Special Issue "Mycotoxins in Feed: Harm to Animals"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Aksel Bernhoft
Website
Guest Editor
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, NO-0106 Oslo, Norway

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins in feed constitute a great health risk to farmed animals, and may also involve human health concerns via the consumption of animal products. The mycotoxins in feed originate from moulds that infest and develop in the feed plants under field growth, or in the feed or feed materials after improper storage. Fusarium species are considered the most important mycotoxin-producing field fungi, whereas species within the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus are mycotoxin producers during storage. Data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in animal feed are important regarding the evaluation of risks, but are restricted.

Health disorders in animals are only known for a rather low number of mycotoxins. Fusarium mycotoxins in animal feed, such as DON and some other trichothecenes, are known to elicit gastrointestinal disorders and immune suppression, whereas zearalenone creates oestrogenic disturbances, and fumonisins manifest different disorders in animal species. The intake of ochratoxin, which is produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus moulds, may damage the kidneys particularly of pigs, and aflatoxins, produced by Aspergilli, are carcinogenic and toxic to the liver. Furthermore, ergot alkaloids, produced by Claviceps purpurea in the field, are neurotoxic and inhibit blood circulation. The dose–effect relations of these toxins in various animal species are of great value in risk assessments, but are scarcely known.

Beyond the most studied ones, the number of other mycotoxins and metabolites of potential, but largely unknown risk in animals, is formidable, and also, knowledge of combined exposure to mycotoxins in highly needed.  

We look forward to receiving your contributions for this Special Issue, in the form of original research, case studies, or review papers, shedding light on perspectives on occurrence of various mycotoxins in feed, and their implications for disease developments in animals under realistic conditions.      

Dr. Aksel Bernhoft
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • feed
  • animal health
  • risk assessment
  • toxic effects

Published Papers (5 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Betulinic Acid Attenuates Oxidative Stress in the Thymus Induced by Acute Exposure to T-2 Toxin via Regulation of the MAPK/Nrf2 Signaling Pathway
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090540 - 22 Aug 2020
Abstract
T-2 toxin, the most toxic of the trichothecenes, is widely found in grains and feeds, and its intake poses serious risks to the health of humans and animals. An important cytotoxicity mechanism of T-2 toxin is the production of excess free radicals, which [...] Read more.
T-2 toxin, the most toxic of the trichothecenes, is widely found in grains and feeds, and its intake poses serious risks to the health of humans and animals. An important cytotoxicity mechanism of T-2 toxin is the production of excess free radicals, which in turn leads to oxidative stress. Betulinic acid (BA) has many biological activities, including antioxidant activity, which is a plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenoid. The protective effects and mechanisms of BA in blocking oxidative stress caused by acute exposure to T-2 toxin in the thymus of mice was studied. BA pretreatment reduced ROS production, decreased the MDA content, and increased the content of IgG in serum and the levels of SOD and GSH in the thymus. BA pretreatment also reduced the degree of congestion observed in histopathological tissue sections of the thymus induced by T-2 toxin. Besides, BA downregulated the phosphorylation of the p38, JNK, and ERK proteins, while it upregulated the expression of the Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in thymus tissues. The results indicated that BA could protect the thymus against the oxidative damage challenged by T-2 toxin by activating Nrf2 and suppressing the MAPK signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed: Harm to Animals)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) Reproduction Was Improved by Inhibiting Mycotoxins with Montmorillonite in Feed
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030191 - 18 Mar 2020
Abstract
The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is a vulnerable bird species. Mycotoxins are toxic substances produced by filamentous fungi and are considered as naturally unavoidable contaminants in animal feed. Our recent survey indicated that feeds designed for captive red-crowned cranes were contaminated [...] Read more.
The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is a vulnerable bird species. Mycotoxins are toxic substances produced by filamentous fungi and are considered as naturally unavoidable contaminants in animal feed. Our recent survey indicated that feeds designed for captive red-crowned cranes were contaminated with mycotoxins. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mycotoxin binder montmorillonite on the reproductive behavior, sex hormone levels, and egg quality of red-crowned cranes. Twelve pairs of G. japonensis were divided into four groups, and each group was fed one of the following: a selected diet (with extra low levels of mycotoxins), a regular diet, a selected diet with 0.5% montmorillonite added, or a regular diet with 0.5% montmorillonite added. Consumption of the regular diet decreased courtship and mating behaviors, testosterone concentration, egg weight, and shell thickness. However, feed supplementation with montmorillonite increased the courtship, mating behaviors and testosterone concentration during the pre-breeding period, as well as egg weight and shell thickness. These findings suggest that the addition of dietary montmorillonite is effective for controlling mycotoxins in the feed, resulting in improvements in reproductive behaviors, testosterone concentrations, and some egg quality parameters of the red-crowned crane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed: Harm to Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Minimal Concentrations of Deoxynivalenol Reduce Cytokine Production in Individual Lymphocyte Populations in Pigs
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030190 - 18 Mar 2020
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently found in cereals, and pigs are one of the most sensitive farm species to DON. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of DON in very low doses on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently found in cereals, and pigs are one of the most sensitive farm species to DON. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of DON in very low doses on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on particular lymphocyte subpopulations. The cells were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 ng/mL of DON and lymphocyte viability, proliferation, and cytokine (Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-17, Interferon (IFN) γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α production were studied. Cells exposed to DON for 5 days in concentrations of 1 and 10 ng/mL showed higher viability compared to control cells. After 18 h of DON (100 ng/mL) exposure, a significantly lower proliferation after mitogen stimulation was observed. In contrast, an increase of spontaneous proliferation induced by DON (100 ng/mL) was detected. After DON exposure, the expression of cytokine genes decreased, with the exception of IL-1β and IL-8, which increased after 18 h exposure to 100 ng/mL of DON. Among lymphocyte subpopulations, helper T-cells and γδ T-cells exhibiting lower production of IL-17, IFNγ and TNFα were most affected by DON exposure (10 ng/mL). These findings show that subclinical doses of DON lead to changes in immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed: Harm to Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Occurrence of Fungi and Fungal Toxins in Fish Feed during Storage
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030171 - 10 Mar 2020
Abstract
Periods of unfavorable storing conditions can lead to changes in the quality of fish feeds, as well as the development of relevant mycotoxins. In the present study, a commercial fish feed was stored under defined conditions for four weeks. The main findings indicate [...] Read more.
Periods of unfavorable storing conditions can lead to changes in the quality of fish feeds, as well as the development of relevant mycotoxins. In the present study, a commercial fish feed was stored under defined conditions for four weeks. The main findings indicate that even storing fish feeds under unsuitable conditions for a short duration leads to a deterioration in quality. Mycotoxin and fungal contamination were subsequently analyzed. These investigations confirmed that different storage conditions can influence the presence of fungi and mycotoxins on fish feed. Notably, ochratoxin A (OTA) was found in samples after warm (25 °C) and humid (>60% relative humidity) treatment. This confirms the importance of this compound as a typical contaminant of fish feed and reveals how fast this mycotoxin can be formed in fish feed during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed: Harm to Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Rumen Simulations Show a Reduced Disappearance of Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Enniatin B at Conditions of Rumen Acidosis and Lower Microbial Activity
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020101 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Ruminants are generally considered to be less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as the rumen microbiota are capable of detoxifying some of these toxins. Despite this potential degradation, mycotoxin-associated subclinical health problems are seen in dairy cows. In this [...] Read more.
Ruminants are generally considered to be less susceptible to the effects of mycotoxins than monogastric animals as the rumen microbiota are capable of detoxifying some of these toxins. Despite this potential degradation, mycotoxin-associated subclinical health problems are seen in dairy cows. In this research, the disappearance of several mycotoxins was determined in an in vitro rumen model and the effect of realistic concentrations of those mycotoxins on fermentation was assessed by volatile fatty acid production. In addition, two hypotheses were tested: (1) a lower rumen pH leads to a decreased degradation of mycotoxins and (2) rumen fluid of lactating cows degrade mycotoxins better than rumen fluid of non-lactating cows. Maize silage was spiked with a mixture of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), enniatin B (ENN B), mycophenolic acid (MPA), roquefortine C (ROQ-C) and zearalenone (ZEN). Fresh rumen fluid of two lactating cows (L) and two non-lactating cows (N) was added to a buffer of normal pH (6.8) and low pH (5.8), leading to four combinations (L6.8, L5.8, N6.8, N5.8), which were added to the spiked maize substrate. In this study, mycotoxins had no effect on volatile fatty acid production. However, not all mycotoxins fully disappeared during incubation. ENN B and ROQ-C disappeared only partially, whereas MPA showed almost no disappearance. The disappearance of DON, NIV, and ENN B was hampered when pH was low, especially when the inoculum of non-lactating cows was used. For ZEN, a limited transformation of ZEN to α-ZEL and β-ZEL was observed, but only at pH 6.8. In conclusion, based on the type of mycotoxin and the ruminal conditions, mycotoxins can stay intact in the rumen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed: Harm to Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop