Special Issue "Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainability of Culture and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Francisco Antonio Dos Anjos
Website
Guest Editor
Univesidade do Vale do Itajaí, Balneário Camboriú, Brazil
Interests: tourism governance; destination management; competitiveness and destination image
Dr. James Kennell
Website
Guest Editor
Tourism Research Centre, Department of Marketing, Events and Tourism, University of Greenwich, London, UK
Interests: tourism policy; tourism governance; destination development; susatinable growth in tourism; sustinable events management; tourism and culture; tourism and economic development

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Effective governance is a fundamental condition for the sustainable development of tourist destinations. The inherent complexity of tourism also requires that its development be accompanied by efficient planning and management processes based on the basic principles of sustainability.  Previous studies in tourism governance have identified the shift from government to governance in tourism policy; the emergence of new networked and postmodern forms of governance affecting tourism; the changing roles of destination management organizations and the complexities of tourism governance in a globalized world. However, much of this research has been carried out in the developed core countries of the international tourism industry. There is a need to bring together new research on this topic from more diverse geographical and socio-economic perspectives, as well as to re-examine the area of tourism governance in light of the many contemporary crises affecting the sustainability of tourism destinations. Connected to this, the sustainable management of tourism destinations also requires related research into areas including: tourism policy; overtourism, risk management; capacity studies; the quality of services and satisfaction of tourists; competitiveness; environmental impacts; digitalization and the smart economy, and many other topics. For this special issue, we invite colleagues who carry out research in areas connected to the theme of “Tourism, Governance and Sustainability” to submit their research papers for consideration in a Special Issue of the journal Sustainability, which will bring together a diverse range of research to provide a fresh perspective on these issues. In the first instance, please submit your abstracts by email to the Special Issue editors, who will review them and provide feedback on their suitability for this Special Issue. We particularly welcome submission from authors in developing and emerging economies, as well as research that focuses on these regions.

Dr. Francisco Antonio dos Anjos
Dr. James Kennell
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tourism Governance
  • Sustainable Destinations
  • Destination Management
  • Destination Image
  • Competitive Destinations
  • Tourism Policy
  • Tourism Planning
  • Local and Regional Leadership in Tourism
  • Risk management and tourism
  • Carrying Capacity
  • Service Quality
  • Tourist Satisfaction
  • Environmental indicators and information

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4257; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164257 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce the themes and approaches that are covered in this special issue on tourism, governance and sustainable development. Firstly, we present a discussion of the themes and topics that have informed the creation of this special issue and, secondly, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce the themes and approaches that are covered in this special issue on tourism, governance and sustainable development. Firstly, we present a discussion of the themes and topics that have informed the creation of this special issue and, secondly, we provide an overview of the content of each paper that is included within it. This editorial piece provides a useful introduction to the relationship between tourism, governance and sustainable development that can be used by researchers as a starting point for their own research. The special issue itself helps to address the relative lack of research in this area in the context of developing countries and emerging economies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Destination Assessment and Certification: Challenges and Opportunities
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3691; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133691 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study examines recent developments in destination assessment and certification as a basis for identifying challenges and benefits they engender, from tourist and tourism organizations’ perspectives. It uses online surveys and semi-structured interviews to collect primary data from prospective tourists and key informants [...] Read more.
This study examines recent developments in destination assessment and certification as a basis for identifying challenges and benefits they engender, from tourist and tourism organizations’ perspectives. It uses online surveys and semi-structured interviews to collect primary data from prospective tourists and key informants on destination assessment and certification. The findings highlight the strengths and weaknesses of schemes currently in use, including various factors that might influence their future development. Specifically, the study finds that destination assessment and certification are affected by four key issues, namely, practicability, reliability, visibility, and (un)availability of incentives. It concludes that the manifestation of these issues and their ensuing complexity affect the way in which tourists and tourism destinations engage with destination assessment and certification. This, therefore, delimits the inherent opportunities and constraints within such schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Model Development of A Synergistic Sustainable Marine Ecotourism—A Case Study in Pangandaran Region, West Java Province, Indonesia
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3418; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123418 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Coastal areas in the South Coast of West Java Province, Indonesia, have potential to develop marine ecotourism. One specific case is the Pangandaran area which must be transferred into economic value by not damaging natural resources. Marine ecotourism development is not only intended [...] Read more.
Coastal areas in the South Coast of West Java Province, Indonesia, have potential to develop marine ecotourism. One specific case is the Pangandaran area which must be transferred into economic value by not damaging natural resources. Marine ecotourism development is not only intended to raise foreign exchange for the local government, but is also expected to play a role in maintaining natural resources sustainably. This research aims to analyze the sustainable synergistic marine ecotourism development model. The method used in this research is the quantitative descriptive method. The quantitative descriptive method is used to describe the general condition of the research area, using primary and secondary data. The technique includes the taking of respondents using accidental sampling as many as 50 respondents, consisting of tourists, public figures, and fishermen who have side jobs as providers of marine ecotourism services. The analysis is carried out through the Rapfish modeling approach to measure the synergistic elements of sustainable development of marine ecotourism. Based on the results of the research the ecological dimension of environmental services are the most influential conditions, the economic dimension of marine ecotourism is a less influential condition. Meanwhile, marine ecotourism technology and the social dimension of marine ecotourism are least influential conditions. In regard to infrastructure and regulatory dimensions, the use of information technology is recommended to promote marine ecotourism optimally. It is also concluded that regulations are needed to establish marine ecotourism zoning rules and infrastructure improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Spaces for Collaborative Arrangements as Social Sustainability in Rural Accommodation in Brazil: Pouso dos Paula
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123236 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Studies of collaborative arrangements are usually based on socioeconomic interpretations, with little research exploring the socio-spatial perspective. The assumption is that space (as an epistemic category) can promote collaborative arrangements. Thus, the objective of the research was to describe the spaces of rural [...] Read more.
Studies of collaborative arrangements are usually based on socioeconomic interpretations, with little research exploring the socio-spatial perspective. The assumption is that space (as an epistemic category) can promote collaborative arrangements. Thus, the objective of the research was to describe the spaces of rural accommodation establishments as a sign of collaboration, which is understood as a socio-spatial entity. For this purpose, Pouso dos Paula (Nova Friburgo, RJ, Brazil) was the object of the study. This study was qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive in nature with a phenomenological approach. Primary data was collected from websites, leaflets, and videos about the object of study and in situ (photographic and architectural survey and reading of space). Secondary data was collected from the literature. The data collected were analyzed in the light of the theory of montage, based on the idea of abduction of Peircean semiotics. The results showed collaboration in spaces of the rural accommodation studied, which generally signifies and reveals spatial conditions for carrying out civic initiatives, meets social demands, and for gives rise to collaborative arrangements in rural areas which, together, can lead to political empowerment in rural Brazil, which are understood as a factor of social sustainability. The originality of the study lies in the recognition of the role of space of rural accommodation in promoting social sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Power Relationship in the Governance of Regional Tourism Organizations in Brazil
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3062; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113062 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Objective: The development of tourism is one the main objectives of managers seeking a greater competitive advantage for destinations. To achieve this objective, the political-institutional structure related to public and private organizations involved in the Brazilian scenario of tourism activities deliberately operate in [...] Read more.
Objective: The development of tourism is one the main objectives of managers seeking a greater competitive advantage for destinations. To achieve this objective, the political-institutional structure related to public and private organizations involved in the Brazilian scenario of tourism activities deliberately operate in the format of Regional Tourism Organizations—RTOs, which started in 2004. In this context, the aim of this study arose, which is to analyze the power relations of Regional Tourism Organizations of tourist regions. Design/Methodology: This research adopted a qualitative and quantitative approach, with data collection through documents, laws, reports and information about the RTOs and questionnaires in forms applied to 27 representatives of the public sector, 14 representatives of private sector and six representatives of the third sector, from a total population of 89 active members of the Regional Tourism Organizations: Costa Verde e Mar (state of Santa Catarina), Hortênsias (state of Rio Grande do Sul), and Costa das Dunas (state of Rio Grande do Norte). During the application of the forms, interviews were carried out, totaling 47 interviews with members of the RTOs. Quantitative analyses were generated by mean, mode, absolute and relative frequencies, multiple responses and dispersion graph, with the use of descriptive analyses. The qualitative analyses involving documents were descriptive, and those involving oral information were carried out using analysis of content of Bardin (1977). The different methods that were used in an interrelated manner and helped in the analysis of the data coming from the application of forms (quantitative), official documents (laws/decrees, regulations and statutes), and interviews with actors of the regional tourism organizations (qualitative), enabled the measurement of the effectiveness of the process of management of RTOs in relation to the dimension Power Relationship and the variables analyzed Representativeness, Harmony, Trust and Decision-Making Power. Results: As a result, it was seen that the regional tourism organizations of the tourist regions operate in an effective manner in the public or private sectors and that they involve the management of shared practices by the regional tourism organizations in the destinations studied in terms of representativeness, harmony, trust and decision-making power. Novelty/Value: This research theoretically deepened for the academy the theme of regional governance and power relationship between public and private actors in tourism who are important for the competitive performance of a tourist destination. It also analyzes how the management and governance of regional tourism organizations behaves in terms of power relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Institutional Thickness and Regional Tourism Development: Lessons from Antioquia, Colombia
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092568 - 03 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Researchers from different social sciences are increasingly interested in studying the role of institutions in regional development. Nevertheless, from the perspective of regional tourism development analysis, the role of institutions has been explored limitedly. Based on the institutional thickness approach, this study analyzed [...] Read more.
Researchers from different social sciences are increasingly interested in studying the role of institutions in regional development. Nevertheless, from the perspective of regional tourism development analysis, the role of institutions has been explored limitedly. Based on the institutional thickness approach, this study analyzed the role played by institutions in regional tourism development through a qualitative research procedure applied on a Latin American region. The study examined the institutional presence, the levels of interaction, the structures of domination and/or coalition patterns, and the common agendas in 28 institutions related to tourism in the region of Antioquia, Colombia. Results from this empirical analysis show that institutions play a decisive role in regional tourism development for reasons such as the allocation of economic resources, leadership, and interaction among stakeholders. Knowing these dynamics can be useful to boost better management and planning of tourism destinations throughout governance, coordination, and common agendas, and to enrich the debate on regional tourism development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Community-Based Tourism in Developing Countries: A Framework for Policy Evaluation
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092506 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Many developing countries have recognized the potential of their natural resources for the development of tourism. However, the policies designed to provide a framework for socially inclusive and ecologically sound tourism turn out to be weak in fostering community-based tourism (CBT). There is [...] Read more.
Many developing countries have recognized the potential of their natural resources for the development of tourism. However, the policies designed to provide a framework for socially inclusive and ecologically sound tourism turn out to be weak in fostering community-based tourism (CBT). There is a spectrum of conditions that lead to success or failure of CBT initiatives that should be accounted for by national policies to ensure meaningful community engagement. This paper proposes a framework for the evaluation of tourism policy documents based on factors that facilitate and constrain CBT in developing countries. The framework was applied to seven tourism policy documents in Colombia using a content analysis approach. The results showed that the policies are weak in providing a base for community engagement in CBT. International experiences indicate that the barriers to CBT are similar throughout the world; thus, the framework is useful in the evaluation of policy documents in other developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle
Sport Spectator Consumption and Sustainable Management of Sport Event Tourism; Fan Motivation in High Performance Sport and Non-Elite Sport. A Case Study of Horseback Riding and Running: A Comparative Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2178; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072178 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Understanding the sociodemographic characteristics and motivations of participants in contemporary sports events is important for event organizers, host cities and tourist destinations who seek to acquire rights to organise sports events of various types. It is also important to know what functions sporting [...] Read more.
Understanding the sociodemographic characteristics and motivations of participants in contemporary sports events is important for event organizers, host cities and tourist destinations who seek to acquire rights to organise sports events of various types. It is also important to know what functions sporting events have for fans—their needs, thanks to passive sports consumption, are now being met. This research was conducted to broaden knowledge about fan motivation of participation in individual high-performance and non-elite sport and to analyse the differences between them. The case study was a running event of mass character (the 6th edition of half-marathon held in Poznań, Poland) and a horseback riding elite event (“Cavaliada”, held in Poznań, Poland). The empirical research among fans of these disciplines conducted during popular running and horseback riding Polish events allowed to characterise the sociodemographic profile of fans of individual mass and elite sports and the motivations of passive sports consumption. The motives were divided into four groups connected with social, experiential, factual and results orientation. We used a standardised interview technique and diagnostic survey method. 1328 sports fans participated in our study (510 fans of half-marathon [non-elite sport] and 818 fans of Cavaliada [high performance sport]). We developed a self-constructed questionnaire according to the motivation typology of Freyer and Gross. Research results indicate that supporters of individual mass and elite sports have thoroughly different motivations. On 14 examined motives, 13 statistically significant differences were found. Moreover, the article presents the division of motivation among female and male supporters, young people, elderly people, local (hosts) and sport tourist supporters. The research has shown what the sociopsychological impact of watching sports competition on fans of various categories is. For example, what is the motivation of sports tourists (N = 764) to participate in mass and elite sports events. We also investigated the influence of participation in sporting events in the level of life satisfaction and the impact of running and horse event in destination image (Poznań) in the opinion of supporters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Residents’ Perceptions of Mega Event-Dubai Expo 2020: A Pre-Event Perspective
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051322 - 03 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study explores the residents’ perceptions of economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts of a mega-event (World Expo 2020) to be held in Dubai, as well as their level of inclination to participate in the event. The event organizers announced a requirement of thirty [...] Read more.
This study explores the residents’ perceptions of economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts of a mega-event (World Expo 2020) to be held in Dubai, as well as their level of inclination to participate in the event. The event organizers announced a requirement of thirty thousand volunteers to assist them in successfully organizing the mega event. Such events could prove to be landmarks in destination brand building and may lead to an increase in the number of tourists. The purpose of the study is to gauge the level of understanding about the event impacts within the resident population and their willingness to get involved in event organization. Priory studies of perceptions about the economic, cultural and environmental impacts of a mega-event, are well-nigh non-existent, especially for World Expositions. This study explores residents’ perception to get a fair idea of how they get involved in a mega event that will surely have profound impacts on the destination. Drawing on stakeholder theory and triple bottom line (TBL) model, the study uses primary data collected from more than two hundred fifty residents of the region, through a structured questionnaire. The data analysis follows a descriptive design supported by SEM and path analysis. Major findings indicate favorable and promising responses from the residents, and brings forth the scope to improve the level of involvement of the residents to make the event a success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Distorted Official Hospitality Statistics’ and Their Impact on DMOs’ Funding’s Sustainability: Case Notes from Slovakia
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041084 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Analyzing the usability of open machine-readable registries in the context of minimizing gaps for local occupancy tax evasions in the example of Slovakia is the main purpose of this paper. The concept uses the Registry of Financial Statements’ and Registry of Legal Entities’ [...] Read more.
Analyzing the usability of open machine-readable registries in the context of minimizing gaps for local occupancy tax evasions in the example of Slovakia is the main purpose of this paper. The concept uses the Registry of Financial Statements’ and Registry of Legal Entities’ application programming interfaces (APIs) for extracting public data on companies’ and entrepreneurs’ business nature, in accordance with Eurostat’s Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE) and United Nations’ International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) at the level of entities’ registered address. The resulted data sets are compared with open official data that is available at the municipality level (LAU2), as gathered by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic’s monthly surveys and municipalities’ annual accounts. The comparison’s outcomes indicate the deviations between the official and the possible numbers of entities with occupancy tax obligations, as well as tax revenues. The results conclude with how the incorporation of used open APIs in official processes may be beneficial for public and state institutions in the matter of potential local tax evasions, as well as for state regulated public-private partnership destination management organizations. The notes also discuss solutions for the minimization of data and the industry’s official impact distortion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Destination Service Encounter Modeling and Relationships with Tourist Satisfaction
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040960 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Tourists are in contact with two types of services at destinations: enterprise services offered by tourism enterprises (e.g., hotels, shops, restaurants, etc.) and public services (public transportation, public information, public safety, etc.) provided by the local government. Following Churchill’s (1979) procedures, a model [...] Read more.
Tourists are in contact with two types of services at destinations: enterprise services offered by tourism enterprises (e.g., hotels, shops, restaurants, etc.) and public services (public transportation, public information, public safety, etc.) provided by the local government. Following Churchill’s (1979) procedures, a model of destination service encounters (DSEs), including four dimensions (i.e.,enterprise personal interaction encounters (EPIEs), enterprise physical environment encounters (EPEEs), public personal interaction encounters (PPIEs), public physical environment encounters (PPEEs), and 10 subdimensions, was constructed. Then, the effects of DSEs on tourist satisfaction (TS) were tested with data collected in Shaoshan Township, China. The results revealed that EPIEs, PPIEs, and PPEEs had significant positive effects on TS. This model promotes the application of service encounter (SE) theory in destination management, and it offers implications for the synergy management of public and private sectors at destinations to improve tourist experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
How Do Destinations Frame Cultural Heritage? Content Analysis of Portugal’s Municipal Websites
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11040947 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the current media context, heavily influenced by information and communication technologies, tourism destinations have a need to promote the most outstanding aspects of their cultures to attract the visitors who stimulate their economies. Websites are one of the tools available to carry [...] Read more.
In the current media context, heavily influenced by information and communication technologies, tourism destinations have a need to promote the most outstanding aspects of their cultures to attract the visitors who stimulate their economies. Websites are one of the tools available to carry out this task and they must be designed to communicate the destinations’ heritages persuasively to a worldwide audience. Taking these premises into consideration, the objective of this research is to analyze the cultural heritage content on Portugal’s municipal websites. The specific goals are to classify the most recurrent heritage elements and detect how they frame identity based on the ‘local-global dialectic’. The results show that the heritage discourse is built on the selection of certain aspects—namely, culinary and architectural assets—which are emphasized through the combined use of local and national frames that strengthen the municipalities’ particular values but also the fact that they are integrated into a broader and unified whole: Portugal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Selection Process of Sustainable Indicators for the Algarve Region—OBSERVE Project
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020444 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The selection of indicators for the Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism (OBSERVE), poses challenges, namely which indicators are relevant to stakeholders and how to assure that information is available. To support the selection of the environmental, sociocultural, economic and [...] Read more.
The selection of indicators for the Observatory of Sustainability of the Algarve Region for Tourism (OBSERVE), poses challenges, namely which indicators are relevant to stakeholders and how to assure that information is available. To support the selection of the environmental, sociocultural, economic and institutional indicators, an engagement process was designed and applied, which included meetings with stakeholders, a workshop and an online survey. The results showed that both workshop and online surveys reflected, in general, similar opinions, thus allowing the selecting of the sustainable development indicators for the Algarve region. Additionally, the results showed that nearly 75% of the indicators can be obtained from national statistics and, therefore, can be used on the OBSERVE project, assuring a quick flow of information. As limitations, it is important to mention that the other 25% will need further development, in order to provide data for indicators, like carbon management and client satisfaction. With this approach, the observatory will survey and evaluate the sustainable development of the region (status and trends), based on indicators that answer to the strategic needs of system’s main users, with social and economic implications, i.e., public institutions, economic agents, tourists, local communities and residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle
Segmentation by Motivation in Ecotourism: Application to Protected Areas in Guayas, Ecuador
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010240 - 05 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Among tourists, there is recently a growing interest in the environment and enjoying the natural world. This study analyzed the motivations and segmentation of the demand for ecotourism, using functional theory as a reference point. Empirical analysis was carried out in Santay National [...] Read more.
Among tourists, there is recently a growing interest in the environment and enjoying the natural world. This study analyzed the motivations and segmentation of the demand for ecotourism, using functional theory as a reference point. Empirical analysis was carried out in Santay National Recreation Area, Morro Mangrove Wildlife Refuge, and Samanes National Recreation Area. The sample included 382 surveys, obtained in situ using the simple random sampling method. Factorial analysis and non-hierarchical segmentation were performed to analyze the data. The results indicate that there are several motivational dimensions in ecotourism, including self-development, interpersonal relationships and ego-defensive function, building personal relationships, escape reward, and nature appreciation. We also identified three different segments of ecotourists based on their motivations—nature, multiple motives, and reward and escape—as well as the characteristics of the different segments. The present investigation will help public institutions and private companies improve their tourism offerings and develop more efficient marketing plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Attitudes and Perceptions of the Local Community towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10092991 - 23 Aug 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Over the last years, tourism has undergone significant development worldwide, especially in developing countries. Tourism is a multi-faced activity with positive and negative impacts on the destinations, linking the economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development. The attitude of the host community [...] Read more.
Over the last years, tourism has undergone significant development worldwide, especially in developing countries. Tourism is a multi-faced activity with positive and negative impacts on the destinations, linking the economic, social, and environmental components of sustainable development. The attitude of the host community is an important factor for future tourism planning, management, and development of a tourism destination. As such, the paper analyzes the attitudes and perceptions of the local residents from the Kurdistan Regional Government, located in the northern part of the Republic of Iraq. To achieve the purpose of the research, a survey based on a questionnaire was conducted in Sulaimani and Halabja Governorates. A number of 320 questionnaires were applied in 2016. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. The results indicate that tourism is seen as a development sector during the last years. Its positive impacts are better perceived than the negative ones, mainly because it offers more recreational opportunities due to the development of new recreational parks. Tourism increases pollution, this being the most negative aspect mentioned by the respondents, but regardless, they are proud of the progress overthe last years and they support future actions for tourism development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Tourism Research on Sustainability: A Bibliometric Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051377 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 17
Abstract
Tourism represents one of the main industries in terms of job creation and economic development while sustainability in tourism represents a worldwide challenge. The objective of the present study is to use a bibliometric approach to review the relevant literature. Bibliometric indicators, such [...] Read more.
Tourism represents one of the main industries in terms of job creation and economic development while sustainability in tourism represents a worldwide challenge. The objective of the present study is to use a bibliometric approach to review the relevant literature. Bibliometric indicators, such as citations, are used to identify the field structure and the VOSviewer software is used to map the main trends in this area. Over the period 1987–2018, a total of 4647 papers were found in Scopus regarding sustainability issues in tourism. Analysis of the leading journals, authors, institutions, and keywords indicates that: (1) the literature on sustainability issues in the field of tourism is significantly growing; (2) a mere six papers accounted more than 300 citations, but there are several prolific authors; (3) of the 614 sources included in the review, the most important have published 46.7% of the papers; (4) in terms of documents and citations, the United States is the leading country in this topic; (5) according to keyword trend network analysis, sustainability is becoming a strategic approach for companies and tourist destinations. Finally, this subfield within the tourism literature has considerable potential and is expected to continue growing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Governance and Sustainable Development)
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