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Open AccessArticle

Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) Reproduction Was Improved by Inhibiting Mycotoxins with Montmorillonite in Feed

by Dawei Liu 1,2,3, Chao Gu 4, Changhu Lu 2, Qinghua Wu 5,6, Kamil Kuca 6,* and Wenda Wu 4,6,*
Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210023, China
College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
Key Laboratory of State Forest and Grassland Administration Wildlife Evidence Technology, Nanjing 210023, China
MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
College of Life Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, 50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 191; (registering DOI)
Received: 18 January 2020 / Revised: 13 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed: Harm to Animals)
The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is a vulnerable bird species. Mycotoxins are toxic substances produced by filamentous fungi and are considered as naturally unavoidable contaminants in animal feed. Our recent survey indicated that feeds designed for captive red-crowned cranes were contaminated with mycotoxins. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mycotoxin binder montmorillonite on the reproductive behavior, sex hormone levels, and egg quality of red-crowned cranes. Twelve pairs of G. japonensis were divided into four groups, and each group was fed one of the following: a selected diet (with extra low levels of mycotoxins), a regular diet, a selected diet with 0.5% montmorillonite added, or a regular diet with 0.5% montmorillonite added. Consumption of the regular diet decreased courtship and mating behaviors, testosterone concentration, egg weight, and shell thickness. However, feed supplementation with montmorillonite increased the courtship, mating behaviors and testosterone concentration during the pre-breeding period, as well as egg weight and shell thickness. These findings suggest that the addition of dietary montmorillonite is effective for controlling mycotoxins in the feed, resulting in improvements in reproductive behaviors, testosterone concentrations, and some egg quality parameters of the red-crowned crane. View Full-Text
Keywords: red-crowned crane; reproduction; mycotoxin; montmorillonite red-crowned crane; reproduction; mycotoxin; montmorillonite
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Liu, D.; Gu, C.; Lu, C.; Wu, Q.; Kuca, K.; Wu, W. Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) Reproduction Was Improved by Inhibiting Mycotoxins with Montmorillonite in Feed. Toxins 2020, 12, 191.

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