Next Article in Journal
Determination of the Optimal Operative Conditions for the Torrefaction of Olive Waste Biomass
Next Article in Special Issue
Behavior Evaluation of Bituminous Mixtures Reinforced with Nano-Sized Additives: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Natural Gas Consumption Forecasting
Previous Article in Special Issue
Shear-Torque Fatigue Performance of Geogrid-Reinforced Asphalt Interlayers
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Production Costs of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Involving Natural Zeolite and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco 1145, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6410; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166410
Received: 3 June 2020 / Revised: 15 July 2020 / Accepted: 22 July 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pavement Engineering and Road Materials)
Asphalt mixture is the most widely used material in road construction, and the industry is developing more sustainable technologies. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a promising alternative as it saves energy, reduces fuel consumption and generates fewer gas and fume emissions, while maintaining a similar performance to hot mix asphalt (HMA). This paper presents an evaluation of the gas emissions at laboratory scale, as well as the energy consumption and production costs, of five types of WMA with the addition of natural zeolite. The control mixture was a HMA manufactured at 155 °C. The mixtures evaluated were two WMA manufactured at 135 °C with 0.3% and 0.6% natural zeolite, and three WMA with partial replacement of raw materials by 10%, 20% and 30% of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP); these mixtures, called WMA–RAP, were manufactured at 125 °C, 135 °C and 145 °C, respectively. The results indicated that all the mixtures evaluated reduced CO and CO2 emissions by 2–6% and 17–37%, respectively. The energy consumption presented a 13% decrease. In the current situation, the production costs for WMA with 0.3 and 0.6% natural zeolite are slightly higher than the control mixture, because the saving achieved in fuel consumption is lower than the current cost of the additive. On the other hand, WMA manufactured with the addition of natural zeolite and RAP could produce cost savings of up to 25%, depending on the amounts of RAP and natural zeolite used. View Full-Text
Keywords: warm mix asphalt; natural zeolite; gas emissions; energy consumption; production costs warm mix asphalt; natural zeolite; gas emissions; energy consumption; production costs
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

T. Calabi-Floody, A.; A. Valdés-Vidal, G.; Sanchez-Alonso, E.; A. Mardones-Parra, L. Evaluation of Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Production Costs of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Involving Natural Zeolite and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Sustainability 2020, 12, 6410.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop