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Identification and Assessment of Landscape Change and Landscape Services for Sustainable Landscape Planning and Management

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainability in Geographic Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 19373

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Institute of Spatial Management, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: landscape management; landscape services; driving forces of landscape change; land use/land cover change; landscape protection; landscape sensitivity; landscape capacity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Spatial Management, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: landscape management; landscape assessment; public participation; PPGIS, spatial planning; land use change; land use policy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last few decades, an intensification of landscape changes has been observed due to strong socio-economic transformations, including changes in agriculture, industry, and transport. Traditional agricultural landscapes, urban and industrial landscapes, as well as those with high levels of tourism have undergone large transformations. Therefore, knowledge about sustainable landscape planning and management systems needs to be enhanced. In this regard, more attention is being paid to analysis of the forces driving noticeable changes in the landscape that are significantly influencing the direction of further transformations as well as to the analysis of landscape sensitivity and capacity. The need to develop research methods for identifying and assessing landscape services, defined as goods and services provided by the landscape to society, is also being discussed. The concept of ecosystem services has become extremely popular. From this perspective, many theoretical and practical studies have been completed. Fewer studies considered the identification and assessment of landscape services. Systematization is lacking of the types of research in which the concept of ecosystem services and landscape services should be used. Understanding the phenomenon that lies behind a specific type of landscape transformation and changes in human demand for various landscape services is crucial in the context of sustainable landscape planning and management.

This Special Issue is focused on multidisciplinary approaches and methods of landscape change and landscape services analysis as well as social participation in landscape studies that can be used for sustainable landscape planning and management. Relevant topics include but are not limited to both theoretical papers and case studies. Papers should provide the best examples of landscape change analysis and its driving forces as well as identification, mapping, and valuation of landscape services or ecosystem services in landscape perspective. Papers related to landscape sensitivity and capacity as well as landscape history and cultural heritage transformations are also invited. Research including social participation in landscape analysis and landscape protection are consistent with the theme of the Special Issue.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Piotr Krajewski
Dr. Iga Solecka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Geospatial analysis of landscape change
  • Driving forces of landscape change
  • Monitoring landscape change
  • Identification and mapping of landscape services
  • Mapping ecosystem services in landscape perspective
  • Multidisciplinary approach to landscape valuation and assessment
  • Assessment of land use/land cover change
  • Landscape sensitivity and capacity
  • Landscape dynamics
  • Social participation in landscape planning and management
  • Decision support system for sustainable landscape management
  • Sustainable landscape planning and management
  • Landscape history
  • Cultural heritage transformations
  • Landscape protection

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 3265 KiB  
Article
Landscape Diversity and the Directions of Its Protection in Poland Illustrated with an Example of Wielkopolskie Voivodeship
by Sylwia Bródka, Marta Kubacka and Andrzej Macias
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13812; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413812 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
As part of the implementation of the provisions of the European Landscape Convention, a landscape audit of the provinces has been underway in Poland for a few years. The main objectives of the audit are the delimitation of landscape units, assessment of their [...] Read more.
As part of the implementation of the provisions of the European Landscape Convention, a landscape audit of the provinces has been underway in Poland for a few years. The main objectives of the audit are the delimitation of landscape units, assessment of their values, and identification of the priority of landscapes to be protected. This study presents the results of research on the landscape division of the Wielkopolskie voivodeship and a geostatistical analysis of the differentiation of ecological units. With reference to legal regulations in force in Poland, the landscape diversity of the province was characterized using two divisions: geophysical regionalization and landscape typology. In the case of regional division, the meso- and microregions of physical and geographical rank are referenced. The proposed microregional division is the first example in Poland of such a detailed landscape analysis completed for the area of the voivodeship. In the case of typological division, the study conducted in cooperation with the Wielkopolska Bureau of Spatial Planning in Poznań was used. The statistical analysis included metrics to quantitatively characterize landscape composition, including the landscape division index (DIVISION), Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI), and Simpson’s diversity index (SIDI). The results of the study were then compared with the distribution of areas associated with different forms of landscape protection such as national parks, landscape parks, and protected landscape areas. The applied methodology and the results obtained indicate the important role of physical and geographical microregions in the complex analyses of landscape diversity and their broad application in procedures connected with landscape planning and environmental protection. Full article
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24 pages, 5542 KiB  
Article
Motivations and Satisfaction of New Zealand Domestic Tourists to Inform Landscape Design in a Nature-Based Setting
by Gill Lawson, David Dean, Yuqing He and Xinghua Huang
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12415; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212415 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Increased tourist pressures can cause the deterioration of nature-based tourist destinations and adversely affect visitor satisfaction. This study aims to identify how public participation using mobile devices on-site can assist in assessing future design scenarios for a popular nature-based destination, within a short [...] Read more.
Increased tourist pressures can cause the deterioration of nature-based tourist destinations and adversely affect visitor satisfaction. This study aims to identify how public participation using mobile devices on-site can assist in assessing future design scenarios for a popular nature-based destination, within a short day trip from Christchurch in Aotearoa New Zealand. An online survey using participants’ mobile devices at Kura Tāwhiti Castle Hill Rocks identified domestic tourists’ motivational, satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors, as associated with age and visit frequency at the destination. These factors were linked to site experiences, particularly being out in nature, that could be used to design future scenarios for similar nature-based settings in Aotearoa New Zealand. Four future scenarios using 2D photomontages were used to rank domestic visitor preferences for changing paths and tracks, fencing, signage, structures and people. The study found that the low-impact scenario with the least people was the most desirable. This high level of sensitivity of New Zealanders to change in outdoor recreational destinations suggests that nature-based settings must be designed and managed with considerable care to minimize the perception of over-crowding and the deterioration of the site experience, particularly for return visitors. Full article
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24 pages, 5739 KiB  
Article
Exploring Public Recognition and Perceived Cultural Value of the Special Qualities within English Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty
by Isabelle King and John Martin
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12178; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112178 - 4 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
As both the concept of ‘landscape’ and ‘beauty’ have very perceptual definitions, they must be assessed by large groups to be appropriately addressed. Therefore, amid a review of AONB designation, cultural perceptions of what is valuable within these designated areas is of paramount [...] Read more.
As both the concept of ‘landscape’ and ‘beauty’ have very perceptual definitions, they must be assessed by large groups to be appropriately addressed. Therefore, amid a review of AONB designation, cultural perceptions of what is valuable within these designated areas is of paramount importance. Ecosystem services have gained traction as a way to assign social value to the non-physical benefits landscape can provide. AONB landscapes have a list of ‘special qualities’ (SQs) which are the features and characteristics of this area that warrant its protection. This study looks at the extent to which SQs reflect public values. Multiple methods including photo elicitation, participatory mapping, in-person surveys and social media data analysis have been used. The study suggests that when presented with the same landscape there is huge diversity as to what should be considered ‘special’. There is a general preference of landscape heterogeneity, therefore no one SQ could be more important than any of the others if considered in isolation. SQs that have a tangible link to the cultural ecosystem services they provide, were most appreciated. All methods used had their own benefits and flaws, hence future research should use a combination of methods to address perception issues. Full article
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20 pages, 4971 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Tuscany Landscape Structure According to the Regional Landscape Plan Partition
by Martina Venturi, Francesco Piras, Federica Corrieri, Beatrice Fiore, Antonio Santoro and Mauro Agnoletti
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5424; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105424 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
The landscape is considered a strategic asset by the Tuscan regional government, also for its economic role, meaning that a specific Landscape Plan has been developed, dividing the region into 20 Landscape Units and representing the main planning instrument at the regional level. [...] Read more.
The landscape is considered a strategic asset by the Tuscan regional government, also for its economic role, meaning that a specific Landscape Plan has been developed, dividing the region into 20 Landscape Units and representing the main planning instrument at the regional level. Following the aims of the Landscape Plan and the guidelines of the European Landscape Convention, it is necessary to develop an adequate assessment of the landscape, evaluating the main typologies and their characteristics. The aim of this research is to carry out an assessment of the landscape diversity in Tuscany based on 20 study areas, analyzing land uses and landscape mosaic structures through the application of landscape metrics: number of land uses, mean patch size (MPS), Hill’s diversity number, edge density (ED), patch density (PD), land use diversity (LUD). The results highlight a correlation between the landscape typologies (forest, agricultural, mixed, periurban) and the complexity of the landscape structure, especially in relation to MPS and PD, while the combination of PD and LUD calculated on the basis of a hexagonal grid allows obtaining landscape complexity maps. Despite the phenomena of reforestation and urban sprawl of recent decades, Tuscany still preserves different landscape typologies characterized by a good level of complexity. This is particularly evident in mixed landscapes, while agricultural landscapes have a larger variability because of different historical land organization forms. The methodology applied in this study provided a large amount of data about land uses and the landscape mosaic structure and complexity and proved to be effective in assessing the landscape structure and in creating a database that can represent a baseline for future monitoring. Full article
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16 pages, 4224 KiB  
Article
Land Cover Change and Landscape Transformations (2000–2018) in the Rural Municipalities of the Upper Silesia-Zagłębie Metropolis
by Katarzyna Pukowiec-Kurda and Hana Vavrouchová
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 9911; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239911 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2196
Abstract
Dynamic changes in the landscape have been observed in recent years. They are particularly visible in areas with a high degree of anthropopressure. An example of such areas is metropolitan regions and their immediate rural surroundings. The purpose of this article is to [...] Read more.
Dynamic changes in the landscape have been observed in recent years. They are particularly visible in areas with a high degree of anthropopressure. An example of such areas is metropolitan regions and their immediate rural surroundings. The purpose of this article is to identify changes in land cover in the rural municipalities within metropolises and detect the processes of landscape transformation in rural areas, which are extremely sensitive to anthropopressure. The dynamics of land cover changes in the years 2000–2018 were determined using a change index (ChI), and their directions were determined using the indicator of changes in types of land cover. Corine Land Cover for level 2 groups (1.1–4.2) was used as research material, and the Upper Silesia-Zagłębie Metropolis was selected as the model area. The greatest changes in the landscape were observed in built-up areas, industrial areas, meadows and mining areas. This is due to the disappearance of the mining industry that was traditional for this region and the ongoing suburbanization process, as well as the re-industrialization of modern industry and the abandonment of arable land in rural areas. Full article
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17 pages, 6900 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Spatial Structure of the Landscape of Isolated Forest Complexes in the 19th and 20th Centuries and Their Potential Effects on Supporting Ecosystem Services Related to the Protection of Biodiversity Using the Example of the Niemodlin Forests (SW Poland)
by Krzysztof Badora and Radosław Wróbel
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4237; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104237 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
This study assesses the changes in the spatial structure of the landscape between 1825 and 2019 in the isolated, protected forest complex of the Niemodlin Forests. Based on the analysis of changes in this structure, a change the supporting ecosystem services related to [...] Read more.
This study assesses the changes in the spatial structure of the landscape between 1825 and 2019 in the isolated, protected forest complex of the Niemodlin Forests. Based on the analysis of changes in this structure, a change the supporting ecosystem services related to the protection of biodiversity was proposed. The landscape metrics were used separately for the analysis of the structure of the whole landscape, and individual types of ecosystems were used in the research. There were no major changes in the share of individual types of ecosystems during the period under review. At the same time, a very large increase in built-up areas and tree stands was found in 1825. Landscape metrics point to internal changes in the landscape composition, which is important for the functioning of the landscape and is related to the fragmentation and increasing isolation of ecosystems. Changes in the share of the surface of individual types of ecosystems in the landscape do not provide enough information about the actual structural and functional changes and ongoing ecosystem support services. There has been ecosystem degradation that is associated with freshwater habitats—surface waters, marshlands, meadows and pastures, as well as ecosystem support services related to these habitats. Changes in the spatial structure of the landscape cannot be solely deduced on the basis of changes in landscape metrics that are calculated for the whole landscape. Changes in the spatial composition of individual groups of ecosystems should be analyzed. Landscape metrics are very helpful in studying changes in the structure and function of ecosystem services. Full article
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18 pages, 3200 KiB  
Article
Mountain Meadows and Glades of the Carpathians—Type or Element of Landscape? The Problem of Delimitation and Typology of Mountain Pasture Landscapes
by Michał Sobala
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3707; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093707 - 3 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
The typologies of landscapes of individual states that have ratified the European Landscape Convention do not include mountain pasture landscapes. Pasture landscapes in the Carpathians are preserved in a relatively good condition, although their spatial extent has considerably shrunk over the last few [...] Read more.
The typologies of landscapes of individual states that have ratified the European Landscape Convention do not include mountain pasture landscapes. Pasture landscapes in the Carpathians are preserved in a relatively good condition, although their spatial extent has considerably shrunk over the last few decades. The article demonstrates that mountain meadows and glades in the Carpathians meet all the conditions that allow them to be classified as a type of landscape, and thus they should be included in national typologies of landscapes. Firstly, they constitute a set of natural (non-forest vegetation) and anthropogenic (traditional shepherding buildings) objects. Secondly, they are a dynamic system in which natural, social and economic processes take place. They are also a source of stimuli, affecting different human senses and values and are a system that provides various real and potential services. The inclusion of mountain pasture landscapes in national typologies may provide a stronger basis for their protection. Full article
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25 pages, 9175 KiB  
Article
Sectoral Analysis of Landscape Interiors (SALI) as One of the Tools for Monitoring Changes in Green Infrastructure Systems
by Irena Niedźwiecka-Filipiak, Justyna Rubaszek, Anna Podolska and Jowita Pyszczek
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3192; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083192 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2561
Abstract
The aim of this article was to present Sectoral Analysis of Landscape Interiors (SALI). This method uses the idea of a landscape interior understood as a fragment of a landscape perceived from the level of a person standing at a given point. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to present Sectoral Analysis of Landscape Interiors (SALI). This method uses the idea of a landscape interior understood as a fragment of a landscape perceived from the level of a person standing at a given point. The analyses were conducted in two stages: stage I—the quantitative stage, and stage II—the qualitative stage. The first part of the research was the analysis of the percentage share of particular elements of landscape interiors in the images perpetuated in photographs, taking into account their level of transparency. The second part was the assessment of their quality based on expert knowledge. The use of the SALI method in the context of the analysis of greenery changes over time was illustrated on the example of the landscape interior of the main street in the village of Psary in Poland. The research was carried out at a time interval of 10 years—for the years 2009 and 2019. The results of the study indicate very large changes and loss of greenery (especially trees) and the associated deterioration of the landscape. The findings confirm the suitability of the method in landscape research at a human scale. Full article
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