Special Issue "Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Edoardo Bocci
Website
Guest Editor
Università eCampus, Novedrate, Italy
Interests: hot and cold recycling; waste materials in bituminous mixtures; clear binders; linear viscoelasticity and damage modeling; orthotropic steel deck pavements

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Similarly to many other engineering fields, road pavement industry strongly affects the critical issues of our generation, such as climate change, pollutant emission, exploitation of natural resources, and the economic crisis. For this reason, technicians and researchers are ravenously looking for sustainable solutions to be implemented in the current road construction system, with the goal:

  • to reduce the consumption of energy and virgin materials;
  • to run environmentally and economically friendly maintenance;
  • to recycle wastes from different industrial processes;
  • to decrease the noise, the pollution and the heat generated by traffic, particularly in urban contexts.

This Special Issue aims to collect worthy studies that combine the aforementioned solutions dealing with:

  • Hot, warm, and cold recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement;
  • Marginal materials for asphalt pavements;
  • Innovative sustainable materials;
  • Durability and environmental aspects;
  • Structure performance, modeling, and design;
  • Advanced trends in rehabilitation and preservation;
  • Surface characteristics and road safety;
  • Management system/life cycle analysis;
  • Urban heat island mitigation;
  • Energy harvesting.

Original papers related to the above topics and also dealing generally with methodologies, case studies, simulations, and experimental testing are welcome.

Thank you for your contributions.

Dr. Edoardo Bocci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable materials
  • Recycling
  • Environmental impact reduction
  • Durability
  • Road safety
  • Sustainable design and construction
  • Sustainable maintenance

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Ageing and Cooling of Hot-Mix-Asphalt during Hauling and Paving—A Laboratory and Site Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8612; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208612 - 17 Oct 2020
Abstract
In road construction, it can happen that, for different reasons, the time between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) production and paving is extended to some hours. This can be reflected in several problems such as mix cooling and temperature segregation, but also in an extremely [...] Read more.
In road construction, it can happen that, for different reasons, the time between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) production and paving is extended to some hours. This can be reflected in several problems such as mix cooling and temperature segregation, but also in an extremely severe bitumen ageing due to its prolonged exposure to high temperatures. This paper deals with the investigation of these phenomena both in the laboratory and on site. In particular, the first part of the research aimed at observing the influence of the conditioning time, when the loose HMA is kept in the oven at a high temperature, on the mix properties. The second part focused on the ageing/cooling that happens on site during HMA hauling, as a function of time and type of truck. Temperatures were monitored using a thermal camera and different probes, and gyratory compactor specimens were produced by sampling some HMA from the trucks every 1 h for 3 h. The results showed that HMA stiffness rises if the time when the loose mix stays in the laboratory oven before compaction increases. However, on site, the HMA volumetric and mechanical properties do not change with hauling time up to 3 h, probably because the external material in the truck bed protects the HMA core from the access of oxygen, hindering bitumen oxidation and loss of volatiles. The temperature monitoring highlighted that temperature segregation, after 3 h hauling, can be higher than 30 °C but it can be reduced using insulated truck beds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Production Costs of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Involving Natural Zeolite and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6410; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166410 - 10 Aug 2020
Abstract
Asphalt mixture is the most widely used material in road construction, and the industry is developing more sustainable technologies. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a promising alternative as it saves energy, reduces fuel consumption and generates fewer gas and fume emissions, while maintaining [...] Read more.
Asphalt mixture is the most widely used material in road construction, and the industry is developing more sustainable technologies. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a promising alternative as it saves energy, reduces fuel consumption and generates fewer gas and fume emissions, while maintaining a similar performance to hot mix asphalt (HMA). This paper presents an evaluation of the gas emissions at laboratory scale, as well as the energy consumption and production costs, of five types of WMA with the addition of natural zeolite. The control mixture was a HMA manufactured at 155 °C. The mixtures evaluated were two WMA manufactured at 135 °C with 0.3% and 0.6% natural zeolite, and three WMA with partial replacement of raw materials by 10%, 20% and 30% of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP); these mixtures, called WMA–RAP, were manufactured at 125 °C, 135 °C and 145 °C, respectively. The results indicated that all the mixtures evaluated reduced CO and CO2 emissions by 2–6% and 17–37%, respectively. The energy consumption presented a 13% decrease. In the current situation, the production costs for WMA with 0.3 and 0.6% natural zeolite are slightly higher than the control mixture, because the saving achieved in fuel consumption is lower than the current cost of the additive. On the other hand, WMA manufactured with the addition of natural zeolite and RAP could produce cost savings of up to 25%, depending on the amounts of RAP and natural zeolite used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Shear-Torque Fatigue Performance of Geogrid-Reinforced Asphalt Interlayers
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4381; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114381 - 27 May 2020
Abstract
Interlayer reinforcement systems represent a valid solution to improve performance and extend the service life of asphalt pavements, reducing maintenance costs. The main issue is that the presence of reinforcement may hinder the full transmission of stresses between asphalt layers, reducing the overall [...] Read more.
Interlayer reinforcement systems represent a valid solution to improve performance and extend the service life of asphalt pavements, reducing maintenance costs. The main issue is that the presence of reinforcement may hinder the full transmission of stresses between asphalt layers, reducing the overall pavement bearing capacity. This study aimed at evaluating the mechanical behavior of geogrid-reinforced asphalt interlayers under cyclic shear loading. To this purpose, a trial section, characterized by three types of interface (reinforced with carbon fiber grid, reinforced with glass fiber grid and unreinforced), was built. Cores were taken from the trial section to carry out shear-torque fatigue tests. Static Leutner shear tests were also performed on cored specimens having the same interface configuration. From data gathered in the present study, shear-torque fatigue tests have proved to be a powerful tool for investigating reinforced specimens. Results clearly ranked the investigated materials, showing that the glass fiber grid has the lowest shear fatigue performance in comparison with the other two interfaces at 20 °C. However, the shear fatigue resistance of glass fiber grid increases significantly at 10 °C. Finally, an interesting correlation was found between cyclic and static shear test results that should be better investigated in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Porous Concrete for Urban Pavements Containing Metakaolin
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4243; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104243 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Alternative materials to replace cement in pavements have recently been widely studied with the purpose of decreasing the environmental impacts that the construction industry generates. In this context, the implementation of sustainable urban drainage systems has grown, especially with porous pavements, with the [...] Read more.
Alternative materials to replace cement in pavements have recently been widely studied with the purpose of decreasing the environmental impacts that the construction industry generates. In this context, the implementation of sustainable urban drainage systems has grown, especially with porous pavements, with the intention to reduce water and environmental impacts. In the present investigation, the addition of alternative materials to minimize the use of cement in porous concrete pavements is evaluated. Starting from a partial substitution of Portland cement with metakaolin, experimental geopolymer concretes were produced with metakaolin and waste basalt powder according to several dosages. Two sets of mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the Porous Concrete Design (PCD) methodology for porous concrete mixtures with alternative materials. A deep analysis was proposed for the evaluation of the mechanical and volumetric properties of the mixtures. Results demonstrated that replacing 5% of cement with metakaolin can increase both permeability and indirect tensile strength. Geopolymer mixtures can achieve permeability significantly higher than the traditional porous concrete, but this decreases their indirect tensile strength. However, considering the promising results, an adjustment in the mix design of the geopolymer mixtures could increase their mechanical properties without negatively affecting the porosity, making these materials a suitable alternative to traditional porous cement concrete, and a solution to be used in urban pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Behavior Evaluation of Bituminous Mixtures Reinforced with Nano-Sized Additives: A Review
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8044; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198044 - 29 Sep 2020
Abstract
This article presents a comparative review of the most commonly used nano-additives for bituminous mixtures: nanoclays (NC), nanosilicates, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), nano-calcium oxide (CaO), and nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this study, the mechanical behavior of the obtained additive [...] Read more.
This article presents a comparative review of the most commonly used nano-additives for bituminous mixtures: nanoclays (NC), nanosilicates, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), nano-calcium oxide (CaO), and nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this study, the mechanical behavior of the obtained additive mixture is evaluated. According to the revised literature, the results strongly depend on type, concentration, and dispersal of used nano-additive. In fact, it has been seen that simple shear mixing followed by sonication homogenizes the distribution of the nanoparticles within the bituminous matrix and favors the bonds’ formation. The viscosity of the mixture of bitumen with nanoparticles improves with the increase of the percentage of additive added: it indicates a potential improvement to permanent deformation and rutting. Another benefit is an increased resistance of the binder to aging. Furthermore, it has been shown that the nanoparticles are able to prolong the service life of a bituminous mixture by means of various interdependent chemical–physical mechanisms that can influence the resistance to fatigue failure or the ability to self-heal. However, the effectiveness of these improvements depends on the particle type, added quantity and mixing technique, and the tests carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials)
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