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Disaster Resilience and Sustainability of Structures and Infrastructures

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2023) | Viewed by 19282

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China
Interests: seismic resilience of bridge; high-performance material; durability of concrete structure

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Guest Editor
College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Interests: seismic fragility analysis of structures; seismic risk and resilience evaluation of structures; progressive collapse performance of structures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Wuhan 430074, China
Interests: seismic resilience; seismic fragility; fiber-reinforced concrete; performance-based design; data-driven and machine learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China
Interests: seismic performance of bridge; frozen soil-structure interaction; earthquake prevention and disaster mitigation of infrastructures in cold regions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed academic journal, indexed by the Science Citation Index Expanded and Social Sciences Citation Index (Web of Science), as well as by Scopus and other databases. Its impact factor is 3.889 (2022) and its five-year impact factor is 4.089 (2022).

This Special Issue is devoted to the topic of the disaster resilience and the sustainability of structures and infrastructures. Building structures and infrastructures (including bridges, tunnels, subways, ports, etc.) may suffer from the effects of multiple disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, landslides, fires and explosions during service life, resulting in huge casualties and economic losses. In recent years, the design concept of disaster resistance has gradually developed from structural safety to the disaster resilience, as well as, the building structure and infrastructure engineering services in harsh environments. Service performance gradually deteriorates due to steel corrosion, freeze–thaw cycle and concrete carbonization, which reduces disaster resilience and seriously affects structural safety.

In recent years, new materials, including high-strength steel, high-strength reinforcement, high-strength concrete, UHPC, and ECC, are gradually coming into use in structure and infrastructure engineering. The use of these new materials could enhance disaster resistance and the durability of structures. Meanwhile, innovative structural systems based the low-damage concept can improve the disaster resilience of structure and infrastructure engineering. Moreover, the rapid repair method can achieve rapid repair in the contexts of disasters and enhance the service life of structures, which is also a valid method of improving structural service performance.

The new theories, methods and technologies, as well as other research works that can improve the disaster resilience and sustainable performance of structure and infrastructure engineering, are welcome in this Special Issue. Here, we aim to provide a valuable platform to achieve important communication and further broaden the research ideas of the field in this area.

Topics may include but are not limited to:

  • resilience assessment of structures and infrastructures;
  • multi-disaster effects, including those from earthquakes, blasts, collisions, fires, wind, waves, floods and landslides, as well as multi-hazards;
  • resilient structural systems, including the isolation system, low-damage system and rocking system;
  • the use of high-performance material (including high-strength steel, high-strength reinforcement, high-strength concrete, UHPC and ECC) in structures and infrastructure engineering;
  • the rapid repair method;
  • service performance of structures and infrastructures in extreme environments (including marine environments, frozen soil environments and extremely low temperature environments);
  • lifetime service performance of structures and infrastructure;
  • data-driven and machine learning-based approaches to disaster resilience assessment.

Dr. Junsheng Su
Prof. Dr. Xiaohui Yu
Dr. Yutao Pang
Dr. Xiyin Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • structures
  • infrastructure engineering
  • experimental study
  • numerical simulation
  • fragility analysis
  • disaster resilience
  • earthquake
  • multi-hazards
  • resilience structural system
  • high-performance materials
  • post-disaster repair
  • extreme environment
  • cold region engineering
  • long-term service performance
  • data-driven
  • machine learning

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

34 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Sustainable Development of Community (Social) Disaster Resilience in Serbia: Demographic and Socio-Economic Impacts
by Vladimir M. Cvetković and Vanja Šišović
Sustainability 2024, 16(7), 2620; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16072620 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 852
Abstract
This paper presents the results of quantitative research examining the impacts of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the sustainable development of community disaster resilience. The survey was carried out utilizing a questionnaire distributed to, and subsequently collected online from, 321 participants during January [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of quantitative research examining the impacts of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the sustainable development of community disaster resilience. The survey was carried out utilizing a questionnaire distributed to, and subsequently collected online from, 321 participants during January 2024. The study employed an adapted version of the ‘5S’ social resilience framework (62 indicators), encompassing five sub-dimensions—social structure, social capital, social mechanisms, social equity and diversity, and social belief. To explore the relationship between predictors and the sustainable development of community disaster resilience in Serbia, various statistical methods, such as t-tests, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multivariate linear regression, were used. The results of the multivariate regressions across various community disaster resilience subscales indicate that age emerged as the most significant predictor for the social structure subscale. At the same time, education stood out as the primary predictor for the social capital subscale. Additionally, employment status proved to be the most influential predictor for both social mechanisms and social equity-diversity subscales, with property ownership being the key predictor for the social beliefs subscale. The findings can be used to create strategies and interventions aimed at enhancing the sustainable development of resilience in communities in Serbia by addressing the intricate interplay between demographic characteristics, socio-economic factors, and their ability to withstand, adapt to, and recover from different disasters. Full article
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15 pages, 14793 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Influence of Steel Structures in Concrete Subgrades on the Detection of Subgrade Distresses by Ground-Penetrating Radar
by Mingzhou Bai, Hongyu Liu, Zhuangzhuang Cui, Dayong Wang, Juntao Han, Chunrong Gao and Shuanglai Li
Sustainability 2023, 15(24), 16656; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152416656 - 7 Dec 2023
Viewed by 3669
Abstract
The detection of subgrade distresses in ballastless track railways poses a formidable challenge due to the presence of steel interference caused by the unique characteristics of high-speed rail track slabs and the dense arrangement of the steel reinforcement mesh within them. Here, we [...] Read more.
The detection of subgrade distresses in ballastless track railways poses a formidable challenge due to the presence of steel interference caused by the unique characteristics of high-speed rail track slabs and the dense arrangement of the steel reinforcement mesh within them. Here, we aim to examine the influence of varying distribution patterns of steel reinforcement in ballastless tracks on the detection of subgrade distresses using ground-penetrating radar. Through a combination of on-site testing and forward modeling, this paper analyzes the interference of steel reinforcement on the detection of voids beneath the steel using electromagnetic waves. The research findings reveal that incident electromagnetic waves from the ground-penetrating radar experience attenuation near steel reinforcements, with only a fraction able to penetrate the surface layer and propagate into the subsurface through interstitial gaps between the reinforcing bars. Furthermore, this influence diminishes as the spacing between the reinforcing bars increases and the bar diameter decreases. When steel bars are distributed on the upper and lower layers, the detection results of the lower void are most significantly influenced by the interlocking of the steel bars in the two layers. These research results can offer theoretical and technical support for the detection of ailments in high-speed railway subgrades. Full article
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19 pages, 13146 KiB  
Article
Influence of Climate Warming on the Ground Surface Stability over Permafrost along the Qinghai–Tibet Engineering Corridor
by Tao Zhao, Chong Wang and Jiachen Wang
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16412; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316412 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The warming climate has posed a serious threat on ground surface stability. In permafrost regions, ground surface instability may induce engineering and geological disasters, especially for the engineering corridor. It is difficult to evaluate ground surface stability over permafrost because the stability is [...] Read more.
The warming climate has posed a serious threat on ground surface stability. In permafrost regions, ground surface instability may induce engineering and geological disasters, especially for the engineering corridor. It is difficult to evaluate ground surface stability over permafrost because the stability is influenced by various factors in permafrost regions. Many single index models cannot comprehensively evaluate the ground surface stability for permafrost. We, therefore, proposed an evaluation model considering different influential factors based on the trapezoidal fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. And the ground surface stability was calculated and analyzed along the Qinghai–Tibet Engineering Corridor under three climate warming conditions (the slow climate warming, the medium climate warming and the rapid climate warming). The results show that the ground surface stability influential factors, including the mean annual ground temperature, the active layer thickness, and the volume ice content, will be greatly changed with the warming climate. By 2100, the percentage of high-temperature permafrost (−0.5 °C < T ≤ 0 °C) will increase about 29.45% with rapid climate warming. The active layer thickness will have an average thickening rate of about 0.030 m/year. Most of the high ice content permafrost will change to low ice content permafrost. The ground surface stability, therefore, will be greatly changed with the warming climate along the Qinghai–Tibet Engineering Corridor. Compared to the present, the stable area will decrease about 5.28% by 2050 under the slow climate warming. And that is approximately 7.91% and 21.78% under the medium and rapid climate warming, respectively. While in year 2100, the decrement is obviously increased. The stable area will decrease about 11.22% under the slow climate warming and about 17.3% under the medium climate warming. The proportion of stable area, however, has an increasing trend under the rapid climate warming. This phenomenon is mainly caused by the warming climate which can lead to the permafrost being degraded to melting soil. The unstable area is mainly distributed near the Chumaer River high plain, Tuotuohe–Yanshiping, Wudaoliang, Tangula Mountains, and other high-temperature permafrost areas. This paper provides a reference for geological hazard prevention and engineering construction along the Qinghai–Tibet Engineering Corridor. Full article
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20 pages, 7434 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Seismic Performance of Railway Gravity Piers with Low Reinforcement Ratios
by Xingji Lu and Jinhua Lu
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13452; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813452 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 779
Abstract
Gravity pier is a widely employed pier type in railway bridges worldwide. It is characterized by a solid cross-section with a low longitudinal reinforcement ratio which can be even lower than 0.5%. These low-reinforced gravity piers have been found to be vulnerable under [...] Read more.
Gravity pier is a widely employed pier type in railway bridges worldwide. It is characterized by a solid cross-section with a low longitudinal reinforcement ratio which can be even lower than 0.5%. These low-reinforced gravity piers have been found to be vulnerable under major earthquakes, but their seismic performance has not been fully understood. Improving the seismic safety of these piers and reducing the consumption of reinforcing steels coincide with multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 6, 7, and 9). In this concern, three main objectives are achieved in the present research. Firstly, quasi-static tests were conducted on two gravity piers with low longitudinal reinforcement ratios: 0.3% and 0.4%. The tests found the reinforcement ratio significantly affected the failure mode and seismic capacity. A typical brittle failure was observed in the specimen with the 0.3% reinforcement ratio. Fracture of longitudinal reinforcing steels was heard, and only a few cracks formed within a narrow region at the pier bottom, whereas the structural behavior of the specimen with a 0.4% reinforcement ratio was ductile, and cracks were located within a wider region (800 mm) at the pier bottom. Increasing the reinforcement ratio significantly increased the energy dissipation capacity and the displacement ductility. Secondly, finite element models of two specimens built using ANSYS were validated with test results, and then a series of finite element models were built to further investigate the influences of three important parameters on the seismic capacity. The three parameters are shear span to depth ratio, axial compression ratio, and longitudinal reinforcement ratio. The validations found that the load–displacement hysteretic curves and the distributions of concrete plastic strain from finite element analyses matched well with those from tests. Further finite element analyses found that the shear span to depth ratio was inversely correlated with the peak lateral load, but positively correlated with the displacement ductility. Conversely, increasing the axial compression ratio increased the peak lateral load but decreased the displacement ductility. Thirdly, an analytical equation was proposed to predict the displacement ductility of low-reinforced gravity piers, and the predicted ductilities agreed well with those obtained from finite element analyses. The findings provide a better understanding of the seismic performance of low-reinforced gravity piers, which helps extend the application of these piers. Furthermore, the proposed analytical equation assists in the evaluation and design of these piers. Full article
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18 pages, 8505 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Flexural Properties of FRP-Reinforced Super-Span Concrete T-Beam after Service
by Dongxu Hou, Tieming Hu, Guanhua Zhang, Boqi Chu, Jing Zhu and Xingdong Yang
Sustainability 2023, 15(15), 11903; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151511903 - 2 Aug 2023
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Super-span (20 m) non-prestressed T-section reinforced concrete beams have been in service for more than 30 years and are common in Chinese highway bridges. However, the actual performance of these super-span T-section reinforced concrete (RC) beams that have been reinforced with FRP, including [...] Read more.
Super-span (20 m) non-prestressed T-section reinforced concrete beams have been in service for more than 30 years and are common in Chinese highway bridges. However, the actual performance of these super-span T-section reinforced concrete (RC) beams that have been reinforced with FRP, including their process of failure from a service state to a failure state, has not been determined. In this study, original RC T-beams, with a 20 m span and retrofitted with FRP, were taken from a highway bridge. Their flexural performance was detected via experiments in a laboratory. The experiments revealed that the sectional strain distribution is more non-uniform. The mid-span ribs clearly play a role in strengthening the section and the bearing reservation was studied based on a subsequent sectional analysis. It became clear that the load-bearing reservation of an old super-span T-beam changes during the entire life of the specimen; not only because of the depression of the resistant capacity and the reinforced measure, but also due to the updates to load codes. Full article
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20 pages, 10331 KiB  
Article
Study on the Influence of Window Glass Size on Blast-Resistant Performance
by Xiufen Wang, Bo Zhong, Jie Tang, Chen Gao and Mei Li
Sustainability 2023, 15(12), 9325; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129325 - 9 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
As the most commonly used exterior-protecting components for buildings, window glass, due to its typical brittle characteristics, is more prone to break under the action of blast loads and produce high-speed flying fragments, which can pose a great threat to personal safety. This [...] Read more.
As the most commonly used exterior-protecting components for buildings, window glass, due to its typical brittle characteristics, is more prone to break under the action of blast loads and produce high-speed flying fragments, which can pose a great threat to personal safety. This paper studies the influence of the size of window glasses on their failure characteristics. A simplified numerical simulation-based method for evaluating the P–I (pressure–impulsive) curve of window glass failure under blast loads is proposed. The influences of the length–width ratio, the area, and the thickness of the P–I curves of window glasses are systematically investigated. It was found that smaller a length–width ratio, smaller area, and thicker panel could increase the blast resistance of the window glasses. The empirical prediction formulae for the P–I curves of window glasses with different geometrical dimensions are established, and the validity of the proposed empirical formula is verified. Full article
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23 pages, 12224 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on an Innovative Double-Limb-Thin-Wall Bridge Pier with Longitudinal Replaceable Connecting Beams
by Jin Guo, Liwei Nie, Junsheng Su and Ruojin Sun
Sustainability 2023, 15(9), 7486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15097486 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
Replaceable energy dissipation elements can reduce damage to main structures and improve seismic resistance of bridge structures. However, in existing studies, replaceable energy dissipation elements are mainly arranged in the transverse direction of the bridge structure, while little attention is given to the [...] Read more.
Replaceable energy dissipation elements can reduce damage to main structures and improve seismic resistance of bridge structures. However, in existing studies, replaceable energy dissipation elements are mainly arranged in the transverse direction of the bridge structure, while little attention is given to the longitudinal direction of the bridge, which also suffers from serious damage under earthquakes. This paper proposes an innovative double-limb-thin-wall (DLTW) bridge pier, which consists of two thin-limb-wall columns in the longitudinal direction of the bridge and replaceable steel connecting beams (RSCBs) between them. Quasistatic tests of the proposed innovative DLTW pier with RSCBs (DLTW-RSCBs), a conventional DLTW pier, and a DLTW pier with RC connecting beams (DLTW-RCCBs) were conducted to investigate the longitudinal seismic performance of the innovative bridge pier. The test results demonstrate that the use of connecting beams (CBs) can improve the lateral bearing capacity and cumulative dissipated energy of the DLTW pier, while the improved amplitudes are more significant for the DLTW-RSCB specimen, about 21.6% and 13.4%, respectively. Moreover, due to the protection of the CBs, the DLTW-RCCBs and DLTW-RSCBs have lower damage and residual drift ratios than the DLTW-NBs before the failure of the CBs. However, the differences between these three piers gradually disappear with the failure of the CBs, and the piers are finally destroyed as a result of the failure modes of buckling and low-cycle fatigue fracture of the longitudinal bars at the column bottom. Moreover, RSCBs can still be rapidly repaired after damage failure of the DLTW-RSCB specimen. Therefore, setting replaceable steel beams between DLTW piers can effectively improve seismic performance and reduce seismic damage and repair costs of DLTW bridge piers under earthquake loading, which are valuable for sustainability during the service stage. The outcomes of this work can serve as a reference for further development of structural forms for the innovated pier. Full article
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16 pages, 5249 KiB  
Article
Seismic Overturning Fragility Analysis for Rigid Blocks Subjected to Floor Motions
by Hanquan Liu, Yong Huang and Xiaohui Liu
Sustainability 2023, 15(6), 4945; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15064945 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
This paper investigates the seismic rocking-overturning fragility of freestanding rigid blocks subjected to one-sine acceleration pulses from a probabilistic perspective. An equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model with a bespoke discrete damper is used to simulate the responses of four blocks with varying geometries under [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the seismic rocking-overturning fragility of freestanding rigid blocks subjected to one-sine acceleration pulses from a probabilistic perspective. An equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model with a bespoke discrete damper is used to simulate the responses of four blocks with varying geometries under excitation with various characteristics. The simulation results are used to perform an overturning fragility analysis and evaluate the performance of various intensity measures (IMs). An IM strip, referred to as a hybrid strip, can be observed in the analysis, within which both safe rocking and overturning occur. For IM values outside of the hybrid strip, there exists a clear distinction between these two states. In this study, we introduce the hybrid ratio, a parameter that can estimate the size of the hybrid strip of different IMs. The hybrid ratio is defined as the combination of two ratios of hybrid strip width and the two IM strip widths corresponding to safe rocking and overturning, respectively. The effect of the different analysis strip widths is also examined in the overturning fragility analysis. The results suggest that the IM determined by excitation magnitude, frequency, and block geometry parameters demonstrates its superiority compared with some well-known IMs by having the smallest hybrid ratio and coefficient of variation, as well as good robustness of the overturning fragility curves against the change of the analysis strip width. Full article
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22 pages, 13944 KiB  
Article
Wind Effects on Dome Structures and Evaluation of CFD Simulations through Wind Tunnel Testing
by Tiantian Li, Hongya Qu, Yi Zhao, Ryan Honerkamp, Guirong Yan, Arindam Chowdhury and Ioannis Zisis
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 4635; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054635 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
In the study, a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted to investigate wind effects acting on dome structures (1/60 scale) induced by straight-line winds at a Reynolds number in the order of 106. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed [...] Read more.
In the study, a series of wind tunnel tests were conducted to investigate wind effects acting on dome structures (1/60 scale) induced by straight-line winds at a Reynolds number in the order of 106. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed as well, including a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulation, and their performances were validated by a comparison with the wind tunnel testing data. It is concluded that wind loads generally increase with upstream wind velocities, and they are reduced over suburban terrain due to ground friction. The maximum positive pressure normally occurs near the base of the dome on the windward side caused by the stagnation area and divergence of streamlines. The minimum suction pressure occurs at the apex of the dome because of the blockage of the dome and convergence of streamlines. Suction force is the most significant among all wind loads, and special attention should be paid to the roof design for proper wind resistance. Numerical simulations also indicate that LES results match better with the wind tunnel testing in terms of the distribution pattern of the mean pressure coefficient on the dome surface and total suction force. The mean and root-mean-square errors of the meridian pressure coefficient associated with the LES are about 60% less than those associated with RANS results, and the error of suction force is about 40–70% less. Moreover, the LES is more accurate in predicting the location of boundary layer separation and reproducing the complex flow field behind the dome, and is superior in simulating vortex structures around the dome to further understand the unsteadiness and dynamics in the flow field. Full article
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18 pages, 10252 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Finite Element Study on the Shear Performance of Existing Super-Span Concrete T-Beams Retrofitted with Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic
by Dongxu Hou, Tieming Hu and Guanhua Zhang
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2768; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032768 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Super-span, reinforced concrete, T-shaped cross-section beams (T-beams) with a service life of more than 30 years are widely used in highway bridges in China. Most of these beams have been retrofitted with glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) to prevent performance degradation. However, the actual [...] Read more.
Super-span, reinforced concrete, T-shaped cross-section beams (T-beams) with a service life of more than 30 years are widely used in highway bridges in China. Most of these beams have been retrofitted with glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) to prevent performance degradation. However, the actual shear performance, ultimate state, and failure mechanism of the existing retrofitted super-span concrete T-beams are currently unclear for many inextricable problems. To fill these gaps, in this study, one super-span concrete T-beam, in service for 31 years and retrofitted with GFRP, was extracted from a highway bridge to conduct shear experimentation in a structural laboratory. To assess the particularity of the specimen, finite element analysis was also conducted using ABAQUS software as a supplement to the shear tests. The failure procedure of the specimen was investigated, and the influence of the loading mode on the shear performance of a super-long and old T-beam was also studied. It is concluded that the failure of the super-span T-beam begins with small cracks at the bottom of the mid-span, rather than a loading point. Full article
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16 pages, 4543 KiB  
Article
An Intensity Measure for the Rocking Fragility Analysis of Rigid Blocks Subjected to Floor Motions
by Hanquan Liu, Yong Huang and Xiaohui Liu
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032418 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
A novel intensity measure (IM), dimensionless floor displacement, is presented for evaluating the seismic fragility of freestanding rigid blocks subjected to one-sine acceleration pulses in this paper. The rocking responses of rigid blocks are simulated using an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model [...] Read more.
A novel intensity measure (IM), dimensionless floor displacement, is presented for evaluating the seismic fragility of freestanding rigid blocks subjected to one-sine acceleration pulses in this paper. The rocking responses of rigid blocks are simulated using an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model with a bespoke discrete damper to account for energy dissipation. The performance of various IMs is compared using simulation results for four different block models under different excitation conditions. In comparison to some well-known IMs, the proposed IM, determined by excitation magnitude and frequency as well as block geometry parameters, displays a considerably stronger correlation with the peak rotation of the rocking block. The comparative results show that effective IMs should consider not only the excitation characteristics but also the block geometric parameters. Finally, the fragility curve generated by the proposed IM performs best by significantly reducing the dispersion. Full article
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18 pages, 4311 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of Frozen Silty Clay and Its Influencing Factors
by Xiyin Zhang, Binjie Sun, Zhenjiang Xu, Anqi Huang and Jiada Guan
Sustainability 2023, 15(2), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15021205 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Frozen soils are widely distributed in the seismically active regions of northwest China. Under the background of global warming, the study of the dynamic characteristics of frozen soil is very significant for the sustainable development of engineering in cold regions. In this study, [...] Read more.
Frozen soils are widely distributed in the seismically active regions of northwest China. Under the background of global warming, the study of the dynamic characteristics of frozen soil is very significant for the sustainable development of engineering in cold regions. In this study, the silty clay in the Lanzhou area of northwest China is selected to investigate the dynamic characteristics and its influence factors by dynamic triaxial tests. Various influence factors were considered, including confining pressure, soil temperature, soil water content and loading frequency. The dynamic elastic modulus ratio and reference dynamic strain amplitude increase as confining pressure and soil temperature decrease, and they also increase as soil water content and loading frequency increase. With an increase in confining pressure, soil water content, loading frequency, and a decrease in soil temperature, the damping ratio decreases but the maximum dynamic elastic modulus increases. With an increase in dynamic strain amplitude, the dynamic elastic modulus ratio has a decreasing trend, while the damping ratio has an increasing trend. It was found that the dynamic behaviors are most sensitive to the soil temperature. In addition, the comprehensive influence effect of soil water content, confining pressure, soil temperature, and loading frequency on the maximum dynamic elastic modulus, maximum damping ratio, and reference dynamic strain amplitude of frozen silty clay are analyzed, and the quantitative relationships between them are established. The results can provide evidence for seismic design and safe operation and maintenance of infrastructure in cold regions. Full article
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