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New Evidences of Indoor Thermal Comfort in Residential and Tertiary Buildings: Design and Evaluation Methods

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 53335

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, 20156 Milan, Italy
Interests: heat transfer; thermal energy storage; phase change materials; energy efficiency; building thermal simulation; renewable energy; photovoltaic systems; wind systems; electrical storage; solar greenhouses; electric vehicles; ground source heat pump system; artificial neural networks; multi-objective optimization
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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Palermo, viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, Italy
Interests: energy efficiency in buildings; indoor thermal comfort; green roofs; environmental sustainability in the building sector; life cycle assessment; environmental labelling; sustainable urban mobility

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

From the original attention on residential buildings, thermal comfort-related issues are increasingly also involving tertiary buildings, since people tend to spend an increasing amount of time on such premises.
This opens to a rethinking of the available methods for evaluating thermal comfort conditions. In fact, in tertiary buildings, people usually experience the confined environments differently compared to the residential ones in terms of both permanence (in that confined environment) and modalities of moving inside them. In museums, for example, people stand for a certain amount of time in front of a given artwork and, in order to take best advantage of the exhibited artefact, need pleasant thermal and visual conditions around. For this purpose, it is fundamental to study the dependence between indoor climate experience and occupants' comfort expectation.
Clearly, this requires a reflection on the assessment method of the confined environment to be used, even more when considering that the indoor comfort conditions are more frequently included within the economic criteria that define the whole quality of buildings. However, the fact that the attainment of high-level comfort conditions by necessity involves the use of energy for the building’s air-conditioning must be properly taken into account.
On the other hand, as for the residential buildings, the new evidence concerning adaptive comfort must be considered.
Additionally, current tools such as multi-agent schemes, aimed at the assessment of subjective indoor comfort, are increasingly gaining foot.
Finally, the changing layout and metabolism of cities determine new spaces where people live and work, which cannot be classified as either indoors or outdoors. In these cases, a different approach to the thermal comfort evaluation is needed.
Hence, all the above-cited issues should become part of the rationales for modelling indoor thermal comfort.
High-quality papers addressing the above-mentioned issues (though not limited to these) are solicited, with particular interest in theoretical and experimental analysis with the aim of providing new methods, new indicators, or new data useful for the evaluation and the achievement of indoor thermal comfort.

Dr. Domenico Mazzeo
Dr. Giorgia Peri
Guest Editors

References:

1.      D. Enescu, A review of thermal comfort models and indicators for indoor environments, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 79, 2017, Pages 1353-1379, ISSN 1364-0321, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.175.

2.      H. Djamila, Indoor thermal comfort predictions: Selected issues and trends, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 74, 2017, Pages 569-580, ISSN 1364-0321, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.02.076.

3.      A.K. Mishra, M.G.L.C. Loomans, J.L.M. Hensen, Thermal comfort of heterogeneous and dynamic indoor conditions — An overview, Building and Environment, Volume 109, 2016, Pages 82-100, ISSN 0360-1323, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.09.016.

4.      P.O. Fanger, 1970. Thermal Comfort. Danish Technical Press, Copenhagen.

5.      ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2017. Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, ASHRAE.

6.      ISO 7730:2005 – Ergonomics of the thermal environment - analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria, International Standard Organization (ISO), Geneva.

7.      EN 15251:2007 – Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings-addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics, Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN).

8.      C. Marino, A. Nucara, G. Peri, M. Pietrafesa, G. Rizzo, A generalized model of human body radiative heat exchanges for optimal design of indoor thermal comfort conditions, Solar Energy, Volume 176, 2018, Pages 556-571, ISSN 0038-092X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2018.10.052.

9.      G.S. Brager, R.J. de Dear, Thermal adaptation in the built environment: a literature review, Energy and Buildings, Volume 27, Issue 1, 1998, Pages 83-96, ISSN 0378-7788, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(97)00053-4.

10.  E. Halawa, J. van Hoof, The adaptive approach to thermal comfort: A critical overview, Energy and Buildings, Volume 51, 2012, Pages 101-110, ISSN 0378-7788, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.04.011.

11.  M. Luo, B. Cao, Q. Ouyang, Y. Zhu, Indoor human thermal adaptation: dynamic processes and weighting factors, Indoor Air, 2017, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 273-281, DOI: 10.1111/ina.12323.

12.  M. La Gennusa, G. Lascari, G. Rizzo, G. Scaccianoce, Conflicting needs of the thermal indoor environment of museums: In search of a practical compromise, Journal of Cultural Heritage, Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008, Pages 125-134, ISSN 1296-2074, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2007.08.003.

13.  R.J. de Dear, S.G. Brager, The adaptive model of thermal comfort and energy conservation in the built environment, International Journal of Biometeorology, 2001, Volume 45, Pages 100–108, DOI: 10.1007/s004840100093.

14.  F.R. d’Ambrosio Alfano, B.W. Olesen, B.I. Palella, G. Riccio, Thermal comfort: Design and assessment for energy saving, Energy and Buildings, Volume 81, 2014, Pages 326-336, ISSN 0378-7788, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.06.033.

15.  I.T. Michailidis, S. Baldi,  E.B. Kosmatopoulos,  M.F. Pichler, J. R. Santiago, Improving energy savings and thermal comfort in large-scale buildings via adaptive optimization. In Control Theory: Perspectives, Applications and Developments, 2015, Pages. 315-335.

16.  T. Labeodan, K. Aduda, G. Boxem, W. Zeiler, On the application of multi-agent systems in buildings for improved building operations, performance and smart grid interaction – A survey, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 50, 2015, Pages 1405-1414, ISSN 1364-0321, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.081.

17.  C. Marino, A. Nucara, G. Peri, M. Pietrafesa, A. Pudano, G. Rizzo, A multi-agent system-based subjective model for indoor adaptive thermal comfort, Science and Technology for the Built Environment, 2015, Volume 21, Pages 114–125,  https://doi.org/ 10.1080/10789669.2014.980683.

18.  A. Windham, S. Treado, A review of multi-agent systems concepts and research related to building HVAC control, Science and Technology for the Built Environment, 2016, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 50-66, DOI: 10.1080/23744731.2015.1074851.

19.  Il-Seok Choi, A. Hussain, Van-Hai Bui, Hak-Man Kim, A Multi-Agent System-Based Approach for Optimal Operation of Building Microgrids with Rooftop Greenhouse, Energies, 2018, Volume 11, Issue 7, 1876, https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071876.
 

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Keywords

  • indoor thermal comfort
  • adaptive comfort
  • multi-agent schemes
  • energy saving
  • global indoor comfort
  • modelling and simulation

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 3893 KiB  
Article
Using Regression Model to Develop Green Building Energy Simulation by BIM Tools
by Faham Tahmasebinia, Ruifeng Jiang, Samad Sepasgozar, Jinlin Wei, Yilin Ding and Hongyi Ma
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6262; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106262 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
Energy consumption in the building sector poses a huge burden in terms of global energy and pollution. Recent advancements in building information modelling and simulating building energy performance (BEP) have provided opportunities for energy optimization. The use of building information modelling (BIM) also [...] Read more.
Energy consumption in the building sector poses a huge burden in terms of global energy and pollution. Recent advancements in building information modelling and simulating building energy performance (BEP) have provided opportunities for energy optimization. The use of building information modelling (BIM) also has increased significantly in the last decade based on the requirement to accommodate and manage data in buildings. By using the data, some building information modelling tools have developed the function of energy analysis. This paper aims to identify design parameters critical to BEP to assist architects in the initial stages of building design and to investigate their relationship. The outcomes of the prototype model’s energy simulations were then used to construct multilinear regression models. For the rest of the independent building design variables, linear regression models are used to analyse the relationship between it and energy consumption. It was concluded that, in the same building conditions, diamond-shaped buildings have the highest energy consumption, while triangle-shaped buildings showed the most efficient energy performance through energy simulations for seven fundamental prototype building models based on Autodesk Kits, Green Building Studio (GBS) with a Doe-2 engine. In addition, the developed regression models are validated to within 10% error via a case study of the ABS building. At the end of this paper, recommendations are provided on energy optimisation for the initial stages of building design. The parametric analysis of design variables in this study contributed to the total energy consumption at the early phases of design and recommendations on energy optimization. Full article
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18 pages, 7595 KiB  
Article
Climate Adaptation and Indoor Comfort Improvement Strategies for Buildings in High-Cold Regions: Empirical Study from Ganzi Region, China
by Peng Liu, Qun Zhang, Kaiyang Zhong, Youman Wei and Qing Wang
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010576 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
The improvement of building and living conditions in high-cold areas has always been an issue worthy of attention, but there is currently no research using field survey data for evaluation. The Ganzi region, based in the western plateau of China, is a typical [...] Read more.
The improvement of building and living conditions in high-cold areas has always been an issue worthy of attention, but there is currently no research using field survey data for evaluation. The Ganzi region, based in the western plateau of China, is a typical example for such a study. Restricted by factors such as natural conditions and economic level, the winter indoor thermal environment of western plateau houses is generally poor. Taking the new residential houses in the Ganzi region as a case study, the authors of this paper conducted field research and analyses. First, the authors analyzed the construction technology and functional layout of the building through thermal environment testing and investigation; second, the authors analyzed the user’s activity path according to the production and lifestyle; thirdly, the authors comprehensively evaluated the indoor thermal comfort through questionnaires and a predicated mean vote (PMV)-predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) evaluation model. The research results showed that: (1) the construction technology, functional layout, and temperature distribution of the new residential building were consistent with the user’s activity path, which could effectively improve thermal insulation ability and thermal comfort; (2) compared to the developed eastern regions, the users in the building showed a stronger tolerance and wider acceptable temperature range in the extreme climate environment; and (3) under certain cooperative work conditions, an indoor temperature of 10–14 °C could meet basic thermal environment requirements and thus lower the limits of the standards. The author’s method was proven to be more resilient than current standards in dealing with climate change. Therefore, this research can provide a practical reference for the improvement of peoples’ living conditions and sustainable development in cold regions and other harsh areas. Full article
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31 pages, 21084 KiB  
Article
The Role of HVAC Design and Windows on the Indoor Airflow Pattern and ACH
by Behrouz Pirouz, Stefania Anna Palermo, Seyed Navid Naghib, Domenico Mazzeo, Michele Turco and Patrizia Piro
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7931; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147931 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4510
Abstract
The purpose of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are to create optimum thermal comfort and appropriate indoor air quality (IAQ) for occupants. Air ventilation systems can significantly affect the health risk in indoor environments, especially those by contaminated aerosols. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
The purpose of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are to create optimum thermal comfort and appropriate indoor air quality (IAQ) for occupants. Air ventilation systems can significantly affect the health risk in indoor environments, especially those by contaminated aerosols. Therefore, the main goal of the study is to analyze the indoor airflow patterns in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and the impact of outlets/windows. The other goal of this study is to simulate the trajectory of the aerosols from a human sneeze, investigate the impact of opening windows on the number of air changes per hour (ACH) and exhibit the role of dead zones with poor ventilation. The final goal is to show the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation in improving the HVAC design, such as outlet locations or airflow rate, in addition to the placement of occupants. In this regard, an extensive literature review has been combined with the CFD method to analyze the indoor airflow patterns, ACH, and the role of windows. The airflow pattern analysis shows the critical impact of inflow/outflow and windows. The results show that the CFD model simulation could exhibit optimal placement and safer locations for the occupants to decrease the health risk. The results of the discrete phase simulation determined that the actual ACH could be different from the theoretical ACH as the short circuit and dead zones affect the ACH. Full article
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29 pages, 20257 KiB  
Article
Solar Gain Influence on the Thermal and Energy Performance of Existing Mosque Buildings in the Hot-Arid Climate of Riyadh City
by Ahmed Ali A. Shohan, Hanan Al-Khatri, Ahmed Ali Bindajam and Mohamed B. Gadi
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3332; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063332 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
The required cooling energy in buildings exceeds 65% of the total energy consumed inside buildings under the extreme climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia. The proper design of buildings’ envelopes has a considerable potential in reducing such levels, especially in public buildings. The reported [...] Read more.
The required cooling energy in buildings exceeds 65% of the total energy consumed inside buildings under the extreme climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia. The proper design of buildings’ envelopes has a considerable potential in reducing such levels, especially in public buildings. The reported study evaluated the thermal performance of mosque buildings with focus on the solar gains through the envelope elements. Computer simulations were carried out using Thermal Analysis Software (TAS). In addition, the thermal and comfort votes of the worshippers in one mosque were collected. The findings revealed uncomfortable thermal conditions, especially during summer months. The required cooling energy ranged between 37% and 55% in the investigated mosques. Investigating the solar gains of the envelope elements of one mosque indicated that the roof is the largest contributor to solar gain, which highlights the potential for future research to explore new constructional alternatives with the aim of improving the roofs’ thermal performance. Full article
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16 pages, 2382 KiB  
Article
Towards Sustainable Residential Buildings in Saudi Arabia According to the Conceptual Framework of “Mostadam” Rating System and Vision 2030
by Ashraf Balabel and Mamdooh Alwetaishi
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020793 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 6265
Abstract
Saudi Arabia vision 2030 adopts comprehensive development standards in all fields of Saudi society. To achieve such standards, many initiatives and programs have been launched to achieve sustainable goals while meeting the needs of the present without compromising the requirements of future generations. [...] Read more.
Saudi Arabia vision 2030 adopts comprehensive development standards in all fields of Saudi society. To achieve such standards, many initiatives and programs have been launched to achieve sustainable goals while meeting the needs of the present without compromising the requirements of future generations. Sustainable buildings are highly important in achieving sustainable development goals due to their excellent ability to reduce energy consumption, increase building efficiency, and reduce harmful emissions of greenhouse gases. The Kingdom aims to be the largest investor in the world in the sustainable buildings sector. To this end, the “Mostadam” evaluation service was recently launched in order to assist existing and new buildings in achieving sustainable building standards in a way that is in keeping with the privacy and principles of Saudi society. The present paper presents an extensive investigation to assess the current state of sustainable buildings in Saudi cities. Moreover, the main categories of sustainable residential buildings according to the “Mostadam” rating systems are discussed, and the potential of such categories in Saudi Arabia is explored. Finally, suggestions are given for some practical strategies and future policies targeting the total transformation towards sustainable buildings and, consequently, towards sustainable cities. This will have a great impact on achieving comprehensive sustainable development in Saudi Arabia in line with vision 2030. Full article
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27 pages, 3573 KiB  
Article
Adjustment of the Indoor Environmental Quality Assessment Field for Taif City-Saudi Arabia
by Amal Shamseldin, Ashraf Balabel, Mamdooh Alwetaishi, Ahmed Abdelhafiz, Usama Issa, Ibrahim Sharaky, Mohamed Al-Surf and Mosleh Al-Harthi
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10275; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410275 - 9 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3424
Abstract
Along with the global concern of the Environmental Assessment of Buildings, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) had recently used its system, Mostadam, to provide a suitable method to assess its buildings environmentally. Nevertheless, Mostadam still cannot be used for all Saudi Arabia [...] Read more.
Along with the global concern of the Environmental Assessment of Buildings, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) had recently used its system, Mostadam, to provide a suitable method to assess its buildings environmentally. Nevertheless, Mostadam still cannot be used for all Saudi Arabia regions without having misleading results, which is due to its various internal regions with their various characteristics. Taif city has its unique environmental characteristics, which affect all the environmental buildings’ assessment fields. This research aimed to adjust the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) field of Mostadam according to Taif characteristics. The research analyzed Taif characteristics that have an impact on the IEQ field, which are mainly related to the occupants’ different comfort needs and health requirements. Then, according to an analytical methods, authors proposed some changes to adjust Mostadam IEQ field according to these characteristics. The research resulted in an obvious difference between the resulted IEQ items weights and formulation versus the origin one of Mostadam, which proves the need for such adjustment to achieve a fair and trusted assessment to achieve the utmost credible assessment results when assessing buildings environmentally in Taif. It is recommended to adjust other assessment fields similarly later on, and then globally. Full article
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16 pages, 2968 KiB  
Article
Decreasing Water Footprint of Electricity and Heat by Extensive Green Roofs: Case of Southern Italy
by Behrouz Pirouz, Stefania Anna Palermo, Mario Maiolo, Natale Arcuri and Patrizia Piro
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10178; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310178 - 6 Dec 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2781
Abstract
Electrical and energy production have a noticeable water footprint, and buildings′ share of global energy consumption is about 40%. This study presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of different thermal impacts and water consumption of green roofs in a Mediterranean climate. The study aims [...] Read more.
Electrical and energy production have a noticeable water footprint, and buildings′ share of global energy consumption is about 40%. This study presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of different thermal impacts and water consumption of green roofs in a Mediterranean climate. The study aims to investigate the use of water directly for green roofs and reduce the water footprint of energy in summer and winter due to its thermal impacts. The measurements were carried out for an extensive green roof with an area of 55 m2 and a thickness of 22 cm, and direct water consumption by a green roof and direct and indirect water consumption by cooling and heating systems were analyzed. According to the analysis, in summer, the maximum roof temperature on a conventional roof was 72 °C, while under the green roof it was 30.3 °C. In winter, the minimum roof temperature on a conventional roof was −8.6 °C, while under the green roof it was 7.4 °C. These results show that green roofs affect energy consumption in summer and winter, and the corresponding thermal requirements for the building have a water footprint regarding energy production. In summer, the thermal reduction in the water footprint by a green roof was 48 m3 if an evaporative air conditioner is used and 8.9 m3 for a compression air conditioner, whereas the water consumed in the green roof was 8.2 m3. Therefore, using water directly in the green roof would reduce the energy consumption in buildings, and thus less water has to be used in power plants to provide the same thermal impact. In winter, green roofs′ water consumption was higher than the thermal water footprint; however, there is no need to irrigate the green roof as the water consumed comes from precipitation. This experimental analysis determines that in the Mediterranean climate, green roofs allow the achievement of the same thermal conditions for buildings in both summer and winter, with a reduction in water consumption. Full article
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23 pages, 12609 KiB  
Article
User Thermal Comfort in Historic Buildings: Evaluation of the Potential of Thermal Mass, Orientation, Evaporative Cooling and Ventilation
by Mamdooh Alwetaishi, Ashraf Balabel, Ahmed Abdelhafiz, Usama Issa, Ibrahim Sharaky, Amal Shamseldin, Mohammed Al-Surf, Mosleh Al-Harthi and Mohamed Gadi
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9672; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229672 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3376
Abstract
The study investigated the level of thermal comfort in historical buildings located at a relatively high altitude in the Arabian Desert of Saudi Arabia. The study focused on the impact of the use of thermal mass and orientation on the level of thermal [...] Read more.
The study investigated the level of thermal comfort in historical buildings located at a relatively high altitude in the Arabian Desert of Saudi Arabia. The study focused on the impact of the use of thermal mass and orientation on the level of thermal performance at Shubra and Boqri Palaces. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used in this study, including a questionnaire interview with architecture experts living at the relatively high altitude of Taif city, to obtain data and information from local experts. The computer software TAS EDSL was used along with on-site equipment, such as thermal imaging cameras and data loggers, to observe the physical conditions of the building in terms of its thermal performance. The study revealed that the experts’ age and years of experience were important aspects while collecting data from them during the survey. The use of thermal mass had a slight impact on the indoor air temperature as well as the energy consumption, but it helped in providing thermal comfort. Use of ventilation can improve thermal comfort level. Evaporative cooling technique has a considerable impact on reducing indoor air temperature with 4 °C drop, improving the thermal comfort sensation level. The novelty of this work is that, it links the outcomes of qualitative results of experts with field monitoring as well as computer modelling. This can contribute as method to accurately collect data in similar case studies. Full article
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22 pages, 2052 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis of Passive Design Strategies for Residential Buildings in Cold Semi-Arid Climates
by Waqas Ahmed Mahar, Griet Verbeeck, Sigrid Reiter and Shady Attia
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031091 - 4 Feb 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 6091
Abstract
Buildings are significant drivers of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. Improving the thermal comfort of occupants in free-running buildings and avoiding active and fossil fuel-based systems is the main challenge in many cities worldwide. However, the impacts of passive design measures on [...] Read more.
Buildings are significant drivers of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. Improving the thermal comfort of occupants in free-running buildings and avoiding active and fossil fuel-based systems is the main challenge in many cities worldwide. However, the impacts of passive design measures on thermal comfort in cold semi-arid regions are seldom studied. With the rapid urbanization and the widespread use of personalised heating and cooling systems, there is a need to inform building designers and city authorities about passive design measures that can achieve nearly optimal conditions. Therefore, in this study, a global sensitivity analysis of the impact of passive design parameters on adaptive comfort in cold semi-arid climates was conducted. A representative residential building was simulated and calibrated in Quetta, Pakistan, to identify key design parameters for optimal thermal comfort. The results list and rank a set of passive design recommendations that can be used widely in similar climates. The results show that among the investigated 21 design variables, the insulation type of roof is the most influential design variable. Overall, the sensitivity analysis yielded new quantitative and qualitative knowledge about the passive design of buildings with personalised heating systems, but the used sensitivity analysis has some limitations. Finally, this study provides evidence-based and informed design recommendations that can serve architects and homeowners to integrate passive design measures at the earliest conceptual design phases in cold semi-arid climates. Full article
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13 pages, 6291 KiB  
Article
The Role of the Extensive Green Roofs on Decreasing Building Energy Consumption in the Mediterranean Climate
by Mario Maiolo, Behrouz Pirouz, Roberto Bruno, Stefania Anna Palermo, Natale Arcuri and Patrizia Piro
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010359 - 2 Jan 2020
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 8044
Abstract
Buildings portion in global energy consumption is 40%, and in the building envelope, the roof is a crucial point for improving indoor temperature, especially in the last and second last floors. Studies show that green roofs can be applied to moderate roof temperature [...] Read more.
Buildings portion in global energy consumption is 40%, and in the building envelope, the roof is a crucial point for improving indoor temperature, especially in the last and second last floors. Studies show that green roofs can be applied to moderate roof temperature and affect the indoor temperature in summer and winter. However, the performance of green roofs depends on several parameters such as climate, irrigation, layer materials, and thickness. In this context, the present research deals with a comprehensive experimental analysis of different thermal impacts of green roofs in summer and winter in a Mediterranean climate. Measurements carried out in one year in three different types of green roofs with different thicknesses, layers, and with and without the insulation layer. The analysis determined the possible period that indoor cooling or heating might be required with and without green roofs and demonstrated the positive impact of green roofs in moderating the roof temperature and temperature fluctuations, which in summer was remarkable. In conclusion, since in the Mediterranean climate, the thermal differences between green roofs and conventional roofs in summer are much higher than winter, it seems that the green roof without an insulation layer would show better performance. Full article
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40 pages, 13837 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Atrium Volume Designs for Hot and Humid Climates
by Reihaneh Aram and Halil Zafer Alibaba
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6213; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226213 - 6 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
The objective of this research was to determine the proper thermal comfort in an atrium design for single-floor, medium-rise, and high-rise buildings based on different proportions, placements, window opening ratios, and internal condition systems. EDSL Tas software was used for the dynamic thermal [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to determine the proper thermal comfort in an atrium design for single-floor, medium-rise, and high-rise buildings based on different proportions, placements, window opening ratios, and internal condition systems. EDSL Tas software was used for the dynamic thermal simulation software models, and all were analyzed based on ASHRAE 55, ISO 7730, and EN 15251 standards to determine which dynamic thermal simulation models had thermal comfort in a hot and humid climate throughout the year. This research found that for naturally conditioned single-floor and medium-rise buildings, when the atrium proportion was 1/2 of the office proportion at the southeast and center atrium location, respectively, had maximum user satisfaction. When the building’s internal spaces were mechanically conditioned with a 1/3 and 1/4 atrium proportion of the office proportion in single-floor and medium-rise buildings, respectively, thermal comfort was acceptable, especially when the atrium was located in the center for single-floor and in the northeast for medium-rise buildings. However, the naturally conditioned high-rise building with a north-east atrium that was 1/4 of the office proportion and a mechanically conditioned high-rise with a center atrium 1/3 of the office proportion had the minimum dissatisfaction throughout the year. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

33 pages, 1963 KiB  
Review
A Review of CFD Analysis Methods for Personalized Ventilation (PV) in Indoor Built Environments
by Jiying Liu, Shengwei Zhu, Moon Keun Kim and Jelena Srebric
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4166; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154166 - 1 Aug 2019
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 6927
Abstract
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective analysis method of personalized ventilation (PV) in indoor built environments. As an increasingly important supplement to experimental and theoretical methods, the quality of CFD simulations must be maintained through an adequately controlled numerical modeling process. CFD [...] Read more.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective analysis method of personalized ventilation (PV) in indoor built environments. As an increasingly important supplement to experimental and theoretical methods, the quality of CFD simulations must be maintained through an adequately controlled numerical modeling process. CFD numerical data can explain PV performance in terms of inhaled air quality, occupants’ thermal comfort, and building energy savings. Therefore, this paper presents state-of-the-art CFD analyses of PV systems in indoor built environments. The results emphasize the importance of accurate thermal boundary conditions for computational thermal manikins (CTMs) to properly analyze the heat exchange between human body and the microenvironment, including both convective and radiative heat exchange. CFD modeling performance is examined in terms of effectiveness of computational grids, convergence criteria, and validation methods. Additionally, indices of PV performance are suggested as system-performance evaluation criteria. A specific utilization of realistic PV air supply diffuser configurations remains a challenging task for further study. Overall, the adaptable airflow characteristics of a PV air supply provide an opportunity to achieve better thermal comfort with lower energy use based on CFD numerical analyses. Full article
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