Next Article in Journal
Sustainability of Business through Project Risk Identification with Use of Expert Estimates
Next Article in Special Issue
A Review on Bitumen Aging and Rejuvenation Chemistry: Processes, Materials and Analyses
Previous Article in Journal
Research on Multi-Echelon Inventory Optimization for Fresh Products in Supply Chains
Previous Article in Special Issue
Stabilising Rural Roads with Waste Streams in Colombia as an Environmental Strategy Based on a Life Cycle Assessment Methodology
Article

Comparison of the Bearing Capacity of Pavement Structures with Unbound and Cold Central-Plant Recycled Base Courses Based on FWD Data

Road Research Institute, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Linkmenų Str. 28, LT-08217 Vilnius, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edoardo Bocci
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6310; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116310
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 28 May 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials)
Bearing capacity changes over the year, depending on the water content in a pavement structure: the higher the water content, the lower the bearing capacity. As expected, the highest water content in a pavement structure is observed in the early spring as the ice lenses melt. Thus, spring is a critical period for pavement performance, because a decrease in bearing capacity results in faster pavement deterioration. The bearing capacity of pavement structures with an unbound base course and the negative effect of spring thawing on pavement performance have been analyzed by a considerable number of researchers. However, very little is known about the bearing capacity of pavement structures with a cold-recycled base course despite the significantly increasing usage of cold-recycled mixtures. This paper focuses on the bearing capacity of both unbound and cold central-plant recycled base courses at different seasons and their stability. A cold central-plant recycled (CCPR) base course was constructed from a mixture of 38.8% reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), 3.1% foamed bitumen and 2.3% cement. A virgin aggregate was added to achieve desirable aggregate gradation. The bearing capacity of the unbound and CCPR base layers, as well as the whole pavement structure, was evaluated by back-calculated E moduli from falling weight deflectometer (FWD) data. In addition to this, the residual pavement life was calculated using mechanistic-empirical pavement design principles. The results showed that the durability of pavement structures with a CCPR base course is more than seven times lower compared to that of pavement structures with an unbound base course, irrespective of season. Nevertheless, the bearing capacity (surface modulus E0) of the pavement structure with a CCPR base course gradually increases due to the curing processes of bituminous and hydraulic binders (in this study, within four years of operation, it increased by 28–47%, depending on the side of the road). View Full-Text
Keywords: bearing capacity; unbound base course; cold central-plant recycled base course; falling weight deflectometer (FWD), cold recycling in-plant bearing capacity; unbound base course; cold central-plant recycled base course; falling weight deflectometer (FWD), cold recycling in-plant
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vaitkus, A.; Gražulytė, J.; Kravcovas, I.; Mickevič, R. Comparison of the Bearing Capacity of Pavement Structures with Unbound and Cold Central-Plant Recycled Base Courses Based on FWD Data. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6310. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116310

AMA Style

Vaitkus A, Gražulytė J, Kravcovas I, Mickevič R. Comparison of the Bearing Capacity of Pavement Structures with Unbound and Cold Central-Plant Recycled Base Courses Based on FWD Data. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):6310. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116310

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vaitkus, Audrius, Judita Gražulytė, Igoris Kravcovas, and Rafal Mickevič. 2021. "Comparison of the Bearing Capacity of Pavement Structures with Unbound and Cold Central-Plant Recycled Base Courses Based on FWD Data" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 6310. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116310

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop