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Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Air, Climate Change and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 October 2021) | Viewed by 38606

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
Interests: arctic climate and environmental change; sea ice origins; trajectories and change; responding to change; novel educational approaches; interdisciplinary research; education and career advancement

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Guest Editor
Department of Geography, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9, Canada
Interests: legal geographies of indigenous land rights in Russian North; cultural geographies of reindeer husbandry in Russian North; human development in Circumpolar North; sustainable development in North

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Guest Editor
1. Nordland Research Institute, 8049 Bodø, Norway
2. Faculty of Social Science, Nord University, 8049 Bodø, Norway
Interests: arctic development; adaptation to climate change; societal transformation to low emission society; sustainable adaptation; coproduction of knowledge; local communities; indigenous people and nature-based livelihoods; socio-political change in svalbard; interdisciplinary approach to arctic change; multiple stressors and cascading effects; coastal communities and livelihoods

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Guest Editor
Snowchange Cooperative, 81235 Lehtoi, Finland
Interests: restoration of boreal and Arctic habitats; freshwater ecosystems; fisheries; indigenous livelihoods; Siberia; Alaska; Canada; Sámi and Finnish areas; decolonisation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Decisions made now are fundamentally shaping the multiple Arctics of 2050.  This Special Issue explores the past, present and future of Arctic sustainability.  What are possible Arctic futures?  How does the current path dependency on fossil fuels interplay with the need for long term Arctic sustainability?  What do trajectories towards sustainable Arctics look like?   How might these differ for different arctic populations? What are the effects of human activities in the Arctic on local environmental conditions?  What can we do to reduce disruptions and mitigate impacts? How do the current and projected changes in climate affect issues of Indigenous rights, rights to resources and human rights?  Do we have the proper tools, mechanisms and regulations to manage the multiple Arctics?  How do we ensure involvement in decision-making for sustainability?  How do we decide on directions for management and development of arctic resources, and what voices are missing?  What steps should we be taking now, such as coproducing knowledge for sustainability, to lay the foundation for an equitable, just and inclusive Arctic?   How do visual arts, literature, performing arts, etc. advance sustainability in the Arctic?  How is security being reimagined and redefined in the Arctic?  In looking forward, what can we learn from past experiences, as well as from recent responses to change?  

We invite contributions that advance our understanding of Arctic sustainability from all disciplines (humanities; natural, social and physical sciences) and viewpoints, and from local, national, regional, and international perspectives. The scope of this Special Issue ranges from approaches to education, capacity building, governance, history, cultural studies, societal transformation, community viability, post petroleum futures and biophysical projections, to options for mitigating, adapting and transforming to change and impacts.  

We welcome research articles and reviews that provide updates on the latest progress on critical issues as well as communications, short notes and manuscripts regarding research proposals and research ideas. Of special interest are articles and communications from arctic residents, indigenous persons, and early career scholars. 

Prof. Dr. Stephanie Pfirman
Prof. Dr. Gail Fondahl
Prof. Dr. Grete K. Hovelsrud
Dr. Tero Mustonen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Arctic
  • sustainability
  • Sustainable Development Goals/SDGs
  • futures
  • climate change
  • history
  • Indigenous peoples
  • local involvement
  • communities
  • coproduction
  • rights
  • equity
  • justice
  • governance
  • adaptation
  • mitigation
  • resilience
  • interdisciplinarity
  • multiple Arctics

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 2995 KiB  
Editorial
Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic
by Stephanie Pfirman, Gail Fondahl, Grete K. Hovelsrud and Tero Mustonen
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3732; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043732 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
This Special Issue “Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic” explores the past, present and future of Arctic sustainability [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

13 pages, 2451 KiB  
Article
Climate Change, Farming, and Gardening in Alaska: Cultivating Opportunities
by Nancy Fresco, Alec Bennett, Peter Bieniek and Carolyn Rosner
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12713; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212713 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4107
Abstract
Ongoing climate change and associated food security concerns are pressing issues globally, and are of particular concern in the far north where warming is accelerated and markets are remote. The objective of this research was to model current and projected climate conditions pertinent [...] Read more.
Ongoing climate change and associated food security concerns are pressing issues globally, and are of particular concern in the far north where warming is accelerated and markets are remote. The objective of this research was to model current and projected climate conditions pertinent to gardeners and farmers in Alaska. Research commenced with information-sharing between local agriculturalists and climate modelers to determine primary questions, available data, and effective strategies. Four variables were selected: summer season length, growing degree days, temperature of the coldest winter day, and plant hardiness zone. In addition, peonies were selected as a case study. Each variable was modeled using regional projected climate data downscaled using the delta method, followed by extraction of key variables (e.g., mean coldest winter day for a given decade). An online interface was developed to allow diverse users to access, manipulate, view, download, and understand the data. Interpretive text and a summary of the case study explained all of the methods and outcomes. The results showed marked projected increases in summer season length and growing degree days coupled with seasonal shifts and warmer winter temperatures, suggesting that agriculture in Alaska is undergoing and will continue to undergo profound change. This presents opportunities and challenges for farmers and gardeners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
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18 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
Return of Nimat?—Wild Reindeer as an Indicator of Evenki Biocultural Systems
by Tero Mustonen, Tamara Andreeva, Vyacheslav Shadrin and Kaisu Mustonen
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12107; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112107 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1983
Abstract
This paper reviews oral histories and established scientific materials regarding wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus spp.) in the Southern Sakha-Yakutia, in the Neriungri district and surrounding highlands, river valleys and taiga forest ecosystems. Wild reindeer is seen as an ecological and cultural keystone species [...] Read more.
This paper reviews oral histories and established scientific materials regarding wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus spp.) in the Southern Sakha-Yakutia, in the Neriungri district and surrounding highlands, river valleys and taiga forest ecosystems. Wild reindeer is seen as an ecological and cultural keystone species through which environmental and social changes can be understood and interpreted. Oral histories of Evenki regarding wild reindeer have been documented in the community of Iyengra between 2005 and 2020. During this 15-year-co-researchership the Southern Sakha-Yakutian area has undergone rapid industrial development affecting the forest and aquatic ecosystems. The wild reindeer lost habitats and dwindles in numbers. We demonstrate that the loss of the wild reindeer is not only a loss of biodiversity, but also of cultural and linguistic diversity as well as food security. Our interpretative and analytical frame is that of emplacement. Socio-ecological systems have the potential and capacity to reconnect and re-establish themselves in post-extractive landscapes, if three main conditions are met. These conditions for successful emplacement include (1) surviving natural core areas, (2) links to cultural landscape knowledge and (3) an agency to renew endemic links. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
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27 pages, 3327 KiB  
Article
Stay or Leave? Arctic Youth Prospects and Sustainable Futures of the Russian Arctic Communities
by Marya Rozanova-Smith
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12058; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112058 - 1 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Based on quantitative and qualitative analysis, this paper attempts to answer a research question that is critical for many Arctic communities: “What makes local youth want to leave?” Using the Russian Arctic cities of Naryan-Mar, Salekhard, and Novy Urengoy (Nenets and Yamalo-Nenets regions) [...] Read more.
Based on quantitative and qualitative analysis, this paper attempts to answer a research question that is critical for many Arctic communities: “What makes local youth want to leave?” Using the Russian Arctic cities of Naryan-Mar, Salekhard, and Novy Urengoy (Nenets and Yamalo-Nenets regions) as case studies, this article explores how local youth contribute to social sustainability and define the futures of their Arctic cities. The study identifies new variables relevant to the youth cohort built on the Urban Sustainability Index and social sustainability model. Based on 400+ questionnaires and interviews with Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth, education professionals, and public officials, this study looks at the youth’s educational and professional strategies, social activities and cultural consumption, migration patterns, and civic engagement in a broader context. This article also discusses how local youth feel disempowered in building their futures and highlights the importance of access to educational opportunities and wider career choices in the Arctic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
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39 pages, 12645 KiB  
Article
Northern Research Policy Contributions to Canadian Arctic Sustainability
by Alison D. Perrin, Gita Ljubicic and Aynslie Ogden
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12035; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112035 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4089
Abstract
Academic research plays a key role in developing understanding of sustainability issues in the Canadian Arctic, yet northern organizations and governments struggle to find research that is relevant, respectful of local interests, and that builds local capacity. Northern science and research policies communicate [...] Read more.
Academic research plays a key role in developing understanding of sustainability issues in the Canadian Arctic, yet northern organizations and governments struggle to find research that is relevant, respectful of local interests, and that builds local capacity. Northern science and research policies communicate expectations for how research should be prioritized, planned, conducted, and disseminated. They discuss northern leadership of research and outline the diverse roles that northerners and northern organizations could fill in research programs and projects. Many of these documents are founded on the need for research to improve environmental, economic, and social sustainability in the Canadian North and provide insight into how academia can support a northern-led Arctic sustainability research agenda. The goal of this study is to examine northern research-policy documents to identify commonalities amongst the goals and priorities of northern organizations and their shared expectations for research in northern Canada. The objectives are to understand how organizations expect researchers to engage in and conduct research, how research programs can align with northern science policy objectives, and how academic research can support policy and decision-making related to sustainability. Through a quantitative content analysis combined with a qualitative thematic analysis, this comprehensive review examines research policy, strategy, guidance, and program documents produced by northern and northern-focused governments and Indigenous organizations. Relationships, partnership, and communication are the foundations of relevant and applicable research, requiring both resources and time for local and partner participation. Our analysis shows that researchers should consider potential policy applications for sustainability research early on in the development of research projects, ensuring that relevant local and policy partners are involved in designing the project and communicating results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
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16 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Gender Equality for a Thriving, Sustainable Arctic
by Embla Eir Oddsdóttir, Hjalti Ómar Ágústsson, Eva-Maria Svensson, Gunhild Hoogensen Gjørv, Sarah Seabrook Kendall, Malgorzata (Gosia) Smieszek, Tahnee Prior, Erika Hayfield, Karla Jessen Williamson, Marya Rozanova-Smith, Andrey Petrov and Varvara Korkina Williams
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10825; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910825 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3669
Abstract
On 21 May 2021, a milestone Pan-Arctic Report: Gender Equality in the Arctic was published in tandem with the Arctic Council’s Ministerial Meeting held in Reykjavík, 19–20 May 2021. This article provides a brief review of the report and its major findings across [...] Read more.
On 21 May 2021, a milestone Pan-Arctic Report: Gender Equality in the Arctic was published in tandem with the Arctic Council’s Ministerial Meeting held in Reykjavík, 19–20 May 2021. This article provides a brief review of the report and its major findings across six chapters that address key themes concerning gender equality in the Arctic: Law and Governance, Security, Gender and Environment, Migration and Mobility, Indigeneity, Gender, Violence, Reconciliation and Empowerment and Fate Control. A major conclusion of the report is that accessible, comparable, gender-disaggregated, and Arctic -specific data is severely lacking. Further, all chapters highlight the importance of gender-based analysis and gender mainstreaming in all decision-making processes at national and regional levels. The varying roles that gender—and its intersections with existing inequalities—plays in mediating the impacts of climate change and other socioeconomic transformations are also discussed throughout the report. The Arctic Council is identified as the main driver for implementing recommendations that were provided and discussed at the Council’s Ministerial Meeting and in the Reykjavík Declaration 2021, where the eight ministers of Arctic states “Emphasize[s] the importance of gender equality and respect for diversity for sustainable development in the Arctic… encourage[s] the mainstreaming of gender-based analysis in the work of the Arctic Council and call[s] for further action to advance gender equality in the Arctic”. This report and its policy relevant highlights, address these priorities and serve as a knowledge base for promoting gender equality and non-discrimination in the Arctic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
17 pages, 3795 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Natural Resource Producing Sectors to the Economic Development of the Sakha Republic
by Shinichiro Tabata
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10142; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810142 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
This paper provides basic materials for considering the sustainability of natural resource development in the Arctic, taking the Sakha Republic as a case study of the Russian Arctic regions. The author clarifies the contribution of the mining industry to the economic development of [...] Read more.
This paper provides basic materials for considering the sustainability of natural resource development in the Arctic, taking the Sakha Republic as a case study of the Russian Arctic regions. The author clarifies the contribution of the mining industry to the economic development of Sakha with special attention paid to the contribution to government budgets by numerical and statistical analysis of regional and municipal data. The paper demonstrates that the mining industry has been a driving force of the economic growth of Sakha and that the oil sector has sharply increased its presence while the diamond sector has decreased its presence. Simultaneously, it reveals that the mining industry is unevenly developed in Sakha, which has caused significant inequality in per capita Gross Municipal Product (GMP). Then, the analysis of the paper shows that Sakha’s contribution to the federal budget has increased significantly in recent years due to growing oil production and that the diamond sector is still more influential than the oil sector in the contribution to the republican and local budgets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
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26 pages, 2574 KiB  
Article
Climate Change and Unalakleet: A Deep Analysis
by Tero Mustonen and Brie Van Dam
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9971; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179971 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
This multi-disciplinary science and Indigenous knowledge assessment paper reviews over 20 years of research materials, oral histories and Indigenous views on climate change affecting Unalakleet, Alaska, USA and Norton Sound. It brings a historical review, statistical analysis, community-based observations and wisdom from Unalakleet [...] Read more.
This multi-disciplinary science and Indigenous knowledge assessment paper reviews over 20 years of research materials, oral histories and Indigenous views on climate change affecting Unalakleet, Alaska, USA and Norton Sound. It brings a historical review, statistical analysis, community-based observations and wisdom from Unalakleet Iñupiaq knowledge holders into a critical reading of the current state of climate change impacts in the region. Through this process, two keystone species, Pacific salmon and caribou, are explored as indicators of change to convey the significance of climate impacts. We rely on this historical context to analyse the root causes of the climate crisis as experienced in Alaska, and as a result we position Indigenous resurgence, restoration and wisdom as answers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
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Other

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14 pages, 285 KiB  
Perspective
The Arctic Highlights Our Failure to Act in a Rapidly Changing World
by Peter Schlosser, Hajo Eicken, Vera Metcalf, Stephanie Pfirman, Maribeth S. Murray and Clea Edwards
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1882; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031882 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
In this perspective on the future of the Arctic, we explore actions taken to mitigate warming and adapt to change since the Paris agreement on the temperature threshold that should not be exceeded in order to avoid dangerous interference with the climate system. [...] Read more.
In this perspective on the future of the Arctic, we explore actions taken to mitigate warming and adapt to change since the Paris agreement on the temperature threshold that should not be exceeded in order to avoid dangerous interference with the climate system. Although 5 years may seem too short a time for implementation of major interventions, it actually is a considerable time span given the urgency at which we must act if we want to avoid crossing the 1.5 to <2 °C global warming threshold. Actions required include co-production of research exploring possible futures; supporting Indigenous rights holders’ and stakeholders’ discourse on desired futures; monitoring Arctic change; funding strategic, regional adaptation; and, deep decarbonization through transformation of the energy system coupled with negative carbon emissions. We are now in the decisive decade concerning the future we leave behind for the next generations. The Arctic’s future depends on global action, and in turn, the Arctic plays a critical role in the global future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
4 pages, 167 KiB  
Perspective
Shaping Arctic’s Tomorrow through Indigenous Knowledge Engagement and Knowledge Co-Production
by Tatiana Degai, Andrey N. Petrov, Renuka Badhe, Parnuna P. Egede Dahl, Nina Döring, Stephan Dudeck, Thora M. Herrmann, Andrei Golovnev, Liza Mack, Elle Merete Omma, Gunn-Britt Retter, Gertrude Saxinger, Annette J. M. Scheepstra, Chief Vyachelav Shadrin, Norma Shorty and Colleen Strawhacker
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031331 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4693
Abstract
This perspective presents a statement of the 10th International Congress of Arctic Social Sciences Indigenous Knowledge and knowledge co-production panel and discussion group, 20 July 2021. The statement is designed to serve as a characterization of the state-of-the-art and guidance for further advancement [...] Read more.
This perspective presents a statement of the 10th International Congress of Arctic Social Sciences Indigenous Knowledge and knowledge co-production panel and discussion group, 20 July 2021. The statement is designed to serve as a characterization of the state-of-the-art and guidance for further advancement of Indigenous Knowledge and knowledge co-production in the Arctic. It identifies existing challenges and provides specific recommendations for researchers, Indigenous communities, and funding agencies on meaningful recognition and engagement of Indigenous Knowledge systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
5 pages, 206 KiB  
Perspective
Sustaining the Arctic in Order to Sustain the Global Climate System
by Daniel Bodansky and Rafe Pomerance
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10622; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910622 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
The unraveling of the Arctic is bad enough for the Arctic itself, but it will have enormous consequences for the entire planet since the Arctic is a crucial component of the global climate system. Current policies do not provide much hope to prevent [...] Read more.
The unraveling of the Arctic is bad enough for the Arctic itself, but it will have enormous consequences for the entire planet since the Arctic is a crucial component of the global climate system. Current policies do not provide much hope to prevent these harms. We have committed the earth to too much warming to take a step-by-step approach. We have entered a period of history when planetary management has become unavoidable and must move forward on many fronts simultaneously. Key components of a multiprong approach include decarbonization, focus on short-lived climate forcers, greenhouse gas removal, adaptation, Arctic interventions, and solar climate intervention. This article discusses the last option, which may be the only means of cooling the earth quickly enough to save Arctic ice and permafrost. Scientific research is essential to better understand its feasibility, effectiveness, and safety. However, research is not enough; we need to be ready to respond right away if Arctic or global temperatures need to be lowered quickly. This means we need significant technology research and development so that solar climate intervention technologies are deployment-ready in the relatively near future, perhaps in a decade or two, and could be used should the need arise and should research show that they are effective and safe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
8 pages, 210 KiB  
Essay
Arctic Futures–Future Arctics?
by Oran R. Young
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9420; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169420 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Is the Arctic sufficiently distinctive and uniform to justify adopting a holistic perspective in thinking about the future of the region? Or do we need to acknowledge that the Arctic encompasses a number of different subregions whose futures may diverge more or less [...] Read more.
Is the Arctic sufficiently distinctive and uniform to justify adopting a holistic perspective in thinking about the future of the region? Or do we need to acknowledge that the Arctic encompasses a number of different subregions whose futures may diverge more or less profoundly? In the aftermath of the Cold War, a view of the Arctic as a distinctive region with a policy agenda of its own arose in many quarters and played a prominent role in shaping initiatives such as the launching of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy in 1991 and the creation of the Arctic Council in 1996. Yet not everyone found this perspective persuasive at the time, and more recent developments have raised new questions about the usefulness of this perspective as a basis for thinking about the future of the Arctic. As a result, some observers take the view that we need to think more about future Arctics than about Arctic futures. Yet, today, climate change provides a central thread tying together multiple perspectives on the Arctic. The dramatic onset of climate change has turned the Arctic into the frontline with regard to the challenges of adapting to a changing biophysical setting. Ironically, the impacts of climate change also have increased the accessibility of massive reserves of hydrocarbons located in the Arctic, contributing to a feedback loop accelerating climate change. This means that the future of the Arctic will reflect the interplay between efforts to address the biophysical and socioeconomic consequences of climate change on the one hand and the influence of the driving forces underlying the political economy of energy development on the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
9 pages, 214 KiB  
Essay
Developing a Sustainable and Inclusive Northern Knowledge Ecosystem in Canada
by Gary N. Wilson
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9213; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169213 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
A knowledge ecosystem is a collection of individuals and organizations who are involved in the creation, management and dissemination of knowledge, both in the form of research and lived experience and teaching. As is the case with ecosystems more generally, they thrive on [...] Read more.
A knowledge ecosystem is a collection of individuals and organizations who are involved in the creation, management and dissemination of knowledge, both in the form of research and lived experience and teaching. As is the case with ecosystems more generally, they thrive on variation and diversity, not only in the types of individuals and organizations involved but also in the roles that they play. For many decades, the northern knowledge ecosystem in Canada was dominated and controlled by Western scholarly approaches and researchers based in academic institutions outside the North. More recently, this research landscape has started to change, largely in response to the efforts of Indigenous peoples and northerners to realize greater self-determination and self-government. Not only have these changes led to the development of research and educational capacity in the North, but they have also changed the way that academic researchers engage in the research process. The keys to maintaining the future sustainability and health of the northern knowledge ecosystem will be encouraging diversity and balance in the research methodologies and approaches used to generate knowledge about the North and ensuring that the needs and priorities of northern and Indigenous peoples are recognized and addressed in the research process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
7 pages, 193 KiB  
Essay
What Does the Arctic’s Unstable Past Say about a Sustainable Future?
by Henry P. Huntington
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 8067; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13148067 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Visions for tomorrow’s Arctic include complementary and conflicting ideas such as sustainability, security, prosperity, biodiversity, Indigenous rights, and more. Implicit in many of these views is the assumption that the right combination of policy and action will create a stable configuration producing the [...] Read more.
Visions for tomorrow’s Arctic include complementary and conflicting ideas such as sustainability, security, prosperity, biodiversity, Indigenous rights, and more. Implicit in many of these views is the assumption that the right combination of policy and action will create a stable configuration producing the intended outcome for the foreseeable future. Even a cursory review of Arctic history, however, shows that economic, political, cultural, ecological, climatic, and other forms of stability are unlikely. Instead, the lessons of the past suggest that local and global factors will continue to interact to create high variability. Individual policies and institutions may help promote effective responses to that variability, but a commitment to enduring equity is necessary to foster long-term well-being for the Arctic and its peoples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shaping Tomorrow’s Arctic)
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