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Sustainable Strategies and Approaches in Conservation of the Built Heritage

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Tourism, Culture, and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 18157

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CNR-SPIN (SuPerconducting and Other INnovative Materials and Devices Institute), 84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy
Interests: nanomaterials; multifunctional coatings; durability of polymers; construction materials; stone conservation; cultural heritage; eco-efficient materials for sustainable constructions
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Guest Editor
Innovation Engineering Department, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Interests: cold-cured adhesives and matrices for FRP employed in constructions; polymeric nanostructured adhesives and coatings; hydrophobic coatings for stone conservation and wood protection; durability of polymers, adhesives and coatings; eco-efficient materials for construction and cultural heritage
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the increased incidence of restoration and conservation works on the built heritage, - especially monuments and historic buildings, perceived as a cultural value and potential tourist attractions - the sustainability of the interventions has become a key aspect in selecting the most appropriate solutions. In addition to the efficacy of the applied materials and procedures, the impact on environment, health risks for both workers and users, durability of the treatment, recurring maintenance activities, are all elements able to influence the sustainability of the overall process in terms of costs and success of intervention. Therefore, the implementation of innovative strategies and approaches is ever more necessary to optimize the conservation actions.

In this regard, this Special Issue intends to publish original research and review papers exploring sustainable procedures for cleaning, consolidation, and protection of building surfaces and structures. Contributions illustrating the evaluation of application methods, products, post-treatment monitoring and durability based on laboratory tests are welcome. The description of field trials, pilot sites and case studies are also encouraged.

Dr. Mariateresa Lettieri
Prof. Dr. Mariaenrica Frigione
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Conservation treatments
  • Eco-friendly materials
  • Surface cleaning
  • Consolidation
  • Hydrophobic treatments
  • Multifunctional coatings
  • Anti-graffiti measures
  • Monitoring
  • Durability
  • Cultural heritage
  • Sustainable solutions
  • Impact on environment

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 23022 KiB  
Article
The Extraction of Prerequisite Criteria for Environmentally Certified Adaptive Reuse of Heritage Buildings
by Elnaz Farjami and Özlem Olgaç Türker
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063536 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2745
Abstract
Heritage buildings provide a remarkable value for both the culture and the region where they are located; hence, there is a necessity for them to be conserved. Sustaining heritage buildings for future generations serves cultural sustainability and can be achieved through adaptive reuse [...] Read more.
Heritage buildings provide a remarkable value for both the culture and the region where they are located; hence, there is a necessity for them to be conserved. Sustaining heritage buildings for future generations serves cultural sustainability and can be achieved through adaptive reuse with appropriate functions as an efficient conservation approach. Moreover, harnessing the embedded energy from adaptive reuse and the improvement of environmental performance in heritage buildings plays a significant role in ecological sustainability. The aim of the study was to investigate environmental rating systems (ERS) as ecological sustainability evaluation tools and to find out mutual aspects with adaptive reuse models (ARM), thus, serving cultural sustainability. Full article
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17 pages, 25074 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Performance of Lime Mortar Coatings for Rehabilitation of Masonry Elements in Old and Historical Buildings
by Fernando G. Branco, Maria de Lurdes Belgas, Cátia Mendes, Luís Pereira and José Marcos Ortega
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063281 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
The use of lime as a binder in masonry lining mortars plays an important role in its conservation and durability. Knowledge of the mechanical characteristics of pre-existing and restoration mortars is essential in order to guarantee the compatibility between them and for avoiding [...] Read more.
The use of lime as a binder in masonry lining mortars plays an important role in its conservation and durability. Knowledge of the mechanical characteristics of pre-existing and restoration mortars is essential in order to guarantee the compatibility between them and for avoiding the appearance of pathologies. The paper mainly focuses on the study of the mechanical performance of lime-based mortars to be applied in rehabilitation works in old buildings. Four types of mortars were tested with very similar workability, based on lime putty, aerial lime, and hydraulic lime. Sand and crushed rock powder were used as aggregates. Compressive and flexural strengths of the mortars were determined, as well as their ultrasonic pulse velocity. Furthermore, specific tests were carried out to characterize the performance of the mortar when used as a binder for plasters and coatings, such as the development of cracking, superficial water absorption under low pressure, and pull-off strength. According to the results obtained, mortars with lime putty showed better mechanical properties, while those with aerial lime had better behavior regarding water absorption under pressure. Despite that, it was generally possible to verify the adequacy of the studied mortars to be used in the rehabilitation of masonry elements. Full article
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23 pages, 10571 KiB  
Article
Housing Buildings’ Characterization at Corvo Village (Azores) Historical Center: Towards a Sustainable Rehabilitation Process
by Ana I.P. Salvador, Catarina P. Mouraz, Lídia Catarino, Victor Mestre and José Mendes Silva
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13042352 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
Corvo is the smallest island of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores and an unexplored territory, with one single village. Scarce studies have been conducted regarding its built heritage, and deep knowledge of the constructions is necessary for conservation actions to be carried [...] Read more.
Corvo is the smallest island of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores and an unexplored territory, with one single village. Scarce studies have been conducted regarding its built heritage, and deep knowledge of the constructions is necessary for conservation actions to be carried out. This article presents the architectonic and constructive characterization of housing building features that compose Corvo village’s historical center, focusing on its characteristics, dissonances, and conservation state. A case study regarding one housing building is presented. This research intends to contribute to a deeper knowledge of these buildings’ identity, constituting the first step towards future rehabilitation processes that can improve the inhabitants’ quality of life and simultaneously value the territory’s singularity. Full article
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19 pages, 10631 KiB  
Article
Indoor Camping in Fortified Heritage Buildings: A New Way of Sustainable Tourism Valorization
by Roberta Kontošić Pamić, Iva Slivar and Tamara Floričić
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1215; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031215 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2586
Abstract
Indoor camping is an innovative, sustainable model of accommodation, the least intrusive one in solid facilities. Its temporary tourism function demands almost no additional construction work, meaning no permanent modification of space is needed for tourism purposes. Fortifications and defence buildings are recognised [...] Read more.
Indoor camping is an innovative, sustainable model of accommodation, the least intrusive one in solid facilities. Its temporary tourism function demands almost no additional construction work, meaning no permanent modification of space is needed for tourism purposes. Fortifications and defence buildings are recognised as valuable cultural attractions and present an anthropogenic resource with potential for touristic valorisation, both as sightseeing facilities as well as accommodation facilities. This paper explores the connection between the requirements of heritage protection of fortifications and the requirements of the application of indoor camping in these fortifications. The purpose of this paper is to help conserve fortifications by providing funding for their maintenance with the application of this innovative accommodation model respecting the principles of sustainability and health and safety standards in post-Covid tourism. The goal is to provide a general framework that could reconcile tourism businesses on one side and conservators on the other. The main scientific contribution is summarised in the framework of adequate implementation of indoor camping in fortified buildings according to conservators’ requirements. The interview technique was used to assess this. The authors found that indoor camping can be a suitable accommodation model in fortified buildings. The key limitation of the model is based on the fact that an individual approach is necessary for every heritage building, as well as fortification, since they are unique. Therefore, each application of an indoor camping model should receive a proper conservators’ permit before the entrepreneurship venture. Furthermore, the opinions of key stakeholders were also investigated. Full article
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13 pages, 4992 KiB  
Article
Detection of the TiO2 Concentration in the Protective Coatings for the Cultural Heritage by Means of Hyperspectral Data
by Antonio Costanzo, Donatella Ebolese, Silvestro Antonio Ruffolo, Sergio Falcone, Carmelo la Piana, Mauro Francesco La Russa, Massimo Musacchio and Maria Fabrizia Buongiorno
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010092 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Nanotechnology-based materials are currently being tested in the protection of cultural heritage: ethyl silicate or silica nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous colloidal suspensions mixed with titanium dioxide are used as a coating for stone materials. These coatings can play a key role against the [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology-based materials are currently being tested in the protection of cultural heritage: ethyl silicate or silica nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous colloidal suspensions mixed with titanium dioxide are used as a coating for stone materials. These coatings can play a key role against the degradation of stone materials, due to the deposit of organic matter and other contaminants on the substrate, a phenomenon that produces a greater risk for the monuments in urban areas because of the increasing atmospheric pollution. However, during the application phase, it is important to evaluate the amount of titanium dioxide in the coatings on the substrate, as it can produce a coverage effect on the asset. In this work, we present the hyperspectral data obtained through a field spectroradiometer on samples of different stone materials, which have been prepared in laboratory with an increasing weight percentage of titanium dioxide from 0 to 8 wt%. The data showed spectral signatures dependent on the content of titanium dioxide in the wavelength range 350–400 nm. Afterwards, blind tests were performed on other samples in order to evaluate the reliability of these measurements in detecting the unknown weight percentage of titanium dioxide. Moreover, an investigation was also performed on a test application of nanoparticle coatings on a stone statue located in a coastal town in Calabria (southern Italy). The results showed that the surveys can be useful for verifying the phase of application of the coating on cultural heritage structures; however, they could also be used to check the state of the coated stone directly exposed over time to atmospheric, biological and chemical agents. Full article
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15 pages, 505 KiB  
Article
The Attractiveness of Adaptive Heritage Reuse: A Theoretical Framework
by Hung-Ming Tu
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062372 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5066
Abstract
Adaptive heritage reuse is a useful method to bring new meaning into a culture, manage heritage sites, and promote tourism development. However, it is not always successful, and there is no theoretical framework to understand its attractiveness and value. This study aimed at [...] Read more.
Adaptive heritage reuse is a useful method to bring new meaning into a culture, manage heritage sites, and promote tourism development. However, it is not always successful, and there is no theoretical framework to understand its attractiveness and value. This study aimed at developing such a theoretical framework based on the analysis of nine cases of adaptive heritage reuse in Taiwan. The probe question technique of qualitative interview was used to assess the attraction framework. A total of 90 respondents were interviewed based on constant comparative analysis with the sampling strategy of theoretical saturation. The results illustrate the heritage and activities of the reuse environments, including natural and regional environments. These environments produce recreational values, including self-growth, health benefits, and social benefits. As promoting activities is an important attraction for tourists in the heritage reuse environment, the natural environment can be used to plan and design heritage outdoor activities. Finally, the regional environment can be an important basis for assessing the feasibility of adaptive heritage reuse, including historical streets, surrounding tourist attractions, and high transportation accessibility. This theoretical framework can be used to achieve sustainable management of heritage sites. Full article
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