Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2022) | Viewed by 32401

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Department of Veterinary Science, University of Messina, Polo Universitario Annunziata, 98168 Messina, ‎Italy
Interests: internal medicine; ophthalmology; CEUS; emergency care; dog; cat‎
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite original research papers that address improvements in clinical and investigational veterinary and comparative ophthalmology.

Veterinary and comparative ophthalmology are in constant evolution.

The topics of this Special Issue encompass all aspects of veterinary ophthalmology: preclinical and clinical research, and diagnosis and treatment of various ocular disorders, including but not limited to ocular trauma, ocular oncology, infections, degenerative diseases, congenital anomalies, ocular manifestation of systemic diseases, and surgical techniques and their outcomes.

Special attention will be devoted to the continued progress in noninvasive imaging technology and to the study of ocular surface and tear films disorders, with particular reference of the effects of some drugs on tear production.

The purpose of this Special Issue is therefore to present high-quality documents focused on the ophthalmology of selected species, including canine, feline, equine, food animals, exotic, and laboratory animals, as well as comparative ophthalmology. Our goal is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical research in as much detail as possible.

Research articles, case report, case series, and original reviews are all welcome in this Special Issue.

Dr. Annamaria Passantino
Dr. Simona Di Pietro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Veterinary Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ophthalmology
  • companion animal
  • farm animal
  • laboratory animal
  • exotic animals

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2564 KiB  
Article
Biological Compositions of Canine Amniotic Membrane and Its Extracts and the Investigation of Corneal Wound Healing Efficacy In Vitro
by Chompunut Permkam, Gunnaporn Suriyaphol, Sujin Sirisawadi and Nalinee Tuntivanich
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(5), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9050227 - 9 May 2022
Viewed by 2491
Abstract
The usage of canine amniotic membrane (cAM) is mainly of interest in veterinary ophthalmology. Topical formulations of cAM could deliver the beneficial properties of cAM without the need for surgical intervention. The present study aimed to investigate biological compositions of cAM and its [...] Read more.
The usage of canine amniotic membrane (cAM) is mainly of interest in veterinary ophthalmology. Topical formulations of cAM could deliver the beneficial properties of cAM without the need for surgical intervention. The present study aimed to investigate biological compositions of cAM and its extracts, including their corneal wound healing efficacy. In this study, canine amniotic membrane extract (cAME) and lyophilized canine amniotic membrane extract (cAMX) were developed. Bioactive molecules related to corneal wound healing, including hepatocyte growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2, Thrombospondin-1 and Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were studied at both gene and protein expression levels. Cell viability and wound healing assays were investigated for the possibility of cAME and cAMX as topical applications. The results demonstrated that all of the relevant genes and proteins were detected in cAM, cAME and cAMX. Both cAME and cAMX showed wound healing properties in vitro and cAME at 1.0 mg/mL concentration appeared to have the best healing efficacy. In conclusion, cAME and cAMX generated for topical use provided promising results in the healing of corneal defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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10 pages, 1391 KiB  
Article
The Clinical Guiding Role of the Distribution of Corneal Nerves in the Selection of Incision for Penetrating Corneal Surgery in Canines
by Zichen Liu, Chang Yu, Yiwen Song, Mo Pang and Yipeng Jin
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(12), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8120313 - 8 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2504
Abstract
The cornea is one of the regions with the highest density of nerve terminals in the animal body and it bears such functions as nourishing the cornea and maintaining corneal sensation. In veterinary clinical practice, the corneoscleral limbus incision is frequently applied in [...] Read more.
The cornea is one of the regions with the highest density of nerve terminals in the animal body and it bears such functions as nourishing the cornea and maintaining corneal sensation. In veterinary clinical practice, the corneoscleral limbus incision is frequently applied in cataract surgery, peripheral iridectomy, and other procedures for glaucoma. Inevitably, it would cause damage to the nerve roots that enter the cornea from the corneal limbus, thus inducing a series of complications. In this paper, the in vitro cornea (39 corneas from 23 canines, with ages ranging from 8 months old to 3 years old, including 12 male canines and 11 female canines) was divided into 6 zones, and the whole cornea was stained with gold chloride. After staining, corneal nerves formed neural networks at different levels of cornea. There was no significant difference in the number of nerve roots at the corneoscleral limbus between different zones (F = 1.983, p = 0.082), and the nerve roots at the corneoscleral limbus (mean value, 24.43; 95% CI, 23.43–25.42) were evenly distributed. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the number of corneal nerve roots between male and female canines (p = 0.143). There was also no significant difference in the number of corneal nerve roots between adult canines and puppies (p = 0.324). The results of the above analysis will provide a reasonable anatomical basis for selecting the incision location and orientation of penetrating surgery for the canine cornea in veterinary practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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11 pages, 1439 KiB  
Article
Retention, Bacterial Adhesion, and Biofilm Formation between Anionic and Zwitterionic Bandage Contact Lenses in Healthy Dogs: A Pilot Study
by Mizuki Kita, Kazutaka Kanai, Hisaya K. Ono, Yuya Otaka, Daiki Okada, Noriaki Nagai, Rina Kudo, Yohei Yamashita, Shiori Hino, Toru Matsunaga and Kazuki Tajima
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100238 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the in vitro and in vivo retention, bacterial adhesion, and biofilm formation between anionic and zwitterionic bandage contact lenses (BCLs) in healthy canines. BCL retention and tolerance were evaluated in 10 healthy canines via a single-masked, crossover study [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the in vitro and in vivo retention, bacterial adhesion, and biofilm formation between anionic and zwitterionic bandage contact lenses (BCLs) in healthy canines. BCL retention and tolerance were evaluated in 10 healthy canines via a single-masked, crossover study for 7 days. To compare in vitro bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, four Staphylococcus strains were incubated with the BCLs at 37 °C for 2 or 24 h, and the bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) adhering to the BCLs were counted. Next, to compare in vivo bacterial adhesion, the CFUs of bacteria adhering to the BCLs worn by canines for 24 h were counted. Anionic lenses significantly retained and reduced in vitro bacterial adhesion than in the zwitterionic lenses. However, the amount of in vitro biofilm formation was more likely to be higher on anionic lenses than on zwitterionic lenses. In vivo bacterial adhesion was not significantly different between the two types of BCLs. Nevertheless, both BCLs were well-tolerated by the canines; thus, their short-term use in dogs can be recommended as safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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12 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
Magnesium Hydroxide Nanoparticles Improve the Ocular Hypotensive Effect of Twice Daily Topical Timolol Maleate in Healthy Dogs
by Mizuki Kita, Kazutaka Kanai, Hiroki Mitsuhashi, Tomoki Noguchi, Noriaki Nagai, Mizuki Yamaguchi, Yuya Otaka, Rina Kudo, Yohei Yamashita and Kazuki Tajima
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(8), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8080168 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3431
Abstract
Timolol maleate (TM), a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used for canine antiglaucoma eye drops; however, its bioavailability is <5%. Our previous study revealed that magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles (nMH) have potency in improving the bioavailability of fixed-combined TM in rodent models. This study [...] Read more.
Timolol maleate (TM), a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used for canine antiglaucoma eye drops; however, its bioavailability is <5%. Our previous study revealed that magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles (nMH) have potency in improving the bioavailability of fixed-combined TM in rodent models. This study aimed to investigate whether the fixed combination with nMH improves the ocular hypotensive effect of TM and affects pupil size (PS), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in clinically healthy dogs. Five clinically healthy dogs were administered topical saline, commercial 0.5% TM, and a 0.01% or 0.1% nMH–0.5% TM fixed combination (0.01% or 0.1% nMH–TM) twice daily in one eye for 7 days with at least a 28-day interval. The changes from baseline were calculated and were statistically analyzed for each drug. IOP was significantly reduced in both 0.01% and 0.1% nMH–TM-treated-dogs compared with saline- and TM-treated dogs. Meanwhile, 0.01% and 0.1% nMH did not exacerbate the side effects of TM. From these results, nMH improved the ocular hypotensive effect of TM without enhancing side effects. Topical nMH–TM is potentially more effective for canine ocular hypotensive eye drops than TM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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9 pages, 810 KiB  
Article
Dexmedetomidine and Tear Production: Evaluation in Dogs as Spontaneous Model for Ocular Surface Disorders
by Simona Di Pietro, Claudia Giannetto, Annastella Falcone, Giuseppe Piccione, Fulvio Congiu, Francesco Staffieri and Elisabetta Giudice
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020028 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4902
Abstract
Tear film provides lubrication and protection to the ocular surface. The sedation reduces tear production, often leading to perioperative exposure keratopathy. The aim of the present study was to report the effects of intramuscular dexmedetomidine on canine tear production, measured by STT-1, for [...] Read more.
Tear film provides lubrication and protection to the ocular surface. The sedation reduces tear production, often leading to perioperative exposure keratopathy. The aim of the present study was to report the effects of intramuscular dexmedetomidine on canine tear production, measured by STT-1, for an experimental period of 8 h after sedation. Ten dogs who underwent sedation for routine radiologic assessment were recruited for the study. In all animals, tear production in right and left eyes was measured 15 min before sedation (T0: basal values) and 20 min (T20), 1 h (T1), 2 h (T2), 4 h (T4) and 8 h (T8) after drug administration. Analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni test (p < 0.05) were performed. A significant effect of time on canine tear production was found. The tear production returned to basal values at T8. So, it is recommended to treat the canine eyes with tear substitutes during and up to 12 h after sedation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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11 pages, 2570 KiB  
Case Report
Symblepharon, Ankyloblepharon, and Salt Gland Dysfunction in a Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)
by Andrea Affuso, Cristina Di Palma, Leonardo Meomartino, Antonino Pace, Serena Montagnaro, Valeria Russo, Giuseppina Mennonna, Fabiana Micieli, Fulvio Maffucci, Sandra Hochscheid, Francesco Lamagna, Ilaria D’Aquino and Barbara Lamagna
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(6), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9060281 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2466
Abstract
Adhesions involving the bulbar and the palpebral conjunctiva (Symblepharon) may interfere with tear drainage, cause chronic conjunctivitis, and reduce ocular motility. This condition may be associated with adhesion of the edges of the upper and lower eyelids (ankyloblepharon). The present case describes bilateral [...] Read more.
Adhesions involving the bulbar and the palpebral conjunctiva (Symblepharon) may interfere with tear drainage, cause chronic conjunctivitis, and reduce ocular motility. This condition may be associated with adhesion of the edges of the upper and lower eyelids (ankyloblepharon). The present case describes bilateral symblepharon, ankyloblepharon and salt gland dysfunction in a juvenile Caretta caretta. The loggerhead presented both eyelids swollen, ulcerated, and not separable when rescued. Eye examination was not possible, but ultrasonography showed right bulbar integrity, while the left eye was smaller, with a thicker cornea that had lost its normal doubled lined structure. Surgical dissection of the fibrous adhesions between the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and third eyelid was performed, and large dacryoliths were removed. The microscopic findings were consistent with chronic keratoconjunctivitis. Ultrastructurally, no virus-like particles were observed. In addition, tissue samples were negative for herpesvirus by qualitative PCR. The eyelids of both eyes and the corneal epithelium of the right eye healed; moreover, the vision was restored in the right eye. There were no recurrences after 12 months of follow-up, and the turtle was released 16 months after the end of treatments on the southern Tyrrhenian coast in the western Mediterranean Sea. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of symblepharon with ankyloblepharon and salt gland dysfunction in Caretta caretta turtle. Ocular ultrasonography was helpful in the preliminary diagnostic work-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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8 pages, 2065 KiB  
Case Report
Bulbus Destruction by Choroidal Melanocytoma in a Dog: A 3-Year History
by Nadine Nautscher, Martin Steffl, Katharina Schmon and Eva Ludwig
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(6), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9060267 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
A 3-year-old male Slovak Hound with retinal detachment was presented. The causative intraocular mass was detected by ultrasonography, and the course of the disease was monitored over a 3-year period. Enucleation was performed due to secondary glaucoma. A benign choroidal melanocytoma was diagnosed [...] Read more.
A 3-year-old male Slovak Hound with retinal detachment was presented. The causative intraocular mass was detected by ultrasonography, and the course of the disease was monitored over a 3-year period. Enucleation was performed due to secondary glaucoma. A benign choroidal melanocytoma was diagnosed by histopathology. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the disease over such a long period of time. The mild course of the disease questions enucleation of eyes with no or minor symptoms. Conventional treatment may be a suitable alternative to surgery for dogs with high anesthesia risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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6 pages, 1915 KiB  
Case Report
Conjunctival Inverted Papilloma Progressing to Carcinoma. First Report in Horse
by Vito Biondi, Annamaria Passantino, Michela Pugliese, Salvatore Monti, Alessandra Sfacteria and Simona Di Pietro
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(6), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060108 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 4293
Abstract
A five-year-old, entire female Arabian horse with a 6-month history of a non-painful nodule on the conjunctiva of the right eye was evaluated. Ophthalmological examination showed a firm, smooth and fleshy conjunctival mass that raised the suspicion of a conjunctival neoplasm. Histological evaluations [...] Read more.
A five-year-old, entire female Arabian horse with a 6-month history of a non-painful nodule on the conjunctiva of the right eye was evaluated. Ophthalmological examination showed a firm, smooth and fleshy conjunctival mass that raised the suspicion of a conjunctival neoplasm. Histological evaluations showed that the mass was composed of an endophytic growth consisting of numerous long papillary projections of hyperplastic stratified squamous epithelium supported by thin fibrovascular stalks. Typical features of squamous cell carcinoma with disorganized cell growth and infiltration of surrounding tissues were detectable within the mass. Inverted papilloma progressing to carcinoma was diagnosed. Follow-up examination showed that no local recurrence was present during the 12-month follow-up period. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report describing the inverted papilloma in the horse and, due to its progression to squamous cell carcinoma, warns about the inclusion of the inverted papilloma in the differential diagnosis of conjunctival neoplasm and driven treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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6 pages, 1285 KiB  
Case Report
First Molecular Confirmation of Equine Ocular Setaria digitata in China
by Feng Yu, Bo Liu, Shulei Chen, Ziwen Yi, Xianyong Liu, Yiping Zhu and Jing Li
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8040055 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4775
Abstract
A 5-year-old Mongolian mare (Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758) was observed to have corneal opacity and excessive ocular discharge. An ophthalmic examination revealed a moving thread-like cylindrical worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. The parasite was successfully removed surgically. The [...] Read more.
A 5-year-old Mongolian mare (Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758) was observed to have corneal opacity and excessive ocular discharge. An ophthalmic examination revealed a moving thread-like cylindrical worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. The parasite was successfully removed surgically. The worm was observed under light microscopy and confirmed as Setaria digitata by 12S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated similarity with Setaria digitata in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank database isolated from other Asian countries. This report is the first confirmed case of equine ocular setariasis by molecular diagnosis in China, which may indicate its presence in livestock and promote research on its epidemiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology)
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