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Special Issue "Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Tourism, Culture, and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018) | Viewed by 51983

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mª Luisa Zagalaz Sánchez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of didactics of musical, plastic and body expression, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
Interests: primary education; secondary education; university; teacher training; physical activity; innovation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. José Antonio Pérez Turpin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Alicante (Spain)
Interests: didactics of sports; performance sports; teacher training; educational innovation: Tourism and culture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the RAE (The Royal Spanish Academy) dictionary, culture is defined as “the set of knowledge that allows somebody to develop their critical judgement”. Cultural heritage is the set of specific assets of a human group that are transmitted from one generation to the next. These assets reinforce their sense of community with their own identity, and are perceived by others as unique; among them, we can find: Art, music, food, landscape, sports, and life philosophy. Moreover, leisure time is used recreationally, sometimes to enjoy culture. Regarding tourism, it is an activity that usually takes place outside a usual place of residence, but it can also be carried out in the city where one lives, maybe to get to know cultural aspects of a city.

These concepts are part of educational innovation, especially in teaching training, aiming to improve the transmission of knowledge and the quality of life that this implies. Nowadays, in Smart Cities, it is easier to access culture that, together with an interdisciplinary nature, will ameliorate teacher training and culture that has to be transmitted to future students.

This Special Issue aims to bring culture and tourism closer to future teachers with the goal of reducing students’ lack of knowledge at different levels of education, in spite of being surrounded by a wide cultural and tourist heritage. Access to culture can be reached by different means, which is why going on foot is recommended in order to improve quality of life and to not pollute cities. We aim to demonstrate that these walking journeys may improve physical and mental health, help to relate to others, and to connect with culture. We invite you to contribute to this matter by presenting systematic and in-depth reviews of literature, case studies, or research articles based on scientific methods and innovative statistical analyses.

Dr. Mª Luisa Zagalaz Sánchez
Dr. José Antonio Pérez Turpin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Culture, Tourism and Leisure
  • Educational Innovation
  • Smart Cities
  • Quality of Life
  • Physical Activity and Sports
  • Teacher Training

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Article
Physical Activity and Academic Performance: The Mediating Effect of Self-Esteem and Depression
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3633; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103633 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5249
Abstract
An important step to enhance the academic efficiency of students is increasing their physical activity. For this reason, it is necessary to see to what extent physical activity is related to the academic performance of the students and what might mediate this. A [...] Read more.
An important step to enhance the academic efficiency of students is increasing their physical activity. For this reason, it is necessary to see to what extent physical activity is related to the academic performance of the students and what might mediate this. A major objective of the study is to explore self-esteem and depression as mediators between physical activity and academic performance. On the basis of informed consent to participate in the study, 358 participants have been selected from Universities in Pakistan, and they were asked about their physical activity, depression during their study and self-esteem through self-report. Participants self-reported their self-esteem, level of depression and their physical activity through standardized measures; the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (1965), the University stress scale (2016), and the short form of the International Physical Activity questionnaire (2003), respectively. Academic performance had been measured as the cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of the last two consecutive semesters. Self-esteem and depression were found to be significant mediators between physical activity and academic performance. The total effect of physical activity on academic performance was significant but smaller than the total indirect effect through mediators. Though total indirect effect is the combination of the effect of self-esteem and depression, but the larger contribution is of self-esteem which has been found to be the strongest mediator between physical activity and academic performance. The study has implications for future research, both in terms of testing the model and testing psychological constructs. Also, the study emphasizes that the importance of physical activity has to be kept in mind while designing a curriculum of an educational institution in order to foster sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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Article
Multidimensional Self-Concept in Elementary Education: Sport Practice and Gender
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082805 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relation between the number of hours of organized sports practice and self-concept, considered from a multidimensional approach (physical, emotional, academic, social and family self-concept). The relation between these variables as a function of [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to analyse the relation between the number of hours of organized sports practice and self-concept, considered from a multidimensional approach (physical, emotional, academic, social and family self-concept). The relation between these variables as a function of gender was also investigated. Methods: We used a sample of 840 students from fifth and sixth grade of Elementary Education (494 boys and 346 girls), aged 9 to 12 years, from Spain. To assess the students’ self-concept, we used the AF-5 Self-Concept Form 5 questionnaire. Results: The results show that children who practice organized sport, present a better physical self-concept (0 h a day [h/d]: M = 5.20, SD = 1.82; 1 h/d: M = 5.90, SD = 1.82; 2 h/d: M = 5.99, SD = 1.56; 3 h/d: M = 6.00, SD = 1.42). Boys present a higher emotional self-concept than girls (p < 0.05). Moreover, children’s sports practice is beneficial for the academic and family self-concept but in the case of girls, a high number of hours of daily practice may be decreasing these potential benefits. Conclusions: The findings suggest that organized sports practice could have a positive effect on self-concept. We underline the importance of encourage children to practice sport and paying particular attention to gender differences in the development of the emotional self-concept during elementary education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Physical Activity and Sleep Quality in Students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Braşov, Romania
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072410 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3137
Abstract
Background and objectives: The purpose of this research is to assess the level of physical activity (PAL) and quality of sleep in students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Braşov, Romania. This research will also analyse the correlation between these [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The purpose of this research is to assess the level of physical activity (PAL) and quality of sleep in students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Braşov, Romania. This research will also analyse the correlation between these two parameters. Materials and Methods: The study participants consist of 394 students (255 male and 139 female) of Transilvania University of Braşov. Participants in this study are from three specializations: Physical Education and Sport (PES), Kinetotherapy and Special Motility (KSM), Sport and Physical Performance (SPP). To assess PAL, we used the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF); and to measure sleep quality, we used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Questionnaire (PSQI). Results: The study shows one average intensity correlation between sleep quality and physical activity (PA), rho (0.585). Certain correlations can be found between the two parameters, depending on the students’ specialization. The biggest differences between the two parameters are found between PES and KSM, and SPP and KSM. Conclusions: PA is beneficial for the body, and can improve the quality and quantity of sleep, if carried out systematically and continuously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Usage Behaviour of Public Spaces Associated with Sport and Recreational Activities
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2377; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072377 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Public spaces (PS) encourage personal interaction and promote behaviours such as doing sport and recreational activities. This study analysed the characteristics of sport and recreational activities among the adult population of Seville associated with and/or determining the use of a PS for the [...] Read more.
Public spaces (PS) encourage personal interaction and promote behaviours such as doing sport and recreational activities. This study analysed the characteristics of sport and recreational activities among the adult population of Seville associated with and/or determining the use of a PS for the activity. We adopted a cross sectional survey design with 1002 subjects (18+) from the municipality of Seville using a questionnaire on habits of sport and recreational activities. We then performed a descriptive, correlational and binary logistical regression analysis of the data. Results showed that the characteristics of sport and recreational activities associated with and determining the use of PS are age and gender as sociodemographic variables and the type of activity performed, high frequency and duration, on any day of the week and throughout the year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Coeducational Methodology Used by Physical Education Teachers and Students’ Perception of It
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072312 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
Background: In physical education (PE), the methodology used to develop coeducation must consider the tastes and preferences of students. The purpose of this work was to analyze how teachers work with different aspects of PE classes and how their work is perceived by [...] Read more.
Background: In physical education (PE), the methodology used to develop coeducation must consider the tastes and preferences of students. The purpose of this work was to analyze how teachers work with different aspects of PE classes and how their work is perceived by students. Methods: The sample was formed of 176 teachers and 1136 secondary school students. The research design was descriptive. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Coeducational Aspects in Physical Education for teachers and the Questionnaire of Perception of Equality and Discrimination in Physical Education for Students. Results: The different statistical analyses showed significant differences in how male and female teachers assigned responsibility to the students. With regard to the students, significant differences were found between boys and girls in their opinions of how their teachers apply the same rules to all the students. Conclusions: Differences exist between male and female teachers in regard to control of the area used for motor activity. With regard to the students, girls perceive to a greater extent than their male counterparts that the activities in PE classes promote equality in the improvement of their capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Healthy Practice of Female Soccer and Futsal: Identifying Sources of Stress, Anxiety and Depression
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072268 - 02 Jul 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the post-injury psychological impact looking to avoid sources of health issues. We have analyzed differences in the stress, anxiety, and depression levels between male and female football players who have suffered at least one injury [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the post-injury psychological impact looking to avoid sources of health issues. We have analyzed differences in the stress, anxiety, and depression levels between male and female football players who have suffered at least one injury during the last season played, with respect to similar players who have not been injured. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The participants were 187 football players and data on the player’s injuries were collected. A self-reported questionnaire collected number, type, and severity of injuries sustained during the previous sports season (twelve months), and also the player’s current situation, being injured or not injured. To evaluate the psychological variables, the DASS-21 questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the male injured players presented anxiety levels higher than those who were non-injured. When we observe the female players’ data, the stress levels of the non-injured ones are higher than those of the injured players. Regarding the non-injured athletes, results showed that the female non-injured players presented values in anxiety higher than those corresponding to the non-injured male players. Thus, sport injury affects mental health issues such as anxiety and stress, and in a different way regarding gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Modern Running Events in Sustainable Development—More than Just Taking Care of Health and Physical Condition (Poznan Half Marathon Case Study)
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072145 - 23 Jun 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the motivations to participate in a half marathon among two groups of respondents—those living in large cities (with more than 500,000 inhabitants) and 110 living in rural areas—and evaluate the differences between them. The empirical [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the motivations to participate in a half marathon among two groups of respondents—those living in large cities (with more than 500,000 inhabitants) and 110 living in rural areas—and evaluate the differences between them. The empirical research (n = 342) was conducted during the one of the most important running events in Poland, and recognized the motives for participation in sports events according to the four basic types of orientation: social orientation, sensation-seeking orientation, factual orientation, and result orientation. The division of Freyer and Gross (2002) was the basis for the development of the author’s questionnaire survey of motives for participation in running events. The results indicated that the significant difference between urban and rural residents appeared in the results regarding the group of motives in the scope of sensation-seeking orientation. City residents declared that the most important thing for them was the desire to have fun, which was 15% higher than in rural residents. On the other hand, rural residents reported that the most important thing for them was the need to experience strong emotions related to participation, which was 20% higher than in urban residents. In general, the results might help sport managers and city government analyze consumer behavior and utilize the results in the strategic, sustainable planning, marketing, and implementation of physical culture and leisure in connection with massive sport events organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
The motric, Educational, Recreational and Satisfaction Impact of Adventure Education Activities in the Urban Tourism Environment
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062106 - 20 Jun 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2843
Abstract
(1) Background: The study aims to highlight the impact of educational, recreational, motric and satisfaction of adventure education activities in the urban tourism environment; (2) Methods: The study included 48 students with specialization in physical education. The adventure education program included two specific [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The study aims to highlight the impact of educational, recreational, motric and satisfaction of adventure education activities in the urban tourism environment; (2) Methods: The study included 48 students with specialization in physical education. The adventure education program included two specific activities and the evaluation focused on: the students’ choice in choosing and crossing the routes from the Adventure Park in Brasov according to their difficulty; the distance covered within the Photo Trip Brasov Adventure. At the end of program a questionnaire contained 20 items divided into two parts of 10 items for each of the two activities: Adventure Park Brasov Challenge and Photo Trip Brasov Adventure, was used to assess the educational, recreational and satisfaction impact of the urban adventure tourism activities. The results were processed using SPPS 20; (3) Results: At the Adventure Park Brasov Challenge the girls have accumulated 118 points (29.7%), and the boys 280 points (70.3%). For Photo Trip Brasov Adventure, the average distance covered by the 12 teams was 5.516 ± 0.240. The results are statistically significant for p < 0.05. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the whole questionnaire was α = 0.933; for the Adventure Park Brasov Challenge was α = 0.811; for Photo Trip Brasov Adventure was α = 0.924, suggesting that the items had a very high internal consistency; (4) Conclusions: Participation in the Education program through adventure in urban tourism environment highlighted the expansion and improvement of the physical, technical, educational, recreational potential and participation of the students. The analysis of the results of the questionnaire revealed that the students mostly appreciate the satisfaction and recreational parameters and in the lower the educational and motoric parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Replacing Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity: Unconscious Intervention of the AR Game, Pokémon GO
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061971 - 12 Jun 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2522
Abstract
With increases in aging and chronic disease, there have been efforts to apply IT to healthcare. Many studies show that the will to exercise (self-efficacy) is the most important factor contributing to physical activity. However, those who need exercise do not have this [...] Read more.
With increases in aging and chronic disease, there have been efforts to apply IT to healthcare. Many studies show that the will to exercise (self-efficacy) is the most important factor contributing to physical activity. However, those who need exercise do not have this will so that an approach to increase the motivation for physical activity should be unconscious. Thus, playing Pokémon GO, an augmented reality (AR) mobile game requiring players to ambulate in reality, increases the physical activity of individuals with a simple motivation of enjoyment. A survey on 237 Pokémon GO players was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) considering libertarian paternalism. The results show that self-efficacy had a non-significant effect on attitude toward the game Pokémon GO, while previous studies found that self-efficacy is the most important factor in increasing physical activity. This indicates that playing AR drives physical activity, subconsciously and effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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Article
An Exploratory Analysis of Factors Associated with Health-Related Physical Fitness in Adolescents. The ASSO Project
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1847; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061847 - 02 Jun 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Monitoring physical fitness (fitness) and identifying, since the beginning, possible determinants in youth could be useful to preserve health and avoid morbidities in adulthood. The main objective of this study is to provide details on the fitness levels of a sample of adolescents [...] Read more.
Monitoring physical fitness (fitness) and identifying, since the beginning, possible determinants in youth could be useful to preserve health and avoid morbidities in adulthood. The main objective of this study is to provide details on the fitness levels of a sample of adolescents living in the Southern area of Italy and describe its associations with biological/genetic, socio-cultural/environmental, and lifestyle (physical activity/sedentariness, alcohol/smoking, meal patterns/habits) factors. The study was conducted within the Adolescence Surveillance System for Obesity Prevention (ASSO) project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health and examining adolescents’ lifestyle in relation to obesity. Fitness measures were collected through the ASSO-fitness tests battery (FTB) and examined in relation to 79 selected possible influencing factors, which were collected through a web-based questionnaire included in the ASSO-NutFit software. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations, with ORs and 95% CIs estimated as crude and adjusted. A total of 919 participants were initially recruited, but fitness data were collected for 544 students aged 13–19 (68% M, 32% F). Fitness level was low for 14.2% of the students, medium for 67.8%, and high for 18.0%. The independent determinants of low physical fitness in our sample of adolescents were included in the biological/genetic and physical activity/sedentariness dimensions: female gender (Adj OR 8.33, CI 2.08–33.33), obesity (Adj OR 1.97, CI 1.10–9.22), practicing sport less than 3 h/week (Adj OR 6.09, CI 1.63–22.72), practicing sport with strength/speed as prevalent biomotor ability (Adj OR 8.97, CI 1.43–56.19), using PC/internet for more than 3 h/day (Adj OR 4.46, CI 1.17–16.98). Drinking alcohol was instead a protective factor. This study confirms that females and obese individuals need more attention in the interventions aimed at increasing fitness levels. It suggests that local actions should be implemented with the aim of increasing sport practices and reducing sedentary time spent in front of PC/internet. The focus should be particularly addressed to sports with strength or speed as dominant biomotor abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Social Sciences, Art and Physical Activity in Leisure Environments. An Inter-Disciplinary Project for Teacher Training
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061786 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Factors such as social change and increasing urbanization processes in the early years of the 21st century have caused a reduction in the amount of time that children devote to leisure activities in the open-air, resulting in more sedentary lifestyles than children in [...] Read more.
Factors such as social change and increasing urbanization processes in the early years of the 21st century have caused a reduction in the amount of time that children devote to leisure activities in the open-air, resulting in more sedentary lifestyles than children in previous decades. An education in healthy habits from early ages to increase children’s physical and mental well-being together with their level of cultural knowledge contributes to the acquisition of a Leisure Culture that allows children to perceive the close environment as a scene for learning and enjoyment. It is thus be necessary for schools to foster pedagogical experiences, taking the physical and cultural environment as teaching resources. An innovation project is proposed which will be implemented with 25 university students from the School of Teacher Training and Education at the University of Oviedo (Oviedo, Spain). The project will consist of the proposal of educational itineraries through the city of Oviedo and Mount Naranco. As teachers-to-be, students must combine knowledge of the related areas and generate inter-disciplinary activities throughout the routes that will foster respect for the environment and leisure based on culture and physical activity, attitudes that they will transmit to their own students in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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Article
Analysing Emotions and Social Skills in Physical Education
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051585 - 16 May 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3693
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the assessment of emotions and social skills of sixth-year primary education students in a physical education (PE) teaching unit. Two instruments of analysis are used: the GES (Games and Emotion Scale) to evaluate emotions, and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore the assessment of emotions and social skills of sixth-year primary education students in a physical education (PE) teaching unit. Two instruments of analysis are used: the GES (Games and Emotion Scale) to evaluate emotions, and an ad-hoc questionnaire to measure the social skills of 21 students in their sixth year of primary education. The data analysis was carried out using a generalised estimating equation model (GEE), taking into account the correlation between the different scores of the same subject and the asymmetry of the data. The results show that positive emotions (happiness and joy) are significantly more highly evaluated than negative (fear, anger, and sadness) and ambiguous (surprise) emotions throughout all of the PE sessions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Stress Regulation, Physical Activity, and Perseverance in Spanish Teenagers with Perfectionist Trends
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051489 - 09 May 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2847
Abstract
Stress as an emotional response with adaptive function can obstruct both academic performance and psychosocial and physiological functioning when it is recurrent, persistent, and intense. Individual characteristics and regular physical activity produce differences in ways of coping with pressure situations, stressing the necessity [...] Read more.
Stress as an emotional response with adaptive function can obstruct both academic performance and psychosocial and physiological functioning when it is recurrent, persistent, and intense. Individual characteristics and regular physical activity produce differences in ways of coping with pressure situations, stressing the necessity of teenagers handling them in an effective way for their psychological adjustment and well-being. The purpose of this investigation was to identify how the frequency of physical activity and the influence of certain personality traits (perfectionism and perseverance) moderate stress. The sample was composed of 127 teenage students; tests were administered to measure perfectionism, perseverance, perceived stress, including an ad hoc sociodemographic questionnaire. The results show that particular conditions/skills have a moderating effect on stress perception in students with perfectionist maladaptive tendencies. Training in perseverance allows students to develop resources for handling stress, making it possible to achieve personal standards as well as adapt to one’s context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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Article
Incidence of the Flipped Classroom in the Physical Education Students’ Academic Performance in University Contexts
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051334 - 25 Apr 2018
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 4084
Abstract
This research analyzed Physical Education students’ degree of academic performance with the incorporation of active methodologies, specifically flipped classroom mixed learning, restricted to evaluation periods in the months of June and September. The study focused on whether there are significant differences in this [...] Read more.
This research analyzed Physical Education students’ degree of academic performance with the incorporation of active methodologies, specifically flipped classroom mixed learning, restricted to evaluation periods in the months of June and September. The study focused on whether there are significant differences in this variable through the scores obtained. Through a simple random sampling, 131 students participated in this empiric-analytic research, using an ex-post-facto study with a retrospective design with quasi-control group. A robust test of averages comparison, multiple linear regressions and an evaluation of the relative importance of predictors was conducted. The results show how flipped classroom methodology linearly and positively influences academic performance and correlational motivation and support. As main conclusion, in a hybrid and digitalized learning context, the value of the consideration of active methodologies (flipped classroom) based on emerging pedagogies, allows improving students’ achievement and competence development, providing critical, significant, ubiquitous, transformational and especially motivating experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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Article
Effect of the Safe Fall Programme on Children’s Health and Safety: Dealing Proactively with Backward Falls in Physical Education Classes
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041168 - 13 Apr 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2334
Abstract
The aim of this study is to show that the implementation of the Safe Fall programme in physical education classes can help to reduce the negative effects of unintentional backward falls in the adolescent population, by teaching them how to protect themselves when [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to show that the implementation of the Safe Fall programme in physical education classes can help to reduce the negative effects of unintentional backward falls in the adolescent population, by teaching them how to protect themselves when falling. A quasi-experimental research design was applied in a sample of 120 children (M = 15.1 years, SD = 2.45), attending a secondary school in Seville (Spain). Data was collected on an ad hoc observation scale INFOSECA (which records five basic elements during a backward fall: position of the neck, the hands, the trunk, the hips, and the knees), applying descriptive, correlational, and contrast statistics. The criteria for considering statistical significance was p < 0.05 in McNemar’s test. The data indicates that learning safe and protected ways of falling backward is possible through the implementation of the Safe Fall programme, and no differences were found in terms of gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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Article
Relationship between Healthy Habits and Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport among University Students: A Structural Equation Model
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 938; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040938 - 23 Mar 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
(1) Background: Several studies have shown how certain types of motivation for sports can favour healthy habits or can cause risk behaviours. (2) Methods: The aim of this study was to establish and verify an explanatory model for motivational climate in sport which [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Several studies have shown how certain types of motivation for sports can favour healthy habits or can cause risk behaviours. (2) Methods: The aim of this study was to establish and verify an explanatory model for motivational climate in sport which considers other possible influential variables related to health. This research was conducted with a sample of 490 university students from Spain. The 33-item Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2) was used to assess perceived motivational climate. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Questionnaire of Experiences Related to Video Games (QERV), the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A), and the KIDMED test were used to assess healthy habits; (3) Results: Findings revealed that task-involved climate and ego-involved climate were both positively associated with physical activity with the strongest relationship emerging for a task-involved climate. Furthermore, task climate was positively associated with a good adherence to a Mediterranean diet. A direct relationship was found between ego climate and alcohol intake and problematic use of video games; (4) Conclusions: The findings imply that students who have greater intrinsic motivation to participate in sport and perceive a task-involved climate also report healthier habits. This highlights the importance of creating task-involved motivational climates in sport and physical education lessons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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Article
Explosive Strength Capacity in the Lower Limbs of Primary Education School Children According to Environment
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030813 - 14 Mar 2018
Viewed by 1173
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the corporal composition and the explosive strength capacity of lower limbs in primary school students from two different schools in the locality of Martos (Jaén). One of these schools was located in a marginalized neighbourhood [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the corporal composition and the explosive strength capacity of lower limbs in primary school students from two different schools in the locality of Martos (Jaén). One of these schools was located in a marginalized neighbourhood where families of low socioeconomic status lived and the other was near the town centre with families of medium to high socioeconomic status. The aim was to evaluate these variables at two different moments in time, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of the school year, to see if the obtained results remained the same. A total of 147 primary school students (6–12 years old) participated in the study, divided into 4 subgroups, according to sex and school. Body composition and explosive strength capacity of the lower limbs were evaluated using the vertical jump test. For independent samples, T tests were performed to obtain the existing differences through the SPSS v 19.0 programme. It was found that according to the first measurement at the beginning of the year, participants from a medium-high socioeconomic background obtained better results, while the second measurement showed that results equalized and even reversed. This could have been due to the level of performed physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity in Children of a South Asian Ethnicity
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030761 - 09 Mar 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
Children of South Asian ethnicity residing in England have low levels of physical activity. Limited literature exists on correlates, barriers, and facilitators to activity in South Asian children. The aim of this study was to fill this gap in the literature. Interviews were [...] Read more.
Children of South Asian ethnicity residing in England have low levels of physical activity. Limited literature exists on correlates, barriers, and facilitators to activity in South Asian children. The aim of this study was to fill this gap in the literature. Interviews were conducted with 10 parents of South Asian ethnicity residing in the UK. Interviews covered a description of the family setup, participants’ opinions of physical activity including barriers and facilitators and their children’s participation, as well as approaches to general parenting, and how children spend their free time. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Key themes identified included (i) restraints on parents’ and children’s time to be physically active; (ii) the role of the family in children’s physical activity participation; (iii) situational barriers to physical activity; (iv) physical activity not a priority; (v) opportunities to be active; and (vi) perception of activity level and health. A number of key barriers to South Asian children’s participation in physical activity were identified, including (i) restraints on parents and children’s time; (ii) parents providing limited support for physical activity; and (iii) physical activity having a low priority. A number of facilitators were also identified (i) play; (ii) school-time; and (iii) extra-curricular clubs. In this sample of South Asian parents residing in the UK several socio-cultural barriers and facilitators of their children’s physical activity have been identified. The study provides preliminary data for a larger study to ascertain if such barriers and facilitators are representative of the wider South Asian community, so that recommendations for intervention and policies can be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
Article
Analysis of the Psychometric Properties of Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire and Its Relationship to Physical Activity and Gender Using Structural Equation Modelling
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030632 - 28 Feb 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
(1) Background: Different authors have established that each type of motivation to sports can favor healthy habits in men and women, being important to promote more self-determined motivations. (2) Methods: The present study was designed to assess selected psychometric properties of the Perceived [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Different authors have established that each type of motivation to sports can favor healthy habits in men and women, being important to promote more self-determined motivations. (2) Methods: The present study was designed to assess selected psychometric properties of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire and study the relationship between motivational climate, physical activity and gender in adolescents. Research was conducted with a sample of 2134 Spanish children (12.5 ± 1.4 years). (3) Results: The final scale was formed of two factors. The fit of factor 1 (ego climate) was 0.867, the fit for factor 2 was 0.851 (task climate) and the overall fit was 0.765. Structural equation modelling identified a negative relationship between ego climate and task climate. This relationship was strong in women. A direct relationship was found between the ego climate and task climate in relation to physical activity in men and women. Nevertheless, this positive relationship was stronger in men. (4) Conclusions: PMCSQ-2 test is a good instrument to measure the motivation towards sports practice. Moreover, it is important to promote adaptive types of motivation in physical education classes in order to generate pleasure for learning and long-term physical activity engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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Article
“Recess” in the Eyes of Primary School Students: Cyprus Case
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020355 - 30 Jan 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
This study aims to describe what recess is like in the eyes of primary school children. At the basis of the literature of the study, the focus was on the notion of free time, and free time notion was explained based on the [...] Read more.
This study aims to describe what recess is like in the eyes of primary school children. At the basis of the literature of the study, the focus was on the notion of free time, and free time notion was explained based on the Planned Behavior Theory. A mixed research approach is used in the study, from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. In the qualitative dimension, students were asked to express what they understood from recess through using metaphors. In the quantitative dimension, “Leisure Satisfaction Scale”, developed by Beard and Ragheb, and adapted to Turkish in 2001, was used. Responses given by students to this scale were analyzed and their level of satisfaction during recess periods was identified. This research was performed at a primary school of the North Cyprus Ministry of National Education during the 2016–2017 academic year, selected in accordance with purposive sampling. A total of 190 students attending the 5th grade in this school constituted the study group of the research. Students consider recess as more of a time for enjoyment, game, and fun, but think it ends too soon. On the other hand, they stated that they achieved satisfaction socially, especially during recess, but, on the contrary, it was observed that their psychological satisfaction stayed at a lower level. A conclusion was also reached that certain variables (having a monitoring teacher, especially during recess periods) affected level of satisfaction of students during recess. In conclusion, based on the findings of this research, it should be stated that both teachers and school administrators have responsibility in enhancing the psychological satisfaction level of students especially during recess periods. It can be said that it will be possible to raise other satisfaction levels (physical, aesthetic, social, etc.) of students by enhancing their psychological satisfaction levels during recess. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)

Review

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Review
Cognitive Effects and Educational Possibilities of Physical Activity in Sustainable Cities
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2420; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072420 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
Life in cities has allowed the development of our capabilities since they have the necessary elements to evolve through successive generations. Our survival and well-being depend on social interactions. However, the excessive comforts offered by cities can be counterproductive to our health. This [...] Read more.
Life in cities has allowed the development of our capabilities since they have the necessary elements to evolve through successive generations. Our survival and well-being depend on social interactions. However, the excessive comforts offered by cities can be counterproductive to our health. This paper aims to identify the cognitive effects derived from the regular practice of physical activity (PA), as well as the opportunities and characteristics present in cities to enhance this activity and the pedagogical implications that can be extracted from it. Sustainable cities must achieve their ecological goals through economic development that meets the present needs without compromising the quality of the future. Reports reveal that the widespread lack of PA is a major risk factor for both physical and mental health. The literature provides more and more evidence of how physical exercise affects the brain and cognition, and informs us of how and when we perform our daily PA. An analysis of the situation reveals the need to plan an urbanism committed to the promotion of PA accompanied by an analysis of the characteristics of urban spaces demanded by citizens and a necessary programming of recreational and educational activities that encourage the practice of physical exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity as a Means of Culture, Leisure and Free Time)
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