 m. The concentrations of more than 50 elements were analyzed by the mass spectral method, ICP-MS. The lake sedimentation rate established from the change in the content of the radioactive isotope 210Pb was 2.3 mm/yr. The effluent from apatite–nepheline production and atmospheric fallout enrich the sediments of Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr with alkali and alkaline earth metals, N, P, Mn, Fe, Al compounds, rare earth elements, and trace elements (Sb, Cu, Zn, Pb, Bi, Nb, Ta, Th). Analysis of the forms of elements in the lake sediments showed that the studied elements are mainly found in stable fractions—mineral, acid-soluble, and associated with organic matter. The pollution of the sediments of Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr was assessed by the integral index PLI (Pollution Load Index) and CF (contamination factor). The PLI value sharply increased after the “Apatite” Plant had been launched and a large amount of wastewater from the mines had been released into the lake. The highest PLI values were detected in the sediment layers accumulated during the period 1990s–2000s. Sb (18.2), P (10.3), Sr (7.8), and La (6.0) have the maximum CF values among all the studied elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geochemistry of Water and Sediment III)
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